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ACORN 2.1 influence on Victoria temperature trends

Australia New South Wales Northern Territory Queensland South Australia Tasmania Western Australia


In October 2020 the Bureau of Meteorology again rewrote Australia's temperature history with the release of ACORN 2.1, an update to its homogenised ACORN 2 dataset (Australian Climate Observations Reference Network - Surface Air Temperatures) released in late 2018 that significantly increased the rate of climate warming since 1910.

There are 11 ACORN stations in Victoria. This page analyses the daily temperatures at all 11 weather stations and averages the seven with a start year of 1910 to ensure a uniform timescale. The other four excluded stations have temperature recordings starting in years after 1910, the most recent being Laverton with a start year of 1945.

The seven long-term weather stations analysed on this page (with a start year of 1910) had a 1910-1964 average maximum of 19.43C in ACORN 2 and a 1910-1964 average maximum of 19.43C in ACORN 2.1 - meaning ACORN 2.1 has not altered the historic maxima of ACORN 2.

The seven long-term weather stations had a 1910-1964 average minimum of 9.97C in ACORN 2 and a 1910-1964 average minimum of 9.97C in ACORN 2.1 - meaning ACORN 2.1 has not altered the historic minima of ACORN 2.

Daily temperatures in ACORN 2.1 and RAW have been annualised, and below are charts showing the difference between the ACORN 2.1 homogenised dataset when compared to original raw annual temperatures. This analysis only allows the inclusion of years within which there were no months with less than 15 days of recorded temperatures, as is the ACORN protocol.

Seven Victorian stations begin in 1910 and end in 2019 in ACORN 2.1 and RAW - Cape Otway, Gabo Island, Kerang, Melbourne, Mildura, Sale and Wilsons Promontory. The first charts below show maximum and minimum temperature trends at these seven stations with associated data.

Excel files at the bottom of each station chart and data summary can be downloaded to compare how the ACORN 2.1 algorithms influence daily, monthly and annual temperatures at all 11 sites since 1910.

acorn 2.1 victoria maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 19.43C / raw 19.41C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 19.99C / raw 19.91C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.56C / raw warmed 0.50C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.11C / raw 0.11C

Victoria 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 20.47C / raw 20.50C

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 19.53C in ACORN 2.1 and 19.51C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 20.60C in ACORN 2.1 and 20.64C in raw

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 - 19.73C / raw 19.58C

Download Excel spreadsheet for six Victorian weather stations in ACORN 1, ACORN 2.1 and RAW

acorn 2.1 victoria minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 9.97C / raw 10.26C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 10.59C / raw 10.70C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.62C / raw warmed 0.44C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.13C / raw 0.08C

Victoria 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 10.96C / raw 10.99C

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 9.85C in ACORN 2.1 and 10.39C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 11.11C in ACORN 2.1 and 11.4C in raw

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 - 10.35C / raw 10.51C

Download Excel spreadsheet for six Victorian weather stations in ACORN 1 and ACORN 2.1 and RAW

Station menu

Cape Otway, Gabo Island, Kerang, Laverton, Melbourne, Mildura, Nhill, Orbost, Rutherglen, Sale, Wilsons Promontory

Cape Otway

acorn 2 cape otway maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 16.62C / raw 16.47C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 17.15C / raw 17.06C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.53C / raw warmed 0.59C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.08C / raw 0.09C

Cape Otway 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 17.47C / raw 17.30C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 16.99C / raw 16.91C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 19.51% / raw - 78.91%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 8.56% / raw - 33.15%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 16.79C in ACORN 2.1 and 16.65C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 17.59C in ACORN 2.1 and 17.56C in raw

Cape Otway 90015 has annual max temps back to 1865 with randomly missing days: 1865-1909 = 18.67C

ACORN catalogue: This site has been in the grounds of the Cape Otway lighthouse throughout its history. The screen was reported as being in poor condition, and replaced, in July 1954. There was a small site move in September 1966. The first automatic weather station was installed on 15 April 1994, but this proved unreliable and it was replaced in March 1995.

1985-1994 raw max averaged 17.05C and post AWS 1996-2005 averaged 16.91C

Cape Otway max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 cape otway minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 10.39C / raw 10.51C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 11.09C / raw 11.01C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.70C / raw warmed 0.50C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.12C / raw 0.08C

Cape Otway 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 11.38C / raw 11.37C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 10.78C / raw 10.69C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 23.93% / raw - 80.41%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 29.23% / raw - 32.77%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 10.37C in ACORN 2.1 and 10.80C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 11.55C in ACORN 2.1 and 11.55C in raw

Cape Otway 90015 has annual min temps back to 1865 with randomly missing days: 1865-1909 = 10.21C

1985-1994 raw min averaged 10.76C and post AWS 1996-2005 averaged 11.15C

Cape Otway min Excel spreadsheets

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Gabo Island

acorn 2 gabo island maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 18.24C / raw 17.37C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 18.40C / raw 18.19C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.16C / raw warmed 0.82C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.01C / raw 0.17C

Gabo Island 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 18.80C / raw 18.80C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 18.24C / raw 17.75C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 18.79% / raw - 84.29%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 15.52% / raw - 17.51%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 18.81C in ACORN 2.1 and 17.23C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 18.90C in ACORN 2.1 and 18.90C in raw

ACORN catalogue: The site has been in the general vicinity of the island’s lighthouse throughout its history. New screens were installed in September 1927 and July 1961. On 13 March 1981 the site was moved away from the lighthouse buildings. The automatic weather station was installed in August 2000 but only used for wind observations until August 2007.

1997-2006 raw max averaged 18.59C and post AWS 2008-2017 averaged 18.84C

Gabo Island max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 gabo island minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 11.65C / raw 12.26C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 12.35C / raw 12.51C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.70C / raw warmed 0.25C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.08C / raw 0.03C

Gabo Island 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 12.68C / raw 12.67C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 12.11C / raw 12.50C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 22.66% / raw - 84.52%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.75% / raw - 21.08%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 11.95C in ACORN 2.1 and 12.48C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 12.77C in ACORN 2.1 and 12.77C in raw

1997-2006 raw min averaged 12.59C and post AWS 2008-2017 averaged 12.73C

Gabo Island min Excel spreadsheets

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Kerang

acorn 2 kerang maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 22.45C / raw 22.82C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 23.09C / raw 23.10C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.64C / raw warmed 0.28C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.15C / raw 0.12C

Kerang 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 23.81C / raw 23.82C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 22.61C / raw 22.64C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 18.30% / raw - 57.86%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 16.46% / raw - 16.65%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 22.49C in ACORN 2.1 and 22.73C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 23.95C in ACORN 2.1 and 23.95C in raw

ACORN catalogue: The site has been within the township since it was established. It moved in August 1932, June 1956 and June 1957; the latter placed it in a yard within a built-up area which was cluttered from time to time. The screen was noted as being incorrectly oriented in November 1945 and again in February 1968. The site moved 1 km north to its current location on 18 January 2000.

Kerang max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 kerang minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 8.57C / raw 9.11C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 9.48C / raw 9.76C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.91C / raw warmed 0.65C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.16C / raw 0.08C

Kerang 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 9.85C / raw 9.84C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 9.26C / raw 9.70C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.35% / raw - 53.92%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 12.98% / raw - 17.05%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 8.50C in ACORN 2.1 and 9.35C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 10.13C in ACORN 2.1 and 10.12C in raw

Kerang min Excel spreadsheets

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Laverton

acorn 2.1 laverton maximum temperatures

1945-1981 - ACORN 2.1 19.02C / raw 19.54C

1982-2019 - ACORN 2.1 19.86C / raw 19.99C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.84C / raw warmed 0.45C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.29C / raw 0.25C

Laverton 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 20.32C / raw 20.44C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 19.35C / raw 19.84C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 18.25% / raw - 27.76%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 9.94% / raw - 20.35%

The first decade, 1945-1954, averaged 18.59C in ACORN 2.1 and 18.87C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 20.51C in ACORN 2.1 and 20.51C in raw

ACORN catalogue: The site was originally a Meteorological Office; there is no clear evidence of moves before 1997. An automatic weather station was installed on 22 February 1997, about 1.2 km northeast of the previous site (which continued until July 1998 under the station number 087177). Whilst there has been no significant building on the base grounds, the surrounding region is a major urban growth corridor and a new housing development has been built in recent years a few hundred metres west of the site. There is evidence of recent anomalous urban warming in the minimum temperature data.

1987-1996 raw min averaged 19.36C and post AWS 1998-2007 averaged 20.19C

Laverton max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2.1 laverton minimum temperatures

1945-1981 - ACORN 2.1 8.59C / raw 9.19C

1982-2019 - ACORN 2.1 9.58C / raw 9.58C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.99C / raw warmed 0.39C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.31C / raw 0.21C

Laverton 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 9.96C / raw 9.97C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 8.89C / raw 9.31C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.15% / raw - 31.76%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.53% / raw - 20.93%

The first decade, 1945-1954, averaged 8.26C in ACORN 2.1 and 8.89C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 10.26C in ACORN 2.1 and 10.26C in raw

1987-1996 raw min averaged 9.24C and post AWS 1998-2007 averaged 9.59C

Laverton min Excel spreadsheets

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Melbourne

acorn 2 melbourne maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 19.12C / raw 19.74C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 19.83C / raw 20.34C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.71C / raw warmed 0.60C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.13C / raw 0.13C

Melbourne 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 20.37C / raw 20.96C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 19.53C / raw 19.96C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 16.99% / raw - 23.20%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.81% / raw - 11.12%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 19.24C in ACORN 2.1 and 19.61C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 20.51C in ACORN 2.1 and 20.90C in raw

Melbourne 86071 has annual max temps back to 1856: 1856-1909 = 19.56C

86071 overlap with 86338 1 June 2013 to 5 January 2015 : 86071 20.84C / 86338 20.09C

ACORN catalogue: The site has been in its current location, on the northeastern edge of the junction of Victoria and La Trobe streets, since January 1908. There were strong rises in minimum temperature through the late 1950s and 1960s, possibly associated with increasing levels of road traffic (the lack of further increases after 1970 may indicate that by then the traffic was at saturation level from the viewpoint of its effect on the observations). An automatic weather station has been in place since August 1986 and became the primary instrument on 1 November 1996. A large apartment building was built across the street to the south of the site in 1996–1997, which coincides with a discernible rise in minimum temperatures. Earlier observations were made at the old Melbourne Observatory (in the Domain south of the Yarra River) from 1863 to 1907, and in a number of locations in the vicinity of Flagstaff Hill prior to 1863.

1986-1995 raw max averaged 20.00C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 20.83C

Melbourne max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 melbourne minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 10.32C / raw 9.96C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 11.32C / raw 11.37C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 1.00C / raw warmed 1.41C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.16C / raw 0.17C

Melbourne 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 11.59C / raw 11.86C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 11.15C / raw 10.99C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 18.86% / raw - 26.58%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.23% / raw - 11.48%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 10.15C in ACORN 2.1 and 10.20C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 11.76C in ACORN 2.1 and 11.94C in raw

Melbourne 86071 has annual min temps back to 1856: 1856-1909 = 9.57C

86071 overlap with 86338 2 June 2013 to 6 January 2015 : 86071 11.79C / 86338 11.48C

1986-1995 raw min averaged 11.19C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 11.66C

Melbourne min Excel spreadsheets

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Mildura

acorn 2 mildura maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 24.36C / raw 24.00C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 24.55C / raw 24.09C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.19C / raw warmed 0.09C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.08C / raw 0.09C

Mildura 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 25.07C / raw 24.87C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 24.30C / raw 23.67C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 16.45% / raw - 65.19%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.02% / raw - 11.86%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 24.37C in ACORN 2.1 and 24.26C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 25.18C in ACORN 2.1 and 25.11C in raw

Mildura 76077 has annual max temps back to 1890: 1890-1892 + 1895-1898 + 1900-1906 + 1909 = 25.35C

76077 overlap with 76031 26 August 1948 to 30 December 1949 : 76077 23.75C / 76031 23.34C

ACORN catalogue: The original site (076077) was within the Mildura town area. It moved in August 1927. After this move the screen was oriented northeast, but it was realigned to face south in July 1933. There was a small site move in March 1943. Temperature observations continued until 1949. Observations have been made at the airport site (076031) since 1946. Site moves took place on 11 August 1992 (from the aerodrome apron to the Meteorological Office) and in July 1989 (only a small move). The automatic weather station was installed on 1 October 1989, and became the primary instrument on 1 November 1996. There was rapid development of irrigated agriculture in the Mildura region in the period between the two World Wars, and this appears to be associated with an anomalous cooling trend in maximum temperature at Mildura over this period (amounting to 0.3–0.4°C over 30 years). The non-ACORN-SAT site of Griffith, which has a similar history of irrigation development, shows a similar trend.

1986-1995 raw max averaged 23.67C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 24.33C

Mildura max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 mildura minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 9.86C / raw 10.48C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 10.22C / raw 10.43C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.36C / raw cooled 0.05C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.09C / raw 0.05C

Mildura 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 10.63C / raw 10.63C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 9.97C / raw 10.39C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.70% / raw - 67.99%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.09% / raw - 12.99%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 9.91C in ACORN 2.1 and 10.26C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 10.79C in ACORN 2.1 and 10.80C in raw

Mildura 76077 has annual min temps back to 1890: 1890 + 1892-1909 = 9.97C

76077 overlap with 76031 26 August 1948 to 31 December 1949 : 76077 9.94C / 76031 9.55C

1986-1995 raw min averaged 10.23C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 10.30C

Mildura min Excel spreadsheets

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Nhill

acorn 2.1 nhill maximum temperatures

1911-1964 - ACORN 2.1 21.00C / raw 21.43C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 21.97C / raw 21.93C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.97C / raw warmed 0.50C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.15C / raw 0.10C

Nhill 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 22.40C / raw 22.44C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 21.66C / raw 21.62C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 19.40% / raw - 72.38%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 11.10% / raw - 18.86%

The first decade, 1911-1920, averaged 20.99C in ACORN 2.1 and 21.50C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 22.44C in ACORN 2.1 and 22.50C in raw

Nhill 78031 has annual max temps back to 1898: 1898-1905 = 22.36C

78031 overlap with 78015 11 June 2003 to 30 December 2008 : 78031 21.99C / 78015 22.37C

ACORN catalogue: The original site (078031) has been in a number of locations in and around Nhill. Starting within the township, the site moved in July 1930, August 1949 (town to airport), March 1966 (airport back into town), November 1970 (across the street), March 1976, August 1992 (only a small move) and the start of 1995 (about 500 m). The final location was on the southwestern edge of the town area, 1.2 km west of the centre. The current site at the airport (078015) has been operating since 2003. It is about 1 km northeast of the location used by 078031 from 1949 to 1966.

Assuming 2003 was when AWS readings were adopted, 1993-2002 raw min averaged 22.05C and post AWS 2004-2013 averaged 22.41C

Nhill max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2.1 nhill minimum temperatures

1911-1964 - ACORN 2.1 7.93C / raw 8.21C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 8.41C / raw 8.16C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.48C / raw cooled 0.05C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.07C / raw 0.02C

Nhill 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 8.67C / raw 8.40C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 8.29C / raw 8.12C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 20.28% / raw - 77.44%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.80% / raw - 21.80%

The first decade, 1911-1920, averaged 8.23C in ACORN 2.1 and 8.74C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 8.92C in ACORN 2.1 and 8.92C in raw

Nhill 78031 has annual min temps back to 1898: 1898-1905 = 6.77C

78031 overlap with 78015 12 June 2003 to 31 December 2008 : 78031 7.04C / 78015 8.10C

Assuming 2003 was when AWS readings were adopted, 1993-2002 raw min averaged 7.47C and post AWS 2004-2013 averaged 8.38C

Nhill min Excel spreadsheets

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Orbost

acorn 2.1 orbost maximum temperatures

1939-1978 - ACORN 2.1 19.43C / raw 19.89C

1979-2019 - ACORN 2.1 20.17C / raw 20.61C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.74C / raw warmed 0.72C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.19C / raw 0.15C

Orbost 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 20.49C / raw 20.76C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 19.77C / raw 20.37C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.88% / raw - 45.61%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 9.98% / raw - 11.55%

The first decade, 1939-1948, averaged 19.24C in ACORN 2.1 and 19.62C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 20.62C in ACORN 2.1 and 20.69C in raw

84030 overlap with 84145 23 November 2000 to 1 November 2011 : 84030 20.76C / 84145 20.31C

ACORN catalogue: The original site (084030) was in a number of locations with in the Orbost town area. It moved on 23 November 1966 and again on 4 March 1976. A move on 18 April 1984 placed it in a small paddock on the northern edge of town, where it continued until its closure in November 2011. The current site has been operating since November 2000.

2004-2010 raw max averaged 20.92C and post AWS 2012-2018 averaged 20.75C

Orbost max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2.1 orbost minimum temperatures

1939-1978 - ACORN 2.1 9.30C / raw 8.70C

1979-2019 - ACORN 2.1 9.80C / raw 9.29C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.50C / raw warmed 0.59C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.13C / raw 0.28C

Orbost 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 10.03C / raw 9.53C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 9.38C / raw 9.06C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.93% / raw - 49.17%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.40% / raw - 12.75%

The first decade, 1939-1948, averaged 9.29C in ACORN 2.1 and 8.09C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 10.18C in ACORN 2.1 and 10.07C in raw

84030 overlap with 84145 24 November 2000 to 2 November 2011 : 84030 8.98C / 84145 9.93C

2004-2010 raw min averaged 9.04C and post AWS 2012-2018 averaged 10.18C

Orbost min Excel spreadsheets

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Rutherglen

acorn 2.1 rutherglen maximum temperatures

1913-1966 - ACORN 2.1 21.12C / raw 21.60C

1967-2019 - ACORN 2.1 21.93C / raw 22.02C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.81C / raw warmed 0.42C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.15C / raw 0.09C

Rutherglen 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 22.62C / raw 22.62C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 21.45C / raw 21.68C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.65% / raw - 45.70%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 12.18% / raw - 19.16%

The first decade, 1913-1922, averaged 21.32C in ACORN 2.1 and 21.84C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 22.74C in ACORN 2.1 and 22.74C in raw

ACORN catalogue: There have been no documented site moves during the site’s history. The automatic weather station began operations on 29 January 1998.

1988-1997 raw max averaged 21.45C and post AWS 1999-2008 averaged 22.40C

Rutherglen max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2.1 rutherglen minimum temperatures

1913-1966 - ACORN 2.1 5.50C / raw 7.39C

1967-2019 - ACORN 2.1 6.71C / raw 7.23C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 1.21C / raw cooled 0.16C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.14C / raw -0.06C

Rutherglen 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 7.05C / raw 7.34C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 6.43C / raw 7.22C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 18.95% / raw - 46.18%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.65% / raw - 21.35%

The first decade, 1913-1922, averaged 5.87C in ACORN 2.1 and 7.92C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 7.26C in ACORN 2.1 and 7.32C in raw

1988-1997 raw min averaged 7.22C and post AWS 1999-2008 averaged 7.25C

Rutherglen min Excel spreadsheets

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Sale

acorn 2 sale maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 19.42C / raw 19.65C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 19.88C / raw 19.90C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.46C / raw warmed 0.25C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.08C / raw 0.04C

Sale 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 20.37C / raw 20.36C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 19.55C / raw 19.59C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.11% / raw - 49.86%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 9.35% / raw - 11.20%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 19.61C in ACORN 2.1 and 20.02C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 20.46C in ACORN 2.1 and 20.45C in raw

Sale 85133 has annual max temps back to 1892: 1892-1909 = 20.69C

ACORN catalogue: This site (85072) is an automatic weather station, on flat open ground on the southern edge of the East Sale RAAF base, about 8 km east of the town. A concrete path leads to the screen area but otherwise the ground surface is short unwatered grass, with a small shed about 25 m to the southeast and a bitumen road 20 m to the south. The automatic weather station has been operating in its present location since 11 June 1996. The previous site was 900 m north of the current site. It continued making observations as a comparison until 2005 under the station number 85298. There is no clear documentation of any moves at the RAAF base site prior to 1996. Prior to the opening of the Meteorological Office at the RAAF base in 1945, observations were made in the Sale township (85133). There was no overlap between the two sites. The town site was somewhat warmer than the airport site for both maximum and minimum temperature.

1986-1995 raw max averaged 19.56C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 20.17C

Sale max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 sale minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 7.44C / raw 8.29C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 8.08C / raw 8.24C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.64C / raw cooled 0.05C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.13C / raw 0.00C

Sale 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 8.38C / raw 8.37C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 7.90C / raw 8.20C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.78% / raw - 51.70%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.22% / raw - 11.87%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 7.39C in ACORN 2.1 and 8.66C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 8.65C in ACORN 2.1 and 8.66C in raw

Sale 85133 has annual min temps back to 1892: 1892-1909 = 8.44C

1986-1995 raw min averaged 8.53C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 7.94C

Sale min Excel spreadsheets

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Wilsons Promontory

acorn 2 wilsons promontory maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 16.25C / raw 16.01C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 16.74C / raw 16.57C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.49C / raw warmed 0.56C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.09C / raw 0.11C

Wilsons Promontory 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 17.09C / raw 17.08C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 16.54C / raw 16.29C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.06% / raw - 79.99%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 14.67% / raw - 21.19%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 16.39C in ACORN 2.1 and 16.14C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 17.27C in ACORN 2.1 and 17.27C in raw

ACORN catalogue: This site has been located at the Wilsons Promontory lighthouse throughout its history, with no documented moves during the ACORN-SAT period. Bushfires affected the area in February 1951; the instrument enclosure was not directly affected but observations stopped for several months while staff housing was rebuilt. The screen was blown down in a June 1959 storm and had to be replaced. An automatic weather station was installed on 18 September 2000. Another bushfire in April 2005 also had no direct impact on the enclosure.

Assuming 2000 was when AWS readings were adopted, 1990-1999 raw max averaged 16.25C and post AWS 2001-2010 averaged 16.92C

Wilsons Promontory max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 wilsons promontory minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 11.72C / raw 11.30C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 12.15C / raw 11.95C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.43C / raw warmed 0.65C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.06C / raw 0.09C

Wilsons Promontory 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 12.37C / raw 12.36C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 11.96C / raw 11.63C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 21.55% / raw - 82.84%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 14.28% / raw - 22.67%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 11.90C in ACORN 2.1 and 11.59C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 12.48C in ACORN 2.1 and 12.48C in raw

Assuming 2000 was when AWS readings were adopted, 1990-1999 raw min averaged 11.73C and post AWS 2001-2010 averaged 12.25C

Wilsons Promontory min Excel spreadsheets

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