climate change wa

ACORN 2.1 influence on Western Australia temperature trends

Australia New South Wales Northern Territory Queensland South Australia Tasmania Victoria


In October 2020 the Bureau of Meteorology again rewrote Australia's temperature history with the release of ACORN 2.1, an update to its homogenised ACORN 2 dataset (Australian Climate Observations Reference Network - Surface Air Temperatures) released in late 2018 that significantly increased the rate of climate warming since 1910.

There are 25 ACORN stations in Western Australia. This page analyses the daily temperatures at all 25 weather stations and averages the 13 with a start year of 1910 to ensure a uniform timescale. The other 12 excluded stations have temperature recordings starting in years after 1910, the most recent being Learmonth with a start year of 1975.

The 13 long-term weather stations analysed on this page (with a start year of 1910) had a 1910-1964 average maximum of 24.99C in ACORN 2 and a 1910-1964 average maximum of 25.02C in ACORN 2.1 - a 0.03C warming of historic maxima.

The 13 long-term weather stations had a 1910-1964 average minimum of 13.23C in ACORN 2 and a 1910-1964 average minimum of 13.13C in ACORN 2.1 - a 0.10C cooling of historic minima.

Daily temperatures in ACORN 2.1 and RAW have been annualised, and below are charts showing the difference between the ACORN 2.1 homogenised dataset when compared to original raw annual temperatures. This analysis only allows the inclusion of years within which there were no months with less than 15 days of recorded temperatures, as is the ACORN protocol.

13 WA stations begin in 1910 and end in 2019 in ACORN 2.1 and RAW - Albany, Bridgetown, Broome, Cape Leeuwin, Carnarvon, Esperance, Geraldton, Halls Creek, Kalgoorlie, Katanning, Marble Bar, Perth and Wandering. The first charts below show maximum and minimum temperatures trends at these stations with associated data.

Excel files at the bottom of each station chart and data summary can be downloaded to compare how the ACORN 2.1 algorithms influence daily, monthly and annual temperatures at all 25 sites since 1910.

acorn 2.1 wa maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 25.02C / raw 25.31C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 25.57C / raw 25.76C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.55C / raw warmed 0.45C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.13C / raw 0.10C

WA 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 26.01C / raw 26.08C

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 24.92C in ACORN 2.1 and 25.30C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 26.24C in ACORN 2.1 and 26.29C in raw

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 - 25.31C / raw 25.56C

Download Excel spreadsheet sorted daily maximum temperatures for all WA weather stations in ACORN 1, ACORN 2.1 and RAW

acorn 2.1 wa minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 13.13C / raw 13.71C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 13.68C / raw 13.85C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.55C / raw warmed 0.14C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.10C / raw 0.04C

WA 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 13.89C / raw 13.97C

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 13.00C in ACORN 2.1 and 13.77C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 14.04C in ACORN 2.1 and 14.17C in raw

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 - 13.49C / raw 13.73C

Download Excel spreadsheet sorted daily minimum temperatures for all WA weather stations in ACORN 1 and ACORN 2.1 and RAW

Station menu

Albany, Bridgetown, Broome, Cape Leeuwin, Carnarvon, Cunderdin, Dalwallinu, Esperance, Eucla, Forrest, Geraldton, Giles, Halls Creek, Kalgoorlie, Kalumburu, Karijini North, Katanning, Learmonth, Marble Bar, Meekatharra, Merredin, Morawa, Perth, Port Hedland, Wandering

Albany

acorn 2.1 albany maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 19.58C / raw 19.79C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 20.12C / raw 20.33C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.54C / raw warmed 0.54C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.16C / raw 0.08C

Albany 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 20.53C / raw 20.47C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 19.87C / raw 20.25C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 19.19% / raw - 51.31%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.20% / raw - 10.95%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 19.34C in ACORN 2.1 and 19.97C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 20.91C in ACORN 2.1 and 20.82C in raw

Albany 9500 has annual max temps back to 1907: 1907-1909 = 19.91C

9741 overlap with 9999 16 May 2012 to 24 February 2014 : 9741 20.72C / 9999 20.95C

ACORN catalogue: Observations commenced at the airport site (009741) in April 1965. There were no overlapping observations at the time. However, in 2002 a site was re-established near the former town site and using its number, and the post- 2002 observations have been used to estimate suitable adjustments for the 1965 move. There has been one known move since the site has been located at the airport, 150 m to the northeast on 4 August 1992. An automatic weather station was installed at this time and became the primary instrument on 1 November 1996.

1986-1995 raw max averaged 20.14C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 20.17C

Albany max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2.1 albany minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 10.10C / raw 11.76C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 10.65C / raw 10.56C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.55C / raw cooled 1.20C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.03C / raw -0.10C

Albany 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 10.67C / raw 10.68C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 10.61C / raw 10.72C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.71% / raw - 53.86%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 9.64% / raw - 11.99%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 10.38C in ACORN 2.1 and 11.70C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 10.69C in ACORN 2.1 and 10.71C in raw

Albany 9500 has annual min temps back to 1907: 1907-1909 = 11.12C

9741 overlap with 9999 17 May 2012 to 25 February 2014 : 9741 10.83C / 9999 10.70C

1986-1995 raw min averaged 10.50C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 10.67C

Albany min Excel spreadsheets

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Bridgetown

acorn 2.1 bridgetown maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 21.31C / raw 22.40C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 21.91C / raw 22.48C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.60C / raw warmed 0.08C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.14C / raw 0.07C

Bridgetown 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 22.39C / raw 22.87C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 - 21.53C / raw 22.22C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 18.56% / raw - 57.23%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 9.43% / raw - 17.09%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 21.20C in ACORN 2.1 and 22.10C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 22.63C in ACORN 2.1 and 22.81C in raw

Bridgetown 9510 has annual max temps back to 1907: 1907-1909 = 21.89C

9510 overlap with 9617 5 March 1998 to 30 August 2012 : 9510 22.95C / 9617 22.18C

ACORN catalogue: There was a small move (10 m) in November 1935. The screen was replaced in January 1942 and in January 1998. An automatic weather station (009617) was installed at the showgrounds, 1.2 km northwest of the current site, in December 1997 and is expected to eventually replace the current site.

2002-2011 raw max averaged 23.13C and post AWS 2013-2018 averaged 22.42C

Bridgetown max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2.1 bridgetown minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 7.68C / raw 7.70C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 8.47C / raw 8.61C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.79C / raw warmed 0.91C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.13C / raw 0.09C

Bridgetown 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 8.55C / raw 8.78C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 - 8.39C / raw 8.39C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 18.45% / raw - 56.73%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 9.86% / raw - 17.53%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 7.48C in ACORN 2.1 and 7.88C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 8.74C in ACORN 2.1 and 8.80C in raw

Bridgetown 9510 has annual min temps back to 1907: 1907-1909 = 7.28C

9510 overlap with 9617 6 March 1998 to 31 August 2012 : 9510 8.77C / 9617 8.31C

2002-2011 raw min averaged 8.84C and post AWS 2013-2018 averaged 8.82C

Bridgetown min Excel spreadsheets

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Broome

acorn 2.1 broome maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 31.44C / raw 32.04C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 32.20C / raw 32.31C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.76C / raw warmed 0.27C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.16C / raw 0.11C

Broome 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 32.49C / raw 32.49C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 32.00C / raw 32.19C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.07% / raw - 40.37%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 9.53% / raw - 10.62%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 31.26C in ACORN 2.1 and 31.80C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 32.87C in ACORN 2.1 and 32.87C in raw

Broome 3002 has annual max temps back to 1897: 1897-1909 = 31.98C

3002 overlap with 3003 11 August 1939 to 31 October 1953 : 3002 32.82C / 3003 32.22C

ACORN catalogue: The Meteorological Office site (003003) has been operating since 1939, with no documented moves. Anecdotal reports indicate that the Meteorological Office may have been in the town in its early years but there are no clear indications of this, either in available documentation or in the data. An automatic weather station was installed on 21 July 1995, in a new screen about 10 m away from the original screen. Manual observations were continued in the original screen as a comparison until 2000 under the station number 003089. Some instruments were relocated in 2007, shortly before the commissioning of a new meteorological office building, but the screen appears to have been moved only slightly if at all.

Assuming the AWS was operational from 1995, 1985-1994 raw max averaged 32.32C and post AWS 1996-2005 averaged 31.99C

Broome max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2.1 broome minimum temperatures

1910-1964 ACORN 2.1 21.35C / raw 21.25C

1965-2019 ACORN 2.1 21.73C / raw 21.30C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.38C / raw warmed 0.05C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.08C / raw 0.05C

Broome 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 21.70C / raw 21.51C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 21.64C / raw 21.14C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 20.07% / raw - 45.08%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 9.69% / raw - 11.78%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 20.91C in ACORN 2.1 and 21.24C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 21.76C in ACORN 2.1 and 21.75C in raw

Broome 3002 has annual min temps back to 1897: 1897-1909 = 21.11C

3002 overlap with 3003 11 August 1939 to 31 October 1953 : 3002 21.17C / 3003 21.03C

Assuming the AWS was operational from 1995, 1985-1994 raw min averaged 21.54C and post AWS 1996-2005 averaged 21.24C

Broome min Excel spreadsheets

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Cape Leeuwin

acorn 2.1 cape leeuwin maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 19.33C / raw 19.52C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 19.89C / raw 20.05C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.56C / raw warmed 0.53C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.12C / raw 0.08C

Cape Leeuwin 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 20.22C / raw 20.22C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 19.66C / raw 19.89C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 19.18% / raw - 62.38%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.19% / raw - 26.36%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 19.36C in ACORN 2.1 and 19.71C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 20.52C in ACORN 2.1 and 20.52C in raw

Cape Leeuwin 9518 has annual max temps back to 1907: 1907-1909 = 19.97C

ACORN catalogue: The site moved 250 m in October 1978. An automatic weather station was installed on 3 February 1993. It moved again to the west-northwest on 14 April 1999; the distance of the move appears to be small but increased the exposure of the site.

Assuming the AWS was operational from 1993, 1983-1992 raw max averaged 20.17C and post AWS 1994-2003 averaged 20.13C

Cape Leeuwin max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2.1 cape leeuwin minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 13.70C / raw 13.99C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 14.44C / raw 14.29C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.74C / raw warmed 0.30C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.10C / raw 0.07C

Cape Leeuwin 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 14.67C / raw 14.67C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 14.17C / raw 13.99C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.19% / raw - 68.12%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 18.82% / raw - 27.73%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 13.78C in ACORN 2.1 and 14.10C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 14.82C in ACORN 2.1 and 14.83C in raw

Cape Leeuwin 9518 has annual min temps back to 1907: 1907-1909 = 13.90C

Assuming the AWS was operational from 1993, 1983-1992 raw min averaged 14.23C and post AWS 1994-2003 averaged 14.59C

Cape Leeuwin min Excel spreadsheets

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Carnarvon

acorn 2.1 carnarvon maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 27.52C / raw 26.70C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 27.98C / raw 27.55C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.46C / raw warmed 0.85C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.08C / raw 0.17C

Carnarvon 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 28.27C / raw 27.97C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 27.72C / raw 27.20C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.21% / raw - 37.42%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 9.52% / raw - 11.57%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 27.62C in ACORN 2.1 and 26.76C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 28.47C in ACORN 2.1 and 28.42C in raw

Carnarvon 6062 has annual max temps back to 1907: 1907-1909 = 26.78C

6062 overlap with 6011 10 January 1945 to 31 August 1950 : 6062 26.94C / 6011 27.17C

ACORN catalogue: The Meteorological Office site (006011) opened in 1945. The site moved about 800 m southeast at an unclear date; the data are consistent with it taking place around 1974. An automatic weather station was installed on 22 October 1990 and became the primary instrument on 1 November 1996. There are indications of a possible site move around 1996–1997 but no evidence of any impact on the data.

1986-1995 raw max averaged 27.42C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 27.52C

Carnarvon max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2.1 carnarvon minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 16.23C / raw 17.14C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 17.10C / raw 17.23C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.87C / raw warmed 0.09C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.18C / raw 0.04C

Carnarvon 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 17.25C / raw 17.25C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 16.90C / raw 17.17C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.04% / raw - 44.28%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 9.55% / raw - 11.72%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 15.71C in ACORN 2.1 and 17.13C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 17.55C in ACORN 2.1 and 17.55C in raw

Carnarvon 6062 has annual min temps back to 1907: 1907-1909 = 16.41C

6062 overlap with 6011 10 January 1945 to 31 August 1950 : 6062 17.46C / 6011 17.37C

1986-1995 raw min averaged 17.22C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 17.14C

Carnarvon min Excel spreadsheets

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Cunderdin

acorn 2.1 cunderdin maximum temperatures

1951-1984 - ACORN 2.1 24.54C / raw 24.93C

1985-2019 - ACORN 2.1 25.69C / raw 25.78C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 1.15C / raw warmed 0.85C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.38C / raw 0.29C

Cunderdin 2000-2018 - ACORN 2.1 26.12C / raw 26.11C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 24.69C / raw 25.02C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 18.86% / raw - 40.61%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 11.84% / raw - 16.12%

The first decade, 1951-1960, averaged 24.24C in ACORN 2.1 and 24.78C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 26.48C in ACORN 2.1 and 26.48C in raw

10035 overlap with 10286 9 October 1996 to 28 February 2007 : 10035 25.70C / 10286 25.78C

ACORN catalogue: Observations were originally made at a site in the town (010035). It moved about 400 m east on 26 August 1993 to a location on the southeastern edge of town, about 1 km from the centre. Temperature observations continued until 2005. The site number 010035 continues to be used for rainfall observations but these are in a different location to the pre-2005 temperature observations. The airport site (010286) has been operating since August 1996.

1986-1995 raw max averaged 25.16C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 25.63C

Cunderdin max Excel spreadsheet

acorn 2.1 cunderdin minimum temperatures

1951-1984 - ACORN 2.1 10.06C / raw 11.56C

1985-2019 - ACORN 2.1 10.47C / raw 10.78C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.41C / raw cooled 0.74C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.18C / raw -0.08C

Cunderdin 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 10.46C / raw 10.46C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 10.23C / raw 11.61C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 19.13% / raw - 47.63%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 9.90% / raw - 15.08%

The first decade, 1951-1960, averaged 9.64C in ACORN 2.1 and 11.19C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 10.72C in ACORN 2.1 and 10.72C in raw

10035 overlap with 10286 10 October 1996 to 1 March 2007 : 10035 10.95C / 10286 10.41

1986-1995 raw min averaged 11.27C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 10.35C

Cunderdin min Excel spreadsheet

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Dalwallinu

acorn 2.1 dalwallinu maximum temperatures

1957-1987 - ACORN 2.1 25.59C / raw 25.83C

1988-2019 - ACORN 2.1 26.17C / raw 26.34C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.58C / raw warmed 0.51C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.21C / raw 0.19C

Dalwallinu 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 26.40C / raw 26.48C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 25.56C / raw 25.82C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.22% / raw - 53.78%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.18% / raw - 17.45%

The first decade, 1957-1966, averaged 25.54C in ACORN 2.1 and 25.71C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 26.64C in ACORN 2.1 and 26.70C in raw

8039 overlap with 8297 (AWS) 14 May 1997 to 31 August 2012 : 8039 26.21C / 8297 26.08C

ACORN catalogue: The site’s only known move was 150 m north on 10 May 1996. An automatic weather station (008297) has also been operating since 1997, just outside the town area about 1 km east of the centre, and is expected to eventually replace the current site.

2006-2011 raw max averaged 26.45C and post AWS 2013-2018 averaged 26.49C

Dalwallinu max Excel spreadsheet

acorn 2.1 cunderdin minimum temperatures

1957-1987 - ACORN 2.1 11.32C / raw 12.12C

1988-2019 - ACORN 2.1 11.64C / raw 12.17C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.32C / raw warmed 0.05C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.14C / raw 0.00C

Dalwallinu 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 11.71C / raw 12.15C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 11.39C / raw 12.16C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 15.72% / raw - 60.16%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.53% / raw - 15.97%

The first decade, 1957-1966, averaged 11.19C in ACORN 2.1 and 12.07C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 11.95C in ACORN 2.1 and 12.10C in raw

8039 overlap with 8297 (AWS) 15 May 1997 to 31 August 2012 : 8039 12.26C / 8297 11.53C

2006-2011 raw min averaged 12.51C and post AWS 2013-2018 averaged 11.98C

Dalwallinu min Excel spreadsheet

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Esperance

acorn 2.1 esperance maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 21.03C / raw 21.19C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 21.63C / raw 21.88C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.60C / raw warmed 0.69C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.12C / raw 0.14C

Esperance 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 22.06C / raw 22.06C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 21.34C / raw 21.75C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 18.93% / raw - 50.10%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.46% / raw - 11.22%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 21.18C in ACORN 2.1 and 20.92C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 22.35C in ACORN 2.1 and 22.35C in raw

Esperance 9541 has annual max temps back to 1907: 1907-1909 = 20.57C

There is no 9541 overlap with 9789

ACORN catalogue: The Meteorological Office site (009789) opened in 1969, with no useful overlap with the previous site. It has not moved. An automatic weather station was installed in April 1996 and became the primary instrument on 1 November 1996. There are indications that vegetation was removed near the site in late 1998 or 1999.

1986-1995 raw max averaged 21.74C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 21.80C

Esperance max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2.1 esperance minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 10.97C / raw 11.44C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 12.03C / raw 12.08C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 1.06C / raw warmed 0.64C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.15C / raw 0.10C

Esperance 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 12.31C / raw 12.32C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 11.79C / raw 11.90C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 19.28% / raw - 55.16%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.31% / raw - 13.05%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 11.00C in ACORN 2.1 and 11.52C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 12.52C in ACORN 2.1 and 12.52C in raw

Esperance 9541 has annual max temps back to 1907: 1907-1909 = 10.73C

There is no 9541 overlap with 9789

1986-1995 raw min averaged 11.94C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 12.08C

Esperance max Excel spreadsheets

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Eucla

acorn 2.1 eucla maximum temperatures

1915-1966 - ACORN 2.1 22.06C / raw 21.99C

1967-2019 - ACORN 2.1 23.02C / raw 23.33C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.96C / raw warmed 1.34C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.22C / raw 0.22C

Eucla 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 23.60C / raw 23.60C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 22.35C / raw 22.94C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 16.80% / raw - 78.76%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 9.93% / raw - 15.83%

The first decade, 1915-1924, averaged 21.76C in ACORN 2.1 and 21.77C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 23.83C in ACORN 2.1 and 23.83C in raw

Eucla 9541 has annual max temps back to 1910: 1910-1913 = 23.27C

ACORN catalogue: The original Eucla site was at the old telegraph station, near the coast approximately 5 km south of the settlement. A Stevenson screen was installed in 1913 and observations are not used in ACORN-SAT before that date. This site was abandoned in October 1962, with site moves taking place on that date (4.8 km north), August 1967 (400 m west) and 5 October 1976 (1.6 km east, into the settlement) before the final 1995 move to the Meteorological Office (1 km east). The Meteorological Office and its associated site opened on 25 March 1995. An automatic weather station was installed at this time and became the primary instrument on 1 November 1996.

1986-1995 raw max averaged 23.18C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 23.19C

Eucla max Excel spreadsheet

acorn 2.1 eucla minimum temperatures

1915-1966 - ACORN 2.1 11.48C / raw 12.22C

1967-2019 - ACORN 2.1 12.46C / raw 12.33C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.98C / raw warmed 0.11

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.13C / raw 0.03C

Eucla 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 12.49C / raw 12.49C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 12.48C / raw 12.16C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 18.48% / raw - 80.46%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 11.07% / raw - 16.30%

The first decade, 1915-1924, averaged 11.35C in ACORN 2.1 and 12.35C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 12.61C in ACORN 2.1 and 12.61C in raw

Eucla 9541 has annual max temps back to 1910: 1910-1913 = 12.02C

1986-1995 raw min averaged 11.98C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 12.39C

Eucla min Excel spreadsheet

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Forrest

acorn 2.1 forrest maximum temperatures

1947-1982 - ACORN 2.1 25.43C / raw 25.39C

1983-2019 - ACORN 2.1 26.10C / raw 26.18C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.67C / raw warmed 0.79C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.24C / raw 0.31C

Forrest 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 26.52C / raw 26.52C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 25.46C / raw 25.67C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 19.15% / raw - 25.44%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 9.79% / raw - 10.99%

The first decade, 1947-1956, averaged 25.22C in ACORN 2.1 and 24.79C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 26.72C in ACORN 2.1 and 26.72C in raw

ACORN catalogue: The original site (011004) was at the now-closed Meteorological Office at the airport. It was listed with the coordinates of the runway rather than those of the instruments, a common practice prior to the 1990s. The same screen was used when the automatic weather station (011052) was installed in 1993. There is no indication of any site changes at Forrest. However, the data suggest the observations may have been made according to the unofficial ’local Nullarbor time‘ (Western Standard Time [WST] plus 45 minutes) rather than WST at times prior to 1972.

11004 overlap with 11052 15 March 1993 to 19 March 1995 : 11004 25.94C / 11052 26.23C

1983-1992 raw max averaged 25.53C and post AWS 1994-2003 averaged 26.13C

Forrest max Excel spreadsheet

acorn 2.1 forrest minimum temperatures

1947-1982 - ACORN 2.1 9.69C / raw 9.79C

1983-2019 - ACORN 2.1 10.71C / raw 10.93C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 1.02C / raw warmed 1.14C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.26C / raw 0.29C

Forrest 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 11.05C / raw 11.05C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 9.88C / raw 10.23C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 18.67% / raw - 28.98%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.29% / raw - 15.99%

The first decade, 1947-1956, averaged 9.50C in ACORN 2.1 and 9.31C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 11.15C in ACORN 2.1 and 11.15C in raw

11004 overlap with 11052 17 March 1993 to 20 March 1995 : 11004 10.76C / 11052 10.82C

1983-1992 raw min averaged 10.66C and post AWS 1994-2003 averaged 10.89C

Forrest min Excel spreadsheet

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Geraldton

acorn 2.1 geraldton maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 25.11C / raw 25.10C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 25.89C / raw 26.15C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.78C / raw warmed 1.05C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.19C / raw 0.22C

Geraldton 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 26.59C / raw 26.57C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 25.36C / raw 25.89C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 18.30% / raw - 35.65%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 9.55% / raw - 11.43%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 25.08C in ACORN 2.1 and 24.73C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 27.00C in ACORN 2.1 and 26.95C in raw

Geraldton 8050 has annual max temps back to 1907: 1907-1909 = 24.87C

8050 overlap with 8051 24 August 1941 to 31 October 1953 : 8050 24.85C / 8051 25.54C

8051 overlap with 8315 20 July 2011 to 19 June 2014 : 8051 27.13C / 8315 27.37C

ACORN catalogue: The original site (008050) was in the town area near the coast, with a small move in 1927. Observations at this location continued until 1953 but it was not used in ACORN-SAT after 1942. Rainfall observations continue to be made under this site number, but at a different location to that used for the pre-1942 temperature observation. Observations from the airport site commenced in 1941. An automatic weather station was installed at the site on 20 June 1990 and became the primary instrument on 1 November 1996. A new site (008315) opened approximately 1 km to the south in July 2011 and is expected to become the main Geraldton site after completion of a comparison period.

1986-1995 raw max averaged 25.77C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 26.13C

Geraldton max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2.1 geraldton minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 13.03C / raw 14.33C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 13.59C / raw 13.65C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.56C / raw cooled 0.68C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.11C / raw -0.10C

Geraldton 2000-2019 - Geraldton 2000-2017 ACORN 2.1 13.74C / raw 13.74C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 13.45C / raw 13.59C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 18.31% / raw - 39.13%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.09% / raw - 12.24%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 12.72C in ACORN 2.1 and 14.75C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 13.78C in ACORN 2.1 and 13.74C in raw

Geraldton 8050 has annual min temps back to 1907: 1907-1909 = 14.27C

8050 overlap with 8051 23 August 1941 to 31 October 1953 : 8050 14.42C / 8051 13.45C

8051 overlap with 8315 21 July 2011 to 20 June 2014 : 8051 14.07C / 8315 14.17C

1986-1995 raw min averaged 13.57C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 13.74C

Geraldton min Excel spreadsheets

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Giles

acorn 2.1 giles maximum temperatures

1957-1987 - ACORN 2.1 28.81C / raw 29.21C

1988-2019 - ACORN 2.1 29.66C / raw 29.74C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.85C / raw warmed 0.53C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.25C / raw 0.15C

Giles 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 29.92C / raw 29.85C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 28.81C / raw 29.20C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.77% / raw - 26.43%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.23% / raw - 11.12%

The first decade, 1957-1966, averaged 28.85C in ACORN 2.1 and 29.38C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 30.19C in ACORN 2.1 and 30.19C in raw

ACORN catalogue: There are no known substantial moves since the site opened in 1956. An automatic weather station was installed in June 1992 and became the primary instrument on 1 November 1996. Although it is located in Western Australia, the Giles office is managed by South Australia and makes observations according to South Australian time, so the ’9 am‘ observation is made at 7.30 am Western Standard Time (WST) in winter and 6.30 am WST in summer. Prior to 1 July 1978, these observation times were 30 minutes earlier (7 am WST in winter and 6 am WST in summer), following a practice that had been used at other South Australian stations but had become obsolete at those stations in the 1950s.

1986-1995 raw max averaged 29.57C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 29.21C

Giles max Excel spreadsheet

acorn 2.1 giles minimum temperatures

1957-1987 - ACORN 2.1 16.15C / raw 15.69C

1988-2019 - ACORN 2.1 16.17C / raw 16.09C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.02C / raw warmed 0.40C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 -0.11C / raw 0.01C

Giles 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 16.08C / raw 16.01

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 16.05C / raw 15.66C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.35% / raw - 30.10%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.60% / raw - 11.26%

The first decade, 1957-1966, averaged 16.64C in ACORN 2.1 and 16.01C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 16.06C in ACORN 2.1 and 16.06C in raw

1986-1995 raw min averaged 16.02C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 16.02C

Giles min Excel spreadsheet

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Halls Creek

acorn 2.1 halls creek maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 32.35C / raw 33.56C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 33.15C / raw 33.59C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.80C / raw warmed 0.03C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.18C / raw 0.01C

Halls Creek 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 33.48C / raw 33.70C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 32.82C / raw 33.55C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 16.41% / raw - 44.26%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.62% / raw - 11.57%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 31.95C in ACORN 2.1 and 33.67C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 33.77C in ACORN 2.1 and 33.81C in raw

Halls Creek 2011 has annual max temps back to 1898: 1898-1900 + 1902-1908 = 33.37C

2011 overlap with 2012 19 January 1946 to 31 May 1952 : 2011 34.17C / 2012 34.06C

ACORN catalogue: The first site (002011) was located in the old Halls Creek township (the town itself was moved in the 1950s). Observations continued at this location until 1952. Observations resumed briefly in the late 1960s and early 1970s but these were not used in ACORN-SAT. The original Meteorological Office site opened in 1944, 11 km west- northwest of the previous site. Maximum and minimum temperatures were archived only from November 1949 onwards. In about 1967, there was a site move of about 650 m west-northwest. The current site is an automatic weather station installed in a new screen about 10 m from the old screen on 25 August 1996. Parallel manual observations continued in the old screen until 2001 under the site number 002071.

Assuming the AWS was operational from 1996, 1986-1995 raw max averaged 33.84C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 33.49C

Halls Creek max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2.1 halls creek minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 18.96C / raw 18.31C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 18.84C / raw 20.13C

ACORN 2.1 cooled 0.12C / raw warmed 1.82C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.04C / raw 0.24C

Halls Creek 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 18.80C / raw 20.05C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 18.74C / raw 19.99C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 19.52% / raw - 48.53%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 9.26% / raw - 11.89%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 18.46C in ACORN 2.1 and 17.65C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 18.83C in ACORN 2.1 and 20.01C in raw

Halls Creek 2011 has annual min temps back to 1899: 1899-1900 + 1903-1909 = 17.68C

2011 overlap with 2012 19 January 1946 to 31 May 1952 : 2011 18.61C / 2012 19.62C

Assuming the AWS was operational from 1996, 1986-1995 raw min averaged 20.78C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 20.12C

Halls Creek min Excel spreadsheets

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Kalgoorlie

acorn 2.1 kalgoorlie maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 24.58C / raw 25.54C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 25.08C / raw 25.44C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.50C / raw cooled 0.10C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.15C / raw 0.00C

Kalgoorlie 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 25.59C / raw 25.83C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 24.81C / raw 25.23C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - ACORN 2.1 - 17.86% / raw - 38.39%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.22% / raw - 11.65%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 24.39C in ACORN 2.1 and 25.91C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 25.91C in ACORN 2.1 and 25.91C in raw

Kalgoorlie 12039 max extends back to 1907: 1907-1909 = 24.91C

12039 overlap with 12038 1 Jan 1943 to 13 Oct 1953 : 12039 25.14C 12038 24.96C

ACORN catalogue: Observations were made at the Post Office (012039), about 4 km north- northeast of the current site until 1953. This site moved approximately 90 m in December 1936. The Meteorological Office site (012038) has been operating since 1939. An automatic weather station was installed on 12 August 1992 and became the primary instrument on 1 November 1996. The office moved 300 m to the south on 7 September 1993; it is unclear whether the instruments also moved although the data suggest that any move had no significant impact on observations.

1986-1995 raw max averaged 25.06C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 25.52C

Kalgoorlie max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2.1 kalgoorlie minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 11.54C / raw 11.96C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 12.31C / raw 11.93C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.77C / raw cooled 0.03C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.12C / raw 0.04C

Kalgoorlie 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 12.36C / raw 12.34C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 12.23C / raw 11.66C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 18.45% / raw - 38.38%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 9.80% / raw - 11.35%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 11.32C in ACORN 2.1 and 12.15C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 12.53C in ACORN 2.1 and 12.53C in raw

Kalgoorlie 12039 min extends back to 1907: 1907-1909 = 11.30C

12039 overlap with 12038 1 Jan 1943 to 13 Oct 1953 : 12039 12.09C 12038 11.14C

1986-1995 raw min averaged 11.75C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 12.04C

Kalgoorlie min Excel spreadsheets

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Kalumburu

acorn 2.1 kalumburu maximum temperatures

1942-1980 - ACORN 2.1 33.64C / raw 34.23C

1981-2019 - ACORN 2.1 34.55C / raw 34.43C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.91C / raw warmed 0.20C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.20C / raw 0.10C

Kalumburu 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 34.65C / raw 34.43C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 34.02C / raw 34.54C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 18.50% / raw - 40.99%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 9.68% / raw - 22.14%

The first decade, 1942-1951, averaged 33.26C in ACORN 2.1 and 33.86C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 34.61C in ACORN 2.1 and 34.52C in raw

1021 overlap with 1019 16 Sep 1998 to 24 Mar 2005 : 1021 34.36C 1019 34.36C

ACORN catalogue: The original site (1021) operated from 1941. It is suspected from the data that the first two years of observations were made at a site closer to the coast—possibly the World War II airfield, or the Pago Mission about 20 km away—but no documentary evidence of this has been found. After this it was located on lawn in the main courtyard of the Kalumburu Mission. The Mission site moved 30 m west (still within the Mission grounds) on 23 August 1991. The site closed in 2005. The automatic weather station (1019) was established about 200 m from the Mission site and began reporting in September 1998.

1988-1997 raw max averaged 34.32C and post AWS 1999-2008 averaged 34.22C

Kalumburu max Excel spreadsheet

acorn 2.1 kalumburu minimum temperatures

1942-1980 - ACORN 2.1 19.53C / raw 20.50C

1981-2019 - ACORN 2.1 20.29C / raw 20.58C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.76C / raw warmed 0.08C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.21C / raw 0.02C

Kalumburu 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 20.44C / raw 20.45C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 19.83C / raw 20.50C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.48% / raw - 37.75%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 19.46% / raw - 22.80%

The first decade, 1942-1951, averaged 19.05C in ACORN 2.1 and 20.36C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 20.48C in ACORN 2.1 and 20.47C in raw

1021 overlap with 1019 17 Sep 1998 to 25 Mar 2005 : 1021 21.57C 1019 20.59C

1988-1997 raw min averaged 21.08C and post AWS 1999-2008 averaged 20.33C

Kalumburu min Excel spreadsheet

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Karijini North (nee Wittenoom)

acorn 2.1 karijini north maximum temperatures

1952-1985 - ACORN 2.1 32.10C / raw 32.76C

1986-2019 - ACORN 2.1 33.13C / raw 33.28C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 1.03C / raw warmed 0.52C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.25C / raw 0.14C

Karijini North (nee Wittenoom) 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 33.37C / raw 33.47C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 32.21C / raw 32.79C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 20.55% / raw - 70.29%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.01% / raw - 14.21%

The first decade, 1952-1961, averaged 32.22C in ACORN 2.1 and 32.94C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 33.67C in ACORN 2.1 and 33.76C in raw

ACORN catalogue: This is an automatic site located approximately 13 km to the east-southeast of the former town of Wittenoom, and opened in August 2018. The site was selected to match the topographic setting of the previous site as closely as possible, in particular the location near the outlet of a gorge. The site is largely bare earth and gravel, with the surrounding region largely covered by low spinifex. The previous site (5026) was located on what is now vacant land on the western side of the former town of Wittenoom. It is on a gentle north-facing slope, with an escarpment rising to the south, and the outlet of Wittenoom Gorge to the west. The ground surface is mown unwatered grass (with some patches of bare, stony red soil) with longer natural grass and scattered trees beyond the enclosure boundary. Observations at this location ceased in August 2019. The site moved west in August 1989; the exact distance of the move is unclear but it appears to be a few hundred metres.

Karijini North max Excel spreadsheet

acorn 2.1 karijini north minimum temperatures

1952-1985 - ACORN 2.1 18.91C / raw 19.65C

1986-2019 - ACORN 2.1 19.51C / raw 19.95C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.60C / raw warmed 0.30C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.13C / raw 0.06C

Karijini North (nee Wittenoom) 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 19.44C / raw 19.90C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 19.00C / raw 19.66C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 18.08% / raw - 74.80%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.60% / raw - 13.47%

The first decade, 1952-1961, averaged 18.99C in ACORN 2.1 and 19.85C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 19.76C in ACORN 2.1 and 20.20C in raw

Karijini North min Excel spreadsheet

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Katanning

acorn 2.1 katanning maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 21.55C / raw 21.98C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 22.10C / raw 22.32C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.55C / raw warmed 0.34C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.09C / raw 0.08C

Katanning 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 22.51C / raw 22.66C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 21.75C / raw 22.07C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 19.16% / raw - 59.04%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 28.03% / raw - 20.45%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 21.80C in ACORN 2.1 and 21.97C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 22.70C in ACORN 2.1 and 22.76C in raw

Katanning 10579 raw max extends back to 1907: 1907-1909 = 22.08C

10579 and 10916 overlap 8 Jan 1999 to 30 Aug 2012 : 10579 22.58C 10916 22.33C

ACORN catalogue: There are documented site moves in July 1987 (100 m north), January 1952 (200 m) and December 1942 (10 m north). A new screen was installed on 11 February 1980. An automatic weather station (010916) has been operating since December 1998 about 5 km east of the town, and is expected to eventually replace the existing site.

2002-2011 raw max averaged 22.67C and post AWS 2013-2018 averaged 22.52C

Katanning max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2.1 katanning minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 8.42C / raw 9.37C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 9.42C / raw 9.49C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 1.00C / raw warmed 0.12C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.16C / raw 0.02C

Katanning 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 9.53C / raw 9.47C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 9.26C / raw 9.53C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 18.86% / raw - 61.80%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 27.66% / raw - 27.87%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 8.13C in ACORN 2.1 and 9.44C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 9.72C in ACORN 2.1 and 9.69C in raw

Katanning 10579 raw min extends back to 1907: 1907-1909 = 8.72C

10579 and 10916 overlap 9 Jan 1999 to 31 Aug 2012 : 10579 9.32C 10916 9.45C

2002-2011 raw min averaged 9.31C and post AWS 2013-2018 averaged 9.76C

Katanning min Excel spreadsheets

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Learmonth

acorn 2.1 learmonth maximum temperatures

1976-1997 - ACORN 2.1 31.72C / raw 31.71C

1998-2019 - ACORN 2.1 32.01C / raw 32.23C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.39C / raw warmed 0.52C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.23C / raw 0.20C

Learmonth 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 32.10C / raw 32.30C

The first decade, 1976-1985, averaged 31.58C in ACORN 2.1 and 31.80C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 32.38C in ACORN 2.1 and 32.49C in raw

ACORN catalogue: There have been no known moves at the site since it began recording maximum and minimum temperatures in 1975. An automatic weather station was installed on 29 August 1994 and became the primary instrument on 1 November 1996.

1986-1995 raw max averaged 31.58C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 31.86C

Learmonth max Excel spreadsheet

acorn 2.1 learmonth minimum temperatures

1976-1997 - ACORN 2.1 17.05C / raw 17.67C

1998-2019 - ACORN 2.1 17.46C / raw 17.78C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.41C / raw warmed 0.11C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.20C / raw 0.03C

Learmonth 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 17.44C / raw 17.75C

The first decade, 1976-1985, averaged 17.07C in ACORN 2.1 and 17.80C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 17.73C in ACORN 2.1 and 17.91C in raw

1986-1995 raw min averaged 17.53C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 17.66C

Learmonth min Excel spreadsheet

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Marble Bar

acorn 2.1 marble bar maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 35.17C / raw 35.46C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 35.49C / raw 35.25C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.32C / raw cooled 0.21C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.09C / raw 0.03C

Marble Bar 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 35.79C / raw 35.55C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 35.37C / raw 35.03C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 18.44% / raw - 64.14%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.13% / raw - 16.54%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 35.17C in ACORN 2.1 and 35.69C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 36.09C in ACORN 2.1 and 35.96C in raw

Marble Bar 4020 raw max extends back to 1903: 1903-1909 = 35.18C

4020 overlap with 4106 26 September 2000 to 22 August 2006 : 4020 35.21C / 4106 34.98C

ACORN catalogue: The station has been located in or near the settlement of Marble Bar throughout its history. There is documentation from November 1944 of a proposed move but no firm documentation that it was carried out, although the data suggest that it was. The minimum thermometer was reported to have been reading low in January 1965 and was replaced. The site moved in May 1967 (small), on 1 August 1984 (500 m east), on 19 July 1988 (1 km east) and on 2 October 1997 (300 m southwest). The automatic weather station opened in September 2000, with instruments in the same screen as the former manual site (004020). The manual site continued until 2006 but was only used in ACORN-SAT until the end of 2002 because of deteriorating data quality after that.

Assuming the AWS was operational from 2000, 1990-1999 raw max averaged 35.50C and post AWS 2001-2010 averaged 35.40C

Marble Bar max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2.1 marble bar minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 19.15C / raw 19.72C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 19.68C / raw 20.35C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.53C / raw warmed 0.63C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.11C / raw 0.04C

Marble Bar 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 20.05C / raw 20.40C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 19.16C / raw 20.02C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 19.03% / raw - 73.98%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.19% / raw - 16.71%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 19.31C in ACORN 2.1 and 20.02C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 20.41C in ACORN 2.1 and 20.41C in raw

Marble Bar 4020 raw min extends back to 1902: 1902 + 1904-1909 = 19.39C

4020 overlap with 4106 27 September 2000 to 23 August 2006 : 4020 20.14C / 4106 19.90C

Assuming the AWS was operational from 2000, 1990-1999 raw min averaged 20.95C and post AWS 2001-2010 averaged 20.38C

Marble Bar min Excel spreadsheets

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Meekatharra

acorn 2.1 meekatharra maximum temperatures

1927-1972 - ACORN 2.1 28.64C / raw 28.92C

1973-2019 - ACORN 2.1 29.25C / raw 29.32C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.61C / raw warmed 0.40C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.11C / raw 0.08C

Meekatharra 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 29.78C / raw 29.78C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 28.61C / raw 28.83C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 18.12% / raw - 50.05%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.27% / raw - 10.95%

The first decade, 1927-1936, averaged 29.14C in ACORN 2.1 and 29.40C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 30.06C in ACORN 2.1 and 30.05C in raw

ACORN catalogue: Observations were taken at a site at the Post Office (007046) until 1950. The Meteorological Office site (007045) began operating in 1950, with no significant overlap with the Post Office site. It moved 1.1 km east in about 1975. An automatic weather station was installed on 7 February 1991 and became the primary instrument on 1 November 1996. A new type of automatic weather station using the same screen was commenced under the site number 007204 in 1998 and took over the main site number in 2001 (with the old automatic weather station ceasing). There are no documented site moves.

1986-1995 raw max averaged 28.82C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 29.20C

A new type of AWS using the same screen (7204) operated from 1998 to 2001 : 7045 1999-2000 28.38C / 7204 199-2000 28.65C

Meekatharra max Excel spreadsheet

acorn 2.1 meekatharra minimum temperatures

1930-1974 - ACORN 2.1 15.30C / raw 15.40C

1975-2019 - ACORN 2.1 16.04C / raw 16.15C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.74C / raw warmed 0.75C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.18C / raw 0.20C

Meekatharra 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 16.23C / raw 16.23C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 15.62C / raw 15.88C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 18.41% / raw - 55.53%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.24% / raw - 11.37%

The first decade, 1930-1939, averaged 15.06C in ACORN 2.1 and 14.93C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 16.52C in ACORN 2.1 and 16.52C in raw

1986-1995 raw min averaged 15.90C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 15.98C

A new type of AWS using the same screen (7204) operated from 1998 to 2001 : 7045 1999-2000 15.41C / 7204 199-2000 15.10C

Meekatharra min Excel spreadsheet

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Merredin

acorn 2.1 merredin maximum temperatures

1915-1966 - ACORN 2.1 24.77C / raw 24.62C

1967-2019 - ACORN 2.1 25.39C / raw 25.22C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.62C / raw warmed 0.60C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.15C / raw 0.18C

Merredin 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 25.87C / raw 25.77C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 24.94C / raw 24.71C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 18.22% / raw - 27.74%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 14.98% / raw - 18.81%

The first decade, 1915-1924, averaged 24.67C in ACORN 2.1 and 24.38C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 26.13C in ACORN 2.1 and 26.13C in raw

10093 overlap with 10092 1 January 1966 to 15 April 1985 : 10093 24.79C / 10092 24.68C

ACORN catalogue: The original site (010093) was at a research farm about 5 km west of town. It moved 150 m southeast in May 1957. The Research Station continued to make observations until 1985 and these observations were used to merge the two datasets. The current site has been operating since 1966. It became overgrown for a time but was cleared in March 1986.

Merredin max Excel spreadsheet

acorn 2.1 merredin minimum temperatures

1915-1966 - ACORN 2.1 11.19C / raw 10.57C

1967-2019 - ACORN 2.1 11.82C / raw 11.50C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.63C / raw warmed 0.93C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.13C / raw 0.19C

Merredin 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 11.90C / raw 11.65C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 11.72C / raw 11.29C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 19.18% / raw - 30.10%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 12.00% / raw - 15.25%

The first decade, 1915-1924, averaged 10.87C in ACORN 2.1 and 10.14C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 12.15C in ACORN 2.1 and 11.99C in raw

10093 overlap with 10092 1 January 1966 to 16 April 1985 : 10093 11.27C / 10092 11.27C

Merredin min Excel spreadsheet

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Morawa

acorn 2.1 morawa maximum temperatures

1926-1972 - ACORN 2.1 26.51C / raw 27.26C

1973-2019 - ACORN 2.1 27.81C / raw 27.94C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 1.30C / raw warmed 0.68C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.29C / raw 0.18C

Morawa 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 28.29C / raw 28.35C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 27.12C / raw 27.36C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 19.70% / raw - 94.17%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 21.29% / raw - 14.76%

The first decade, 1926-1935, averaged 26.16C in ACORN 2.1 and 27.05C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 28.58C in ACORN 2.1 and 28.58C in raw

8093 overlap with 8296 26 March 1997 to 10 March 2005 : 8093 28.03C / 8296 27.78C

ACORN catalogue: The original site (008093) was within the town area, and closed in 2005. The current site has been operating since February 1997.

1995-2004 raw max averaged 28.07C and post AWS 2006-2015 averaged 28.51C

Morawa max Excel spreadsheet

acorn 2.1 morawa minimum temperatures

1926-1972 - ACORN 2.1 12.37C / raw 12.00C

1973-2019 - ACORN 2.1 13.07C / raw 12.92C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.70C / raw warmed 0.92C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.14C / raw 0.20C

Morawa 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 13.03C / raw 12.92C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 13.01C / raw 12.84C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 18.89% / raw - 94.15%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 9.67% / raw - 15.72%

The first decade, 1926-1935, averaged 12.03C in ACORN 2.1 and 11.48C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 13.24C in ACORN 2.1 and 13.14C in raw

8093 overlap with 8296 27 March 1997 to 11 March 2005 : 8093 12.87C / 8296 12.53C

1995-2004 raw min averaged 13.00C and post AWS 2006-2015 averaged 13.10C

Morawa min Excel spreadsheet

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Perth

acorn 2.1 perth maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 23.91C / raw 23.18C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 24.90C / raw 24.73C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.99C / raw warmed 1.55C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.22C / raw 0.29C

Perth 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 25.34C / raw 25.34C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 24.54C / raw 24.19C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 16.05% / raw - 26.66%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.12% / raw - 10.48%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 23.45C in ACORN 2.1 and 22.75C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 25.61C in ACORN 2.1 and 25.61C in raw

Perth 9021 raw max extends back to 1897: 1897-1909 = 22.73C

9034 overlap with 9021 3 June 1944 to 29 April 1992 : 9034 23.64C / 9021 24.14C

ACORN catalogue: The airport site (009021) opened in 1944. ACORN-SAT uses Perth Regional Office until 1944 and utilises the overlap period between 1944 and 1962 to merge this into the Airport data. Regional Office data after a site move in 1963 were not used for ACORN-SAT. The airport site moved about 1.5 km to the south-southeast on 3 March 1988. An automatic weather station was installed on 20 June 1994 and became the primary instrument on 1 November 1996. The site move 1.7 km to the north on 27 October 1997; observations continued at the old site under station number 009250 until 2001.

1986-1995 raw max averaged 24.29C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 25.11C

Perth max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2.1 perth minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 11.23C / raw 13.01C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 11.99C / raw 12.40C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.76C / raw cooled 0.61C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.18C / raw -0.03C

Perth 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 12.34C / raw 12.33C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 11.70C / raw 12.42C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 19.35% / raw - 33.33%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.39% / raw - 11.52%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 10.83C in ACORN 2.1 and 12.96C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 12.64C in ACORN 2.1 and 12.64C in raw

Perth 9021 raw min extends back to 1897: 1897-1909 = 12.74C

9034 overlap with 9021 3 June 1944 to 30 April 1992 : 9034 13.58C / 9021 11.95C

1986-1995 raw min averaged 12.64C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 12.22C

Perth min Excel spreadsheets

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Port Hedland

acorn 2.1 port hedland maximum temperatures

1913-1965 - ACORN 2.1 33.44C / raw 32.16C

1966-2019 - ACORN 2.1 33.59C / raw 33.45C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.15C / raw warmed 1.29C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.11C / raw 0.30C

Port Hedland 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 33.84C / raw 33.84C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 33.53C / raw 33.20C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 18.62% / raw - 52.06%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.08% / raw - 10.51%

The first decade, 1913-1922, averaged 32.92C in ACORN 2.1 and 31.09C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 33.99C in ACORN 2.1 and 33.99C in raw

ACORN catalogue: The first observations were made at the Post Office (004002) in the town. The Post Office site had a small move (less than 10 m) in May 1943. The airport site (004032) opened in 1948. There was no useful overlap of maximum and minimum temperature observations between it and the Post Office site, although some temperature observations at fixed hours were made at the airport during World War II. The site moved within the airport grounds (585 m north-northeast) on 27 March 1981. An automatic weather station was installed on 24 November 1994 and became the primary instrument on 1 November 1996. A different type of automatic weather station was operated a few metres away under the site number 004104 as part of a comparison program.

1986-1995 raw max averaged 33.36C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 33.42C

AWS 4104, a different type of Automatic Weather Station, was operated a few metres away from AWS 4032 from 10 December 1998 to 30 October 2001 : 4104 32.80C / 4032 32.47C

Port Hedland max Excel spreadsheet

acorn 2.1 port hedland minimum temperatures

1913-1965 - ACORN 2.1 19.19C / raw 19.92C

1966-2019 - ACORN 2.1 19.75C / raw 19.71C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.56C / raw cooled 0.19C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.13C / raw -0.01C

Port Hedland 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 20.08C / raw 20.08C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 19.42C / raw 19.30C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 15.92% / raw - 54.62%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 11.15% / raw - 11.39%

The first decade, 1913-1922, averaged 19.12C in ACORN 2.1 and 20.48C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 20.35C in ACORN 2.1 and 20.35C in raw

1986-1995 raw min averaged 19.61C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 19.84C

AWS 4104, a different type of Automatic Weather Station, was operated a few metres away from AWS 4032 from 10 December 1998 to 30 October 2001 : 4104 19.47C / 4032 19.38C

Port Hedland min Excel spreadsheet

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Wandering

acorn 2.1 wandering maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 22.42C / raw 22.87C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 23.07C / raw 23.49C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.65C / raw warmed 0.62C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.16C / raw 0.10C

Wandering 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 23.63C / raw 23.83C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 22.63C / raw 23.16C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 16.78% / raw - 67.21%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.09% / raw - 18.30%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 22.35C in ACORN 2.1 and 22.98C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 23.99C in ACORN 2.1 and 24.01C in raw

Wandering 10648 raw max extends back to 1902: 1902-1909 = 22.71C

10648 overlap with 10917 14 December 1998 to 30 January 2003 : 10648 23.95C / 10917 23.67C

ACORN catalogue: The original site (010648) had moves in July 1987 (20 m, to achieve better exposure after trees had grown around the site) and in November 1988. It continued to operate until 2003. An automatic weather station (010917) was installed in 1998 about 1 km north of the original site.

1988-1997 raw max averaged 23.43C and post AWS 1999-2008 averaged 23.64C

Wandering max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2.1 wandering minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 7.69C / raw 8.27C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 8.28C / raw 8.75C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.59C / raw warmed 0.48C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.11C / raw 0.04C

Wandering 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 8.48C / raw 8.58C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 8.03C / raw 8.70C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 18.53% / raw - 65.81%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 16.84% / raw - 14.94%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 7.62C in ACORN 2.1 and 8.35C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 8.72C in ACORN 2.1 and 8.72C in raw

Wandering 10648 raw min extends back to 1902: 1902-1909 = 7.48C

10648 overlap with 10917 15 December 1998 to 31 January 2003 : 10648 9.17C / 10917 8.43C

1988-1997 raw min averaged 9.11C and post AWS 1999-2008 averaged 8.59C

Wandering min Excel spreadsheets

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