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ACORN 2 influence on Victoria temperature trends

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In late 2018 the Australian Bureau of Meteorology provided access to the ACORN 2 daily temperatures (Australian Climate Observations Reference Network - Surface Air Temperatures), which is the bureau's dataset of homogenised or adjusted raw temperatures at 112 Australian weather stations dating back to 1910.

It is assumed that ACORN 2 will replace the ACORN 1 dataset (introduced in 2012) as the historic reference used for comparison of modern temperatures. These are usually presented to the public as temperature anomalies compared to a 1961-90 baseline at each weather station.

There are 11 ACORN stations in Victoria. This page analyses the daily temperatures at all 11 weather stations but averages the six with a start year of 1910 to ensure a uniform timescale.

Daily temperatures in ACORN 1, ACORN 2 and RAW have been annualised, and below are charts showing the difference between the two homogenised datasets when compared to their original raw annual temperatures. This analysis only allows the inclusion of years within which there were no months with less than 15 days of recorded temperatures, as is the ACORN protocol.

Six Victorian stations begin in 1910 and end in 2017 in ACORN 1, ACORN 2 and RAW - Cape Otway, Gabo Island, Kerang, Melbourne, Mildura and Wilsons Promontory. The first charts below show maximum and minimum temperature trends at these six stations with associated data that, although not the same as all 11 ACORN stations across Victoria, suggest the new ACORN 2 dataset has cooled the state's ACORN 1 maximum by 0.12C and warmed its minimum by 0.02C comparing 1910-1963 with 1964-2017 (first and second halves).

Excel files at the bottom of each station chart and summary can be downloaded to compare how the ACORN 2 algorithms influence daily, monthly and annual temperatures at all five sites since 1910.

acorn 2 victoria maximum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 19.32C / v2 19.46C / raw 19.41C

1964-2017 - v1 19.98C / v2 20.00C / raw 19.87C

v1 warmed 0.66C / v2 warmed 0.54C / raw warmed 0.46C

Average change per decade : v1 0.13C / v2 0.10C / raw 0.12C

Victoria 2000-2017 - v1 20.56C / v2 20.51C / raw 20.48C

1961-90 - v1 19.65C / v2 - 19.78C / raw 19.59C

Download Excel spreadsheet for six Victorian weather stations in ACORN 1, ACORN 2 and RAW

acorn 2 victoria minimum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 10.55C / v2 10.45C / raw 10.62C

1964-2017 - v1 11.09C / v2 11.01C / raw 11.11C

v1 warmed 0.54C / v2 warmed 0.56C / raw warmed 0.49C

Average change per decade : v1 0.11C / v2 0.12C / raw 0.09C

Victoria 2000-2017 - v1 11.43C / v2 11.39C / raw 11.43C

1961-90 - v1 10.92C / v2 - 10.80C / raw 10.93C

Download Excel spreadsheet for six Victorian weather stations in ACORN 1 and ACORN 2 and RAW

Station menu

Cape Otway, Gabo Island, Kerang, Laverton, Melbourne, Mildura, Nhill, Orbost, Rutherglen, Sale, Wilsons Promontory

Cape Otway

acorn 2 cape otway maximum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 15.96C / v2 16.61C / CDO raw 16.46C

1964-2017 - v1 16.71C / v2 17.10C / CDO raw 17.02C

v1 warmed 0.75C / v2 warmed 0.49C / raw warmed 0.56C

Average change per decade : v1 0.13C / v2 0.08C / raw 0.08C

Cape Otway 2000-2017 - v1 17.32C / v2 17.47C / raw 17.26C (2018 was 17.72C)

1961-90 - v1 16.37C / v2 16.98C / raw 16.91C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 27.74% / v2 - 20.77% / raw - 79.13%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 29.44% / v2 - 8.47% / raw - 34.15%

Cape Otway 90015 has annual max temps back to 1865 with randomly missing days: 1865-1909 = 18.67C

ACORN catalogue: This site has been in the grounds of the Cape Otway lighthouse throughout its history. The screen was reported as being in poor condition, and replaced, in July 1954. There was a small site move in September 1966. The first automatic weather station was installed on 15 April 1994, but this proved unreliable and it was replaced in March 1995.

1985-1994 raw max averaged 17.05C and post AWS 1996-2005 averaged 16.91C

Cape Otway max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 cape otway minimum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 10.36C / v2 10.41C / CDO raw 10.52C

1964-2017 - v1 11.09C / v2 11.05C / CDO raw 10.96C

v1 warmed 0.73C / v2 warmed 0.64C / raw warmed 0.54C

Average change per decade : v1 0.05C / v2 0.11C / raw 0.07C

Cape Otway 2000-2017 - v1 11.37C / v2 11.37C / raw 11.36C (2018 was 11.60C)

1961-90 - v1 10.85C / v2 10.78C / raw 10.69C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 19.14% / v2 - 26.24% / raw - 80.74%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 29.99% / v2 - 30.09% / raw - 33.79%

Cape Otway 90015 has annual min temps back to 1865 with randomly missing days: 1865-1909 = 10.21C

1985-1994 raw min averaged 10.76C and post AWS 1996-2005 averaged 11.15C

Cape Otway min Excel spreadsheets

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Gabo Island

acorn 2 gabo island maximum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 17.85C / v2 18.24C / CDO raw 17.37C

1964-2017 - v1 18.32C / v2 18.38C / CDO raw 18.14C

v1 warmed 0.47C / v2 warmed 0.14C / raw warmed 0.77C

Average change per decade : v1 0.07C / v2 0.00C / raw 0.16C

Gabo Island 2000-2017 - v1 18.78C / v2 18.78C / raw 18.78C (2018 was 19.04C)

1961-90 - v1 18.11C / v2 18.24C / raw 17.75C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 17.00% / v2 - 18.79% / raw - 84.29%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 15.70% / v2 - 15.72% / raw - 17.79%

ACORN catalogue: The site has been in the general vicinity of the island’s lighthouse throughout its history. New screens were installed in September 1927 and July 1961. On 13 March 1981 the site was moved away from the lighthouse buildings. The automatic weather station was installed in August 2000 but only used for wind observations until August 2007.

1997-2006 raw max averaged 18.59C and post AWS 2008-2017 averaged 18.85C

Gabo Island max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 gabo island minimum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 11.68C / v2 11.65C / CDO raw 12.26C

1964-2017 - v1 12.42C / v2 12.32C / CDO raw 12.50C

v1 warmed 0.74C / v2 warmed 0.67C / raw warmed 0.24C

Average change per decade : v1 0.15C / v2 0.08C / raw 0.03C

Gabo Island 2000-2017 - v1 12.67C / v2 12.67C / raw 12.67C (2018 was 12.17C)

1961-90 - v1 12.31C / v2 12.11C / raw 12.50C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 19.78% / v2 - 22.66% / raw - 84.52%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 18.75% / v2 - 18.09% / raw - 21.58%%

1997-2006 raw min averaged 12.59C and post AWS 2008-2017 averaged 12.73C

Gabo Island min Excel spreadsheets

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Kerang

acorn 2 kerang maximum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 22.17C / v2 22.47C / CDO raw 22.84C

1964-2017 - v1 23.02C / v2 23.00C / CDO raw 23.01C

v1 warmed 0.85C / v2 warmed 0.53C / raw warmed 0.17C

Average change per decade : v1 0.16C / v2 0.13C / raw 0.11C

Kerang 2000-2017 - v1 23.72C / v2 23.72C / raw 23.73C (2018 was 24.59C)

1961-90 - v1 22.64C / v2 22.61C / raw 22.64C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 29.06% / v2 - 18.30% / raw - 57.86%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 16.73% / v2 - 16.74% / raw - 16.94%

ACORN catalogue: The site has been within the township since it was established. It moved in August 1932, June 1956 and June 1957; the latter placed it in a yard within a built-up area which was cluttered from time to time. The screen was noted as being incorrectly oriented in November 1945 and again in February 1968. The site moved 1 km north to its current location on 18 January 2000.

Kerang max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 kerang minimum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 8.56C / v2 8.57C / CDO raw 9.11C

1964-2017 - v1 9.46C / v2 9.42C / CDO raw 9.73C

v1 warmed 0.90C / v2 warmed 0.85C / raw warmed 0.62C

Average change per decade : v1 0.17C / v2 0.16C / raw 0.07C

Kerang 2000-2017 - v1 9.81C / v2 9.81C / raw 9.81C (2018 was 10.10C)

1961-90 - v1 9.28C / v2 9.23C / raw 9.70C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 16.73% / v2 - 17.29% / raw - 53.79%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 12.07% / v2 - 12.96% / raw - 17.22%

Kerang min Excel spreadsheets

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Laverton

acorn 2 laverton maximum temperatures

1945-1980 - v1 19.53C / v2 18.98C / CDO raw 19.51C

1981-2017 - v1 20.13C / v2 19.82C / CDO raw 19.96C

v1 warmed 0.60C / v2 warmed 0.84C / raw warmed 0.45C

Average change per decade : v1 0.20C / v2 0.29C / raw 0.25C

Laverton 2000-2017 - v1 20.42C / v2 20.25C / raw 20.39C (2018 was 20.84C)

1961-90 - v1 19.87C / v2 19.35C / raw 19.84C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 17.54% / v2 - 18.25% / raw - 27.76%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 12.53% / v2 - 9.93% / raw - 20.80%

ACORN catalogue: The site was originally a Meteorological Office; there is no clear evidence of moves before 1997. An automatic weather station was installed on 22 February 1997, about 1.2 km northeast of the previous site (which continued until July 1998 under the station number 087177). Whilst there has been no significant building on the base grounds, the surrounding region is a major urban growth corridor and a new housing development has been built in recent years a few hundred metres west of the site. There is evidence of recent anomalous urban warming in the minimum temperature data.

1987-1996 raw min averaged 19.36C and post AWS 1998-2007 averaged 20.19C

Laverton max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 laverton minimum temperatures

1945-1980 - v1 8.49C / v2 8.57C / CDO raw 9.16C

1981-2017 - v1 9.54C / v2 9.54C / CDO raw 9.56C

v1 warmed 1.05C / v2 warmed 0.97C / raw warmed 0.40C

Average change per decade : v1 0.31C / v2 0.30C / raw 0.20C

Laverton 2000-2017 - v1 9.92C / v2 9.92C / raw 9.92C (2018 was 10.42C)

1961-90 - v1 8.85C / v2 8.89C / raw 9.31C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 18.27% / v2 - 17.10% / raw - 31.66%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 20.85% / v2 - 17.95% / raw - 21.51%

1987-1996 raw min averaged 9.24C and post AWS 1998-2007 averaged 9.59C

Laverton min Excel spreadsheets

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Melbourne

acorn 2 melbourne maximum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 20.16C / v2 19.13C / CDO raw 19.75C

1964-2017 - v1 20.50C / v2 19.77C / CDO raw 20.30C

v1 warmed 0.34C / v2 warmed 0.64C / raw warmed 0.55C

Average change per decade : v1 0.10C / v2 0.12C / raw 0.14C

Melbourne 2000-2017 - v1 20.99C / v2 20.32C / raw 20.98C (2018 was 20.72C)

1961-90 - v1 20.35C / v2 19.53C / raw 19.96C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 16.09% / v2 - 16.99% / raw - 23.20%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 10.47% / v2 - 10.88% / raw - 11.20%

Melbourne 86071 has annual max temps back to 1856: 1856-1909 = 19.56C

86071 overlap with 86338 1 June 2013 to 5 January 2015 : 86071 20.84C / 86338 20.09C

ACORN catalogue: The site has been in its current location, on the northeastern edge of the junction of Victoria and La Trobe streets, since January 1908. There were strong rises in minimum temperature through the late 1950s and 1960s, possibly associated with increasing levels of road traffic (the lack of further increases after 1970 may indicate that by then the traffic was at saturation level from the viewpoint of its effect on the observations). An automatic weather station has been in place since August 1986 and became the primary instrument on 1 November 1996. A large apartment building was built across the street to the south of the site in 1996–1997, which coincides with a discernible rise in minimum temperatures. Earlier observations were made at the old Melbourne Observatory (in the Domain south of the Yarra River) from 1863 to 1907, and in a number of locations in the vicinity of Flagstaff Hill prior to 1863.

1986-1995 raw max averaged 20.00C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 20.83C

Melbourne max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 melbourne minimum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 10.84C / v2 10.32C / CDO raw 9.95C

1964-2017 - v1 11.63C / v2 11.29C / CDO raw 11.34C

v1 warmed 0.79C / v2 warmed 0.97C / raw warmed 1.39C

Average change per decade : v1 0.11C / v2 0.16C / raw 0.18C

Melbourne 2000-2017 - v1 11.88C / v2 11.58C / raw 11.88C (2018 was 11.72C)

1961-90 - v1 11.54C / v2 11.15C / raw 10.99C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 19.46% / v2 - 18.85% / raw - 26.56%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 9.33% / v2 - 10.18% / raw - 11.49%

Melbourne 86071 has annual min temps back to 1856: 1856-1909 = 9.57C

86071 overlap with 86338 2 June 2013 to 6 January 2015 : 86071 11.79C / 86338 11.48C

1986-1995 raw min averaged 11.19C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 11.66C

Melbourne min Excel spreadsheets

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Mildura

acorn 2 mildura maximum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 23.93C / v2 24.36C / CDO raw 24.01C

1964-2017 - v1 24.05C / v2 24.50C / CDO raw 24.02C

v1 warmed 0.12C / v2 warmed 0.14C / raw warmed 0.01C

Average change per decade : v1 0.06C / v2 0.07C / raw 0.07C

Mildura 2000-2017 - v1 24.77C / v2 25.00C / raw 24.77C (2018 was 25.70C)

1961-90 - v1 23.75C / v2 24.30C / raw 23.67C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 20.41% / v2 - 19.70% / raw - 65.19%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 11.38% / v2 - 9.62% / raw - 11.94%

Mildura 76077 has annual max temps back to 1890: 1890-1892 + 1895-1898 + 1900-1906 + 1909 = 25.35C

76077 overlap with 76031 26 August 1948 to 30 December 1949 : 76077 23.75C / 76031 23.34C

ACORN catalogue: The original site (076077) was within the Mildura town area. It moved in August 1927. After this move the screen was oriented northeast, but it was realigned to face south in July 1933. There was a small site move in March 1943. Temperature observations continued until 1949. Observations have been made at the airport site (076031) since 1946. Site moves took place on 11 August 1992 (from the aerodrome apron to the Meteorological Office) and in July 1989 (only a small move). The automatic weather station was installed on 1 October 1989, and became the primary instrument on 1 November 1996. There was rapid development of irrigated agriculture in the Mildura region in the period between the two World Wars, and this appears to be associated with an anomalous cooling trend in maximum temperature at Mildura over this period (amounting to 0.3–0.4°C over 30 years). The non-ACORN-SAT site of Griffith, which has a similar history of irrigation development, shows a similar trend.

1986-1995 raw max averaged 23.62C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 24.29C

Mildura max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 mildura minimum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 9.93C / v2 9.89C / CDO raw 10.49C

1964-2017 - v1 10.34C / v2 10.18C / CDO raw 10.40C

v1 warmed 0.41C / v2 warmed 0.29C / raw cooled 0.09C

Average change per decade : v1 0.12C / v2 0.09C / raw 0.05C

Mildura 2000-2017 - v1 10.58C / v2 10.59C / raw 10.59C (2018 was 11.10C)

1961-90 - v1 10.29C / v2 9.98C / raw 10.39C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 17.45% / v2 - 19.47% / raw - 67.94%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 10.37% / v2 - 9.93% / raw - 13.11%

Mildura 76077 has annual min temps back to 1890: 1890 + 1892-1909 = 9.97C

76077 overlap with 76031 26 August 1948 to 31 December 1949 : 76077 9.94C / 76031 9.55C

1986-1995 raw min averaged 10.20C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 10.26C

Mildura min Excel spreadsheets

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Nhill

acorn 2 nhill maximum temperatures

1911-1963 - v1 21.34C / v2 21.35C / CDO raw 21.45C

1964-2017 - v1 22.24C / v2 22.21C / CDO raw 21.87C

v1 warmed 0.90C / v2 warmed 0.86C / raw warmed 0.42C

Average change per decade : v1 0.13C / v2 0.12C / raw 0.10C

Nhill 2000-2017 - v1 22.57C / v2 22.57C / raw 22.41C (2018 was 22.74C)

1961-90 - v1 22.06C / v2 22.01C / raw 21.62C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 19.00% / v2 - 17.39% / raw - 72.38%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 10.30% / v2 - 10.29% / raw - 19.23%

Nhill 78031 has annual max temps back to 1898: 1898-1905 = 22.36C

78031 overlap with 78015 11 June 2003 to 30 December 2008 : 78031 21.99C / 78015 22.37C

ACORN catalogue: The original site (078031) has been in a number of locations in and around Nhill. Starting within the township, the site moved in July 1930, August 1949 (town to airport), March 1966 (airport back into town), November 1970 (across the street), March 1976, August 1992 (only a small move) and the start of 1995 (about 500 m). The final location was on the southwestern edge of the town area, 1.2 km west of the centre. The current site at the airport (078015) has been operating since 2003. It is about 1 km northeast of the location used by 078031 from 1949 to 1966.

Assuming 2003 was when AWS readings were adopted, 1993-2002 raw min averaged 22.05C and post AWS 2004-2013 averaged 22.41C

Nhill max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 nhill minimum temperatures

1911-1963 - v1 8.77C / v2 7.90C / CDO raw 8.19C

1964-2017 - v1 8.59C / v2 8.54C / CDO raw 8.11C

v1 cooled 0.18C / v2 warmed 0.64C / raw cooled 0.08C

Average change per decade : v1 0.01C / v2 0.07C / raw 0.01C

Nhill 2000-2017 - v1 8.59C / v2 8.63C / raw 8.35C (2018 was 8.89C)

1961-90 - v1 8.63C / v2 8.62C / raw 8.09C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 16.55% / v2 - 17.64% / raw - 77.32%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 11.17% / v2 - 11.23% / raw - 22.25%

Nhill 78031 has annual min temps back to 1898: 1898-1905 = 6.77C

78031 overlap with 78015 12 June 2003 to 31 December 2008 : 78031 7.04C / 78015 8.10C

Assuming 2003 was when AWS readings were adopted, 1993-2002 raw min averaged 7.71C and post AWS 2004-2013 averaged 8.19C

Nhill min Excel spreadsheets

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Orbost

acorn 2 orbost maximum temperatures

1939-1977 - v1 19.19C / v2 19.43C / CDO raw 19.88C

1978-2017 - v1 20.06C / v2 20.10C / CDO raw 20.57C

v1 warmed 0.87C / v2 warmed 0.67C / raw warmed 0.69C

Average change per decade : v1 0.18C / v2 0.19C / raw 0.16C

Orbost 2000-2017 - v1 20.39C / v2 20.44C / raw 20.72C (2018 was 21.33C)

1961-90 - v1 19.59C / v2 19.77C / raw 20.37C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 18.65% / v2 - 17.88% / raw - 45.61%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 14.60% / v2 - 10.02% / raw - 11.67%

84030 overlap with 84145 23 November 2000 to 1 November 2011 : 84030 20.76C / 84145 20.31C

ACORN catalogue: The original site (084030) was in a number of locations with in the Orbost town area. It moved on 23 November 1966 and again on 4 March 1976. A move on 18 April 1984 placed it in a small paddock on the northern edge of town, where it continued until its closure in November 2011. The current site has been operating since November 2000.

2001-2010 raw max averaged 20.83C and post AWS 2012-2017 averaged 20.64C

Orbost max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 orbost minimum temperatures

1939-1977 - v1 9.26C / v2 9.28C / CDO raw 8.67C

1978-2017 - v1 9.78C / v2 9.78C / CDO raw 9.25C

v1 warmed 0.52C / v2 warmed 0.50C / raw warmed 0.58C

Average change per decade : v1 0.19C / v2 0.12C / raw 0.25C

Orbost 2000-2017 - v1 10.03C / v2 10.02C / raw 9.46C (2018 was 10.13C)

1961-90 - v1 9.41C / v2 9.38C / raw 9.06C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 17.08% / v2 - 17.79% / raw - 49.02%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 15.54% / v2 - 10.45% / raw - 12.91%

84030 overlap with 84145 24 November 2000 to 2 November 2011 : 84030 8.98C / 84145 9.93C

2001-2010 raw min averaged 8.97C and post AWS 2012-2017 averaged 10.18C

Orbost min Excel spreadsheets

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Rutherglen

acorn 2 rutherglen maximum temperatures

1913-1964 - v1 21.76C / v2 21.13C / CDO raw 21.61C

1965-2017 - v1 21.93C / v2 21.82C / CDO raw 21.93C

v1 warmed 0.17C / v2 warmed 0.69C / raw warmed 0.32C

Average change per decade : v1 0.12C / v2 0.14C / raw -0.06C

Rutherglen 2000-2017 - v1 22.50C / v2 22.50C / raw 22.50C (2018 was 23.70C)

1961-90 - v1 21.67C / v2 21.45C / raw 21.67C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 33.54% / v2 - 17.65% / raw - 45.70%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 19.56% / v2 - 12.26% / raw - 19.56%

ACORN catalogue: There have been no documented site moves during the site’s history. The automatic weather station began operations on 29 January 1998.

1988-1997 raw max averaged 21.45C and post AWS 1999-2008 averaged 22.40C

Rutherglen max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 rutherglen minimum temperatures

1913-1964 - v1 6.06C / v2 5.49C / CDO raw 7.40C

1965-2017 - v1 7.12C / v2 6.64C / CDO raw 7.22C

v1 warmed 1.06C / v2 warmed 1.15C / raw cooled 0.18C

Average change per decade : v1 0.07C / v2 0.13C / raw 0.08C

Rutherglen 2000-2017 - v1 7.31C / v2 7.00C / raw 7.32C (2018 was 7.34C)

1961-90 - v1 7.02C / v2 6.43C / raw 7.22C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 16.37% / v2 - 18.57% / raw - 45.70%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 20.74% / v2 - 10.66% / raw - 21.84%

1988-1997 raw min averaged 7.22C and post AWS 1999-2008 averaged 7.25C

Rutherglen min Excel spreadsheets

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Sale

acorn 2 sale maximum temperatures

1946-1981 - v1 19.38C / v2 19.42C / CDO raw 19.38C

1982-2017 - v1 19.96C / v2 19.99C / CDO raw 19.96C

v1 warmed 0.58C / v2 warmed 0.57C / raw warmed 0.58C

Average change per decade : v1 0.19C / v2 0.17C / raw 0.21C

Sale 2000-2017 - v1 20.29C / v2 20.29C / raw 20.28C (2018 was 20.98C)

1961-90 - v1 19.54C / v2 19.55C / raw 19.59C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 16.48% / v2 - 17.11% / raw - 49.86%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 10.92% / v2 - 9.33% / raw - 11.26%

ACORN catalogue: The automatic weather station has been operating in its present location since 11 June 1996. The previous site was 900 m north of the current site. It continued making observations as a comparison until 2005 under the station number 085298. There is no clear documentation of any moves at the RAAF base site prior to 1996. Prior to the opening of the Meteorological Office at the RAAF base in 1945, observations were made in the Sale township (085133), but no data from this location had been digitised at the time of ACORN-SAT compilation.

1986-1995 raw max averaged 19.56C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 20.17C

Note: Observations at the Sale township since 1910 have been digitised since publication of the ACORN catalogue but are not included in the data above so that comparative averages are uniform with the ACORN 1 start year of 1946. However, the RAW and ACORN 2 annual temperatures are charted above so readers can compare. RAW average maximum 1910-1944 = 19.90C / ACORN 2 average maximum 1910-1944 = 19.45C

Sale max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 sale minimum temperatures

1946-1981 - v1 7.55C / v2 7.74C / CDO raw 8.10C

1982-2017 - v1 8.09C / v2 8.15C / CDO raw 8.27C

v1 warmed 0.54C / v2 warmed 0.41C / raw warmed 0.17C

Average change per decade : v1 0.23C / v2 0.16C / raw 0.11C

Sale 2000-2017 - v1 8.33C / v2 8.35C / raw 8.33C (2018 was 8.61C)

1961-90 - v1 7.82C / v2 7.90C / raw 8.20C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 18.55% / v2 - 17.71% / raw - 51.54%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 10.45% / v2 - 10.08% / raw - 11.80%

1986-1995 raw min averaged 8.53C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 7.94C

Note: Observations at the Sale township since 1910 have been digitised since publication of the ACORN catalogue but are not included in the data above so that comparative averages are uniform with the ACORN 1 start year of 1946. However, the RAW and ACORN 2 annual temperatures are charted above so readers can compare. RAW average minimum 1910-1944 = 8.32C / ACORN 2 average minimum 1910-1944 = 7.28C

Sale min Excel spreadsheets

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Wilsons Promontory

acorn 2 wilsons promontory maximum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 15.83C / v2 16.26C / CDO raw 16.02C

1964-2017 - v1 16.52C / v2 16.70C / CDO raw 16.52C

v1 warmed 0.69C / v2 warmed 0.56C / raw warmed 0.50C

Average change per decade : v1 0.13C / v2 0.08C / raw 0.11C

Wilsons Promontory 2000-2017 - v1 17.03C / v2 17.04C / raw 17.03C (2018 was 17.43C)

1961-90 - v1 16.29C / v2 16.54C / raw 16.29C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 44.37% / v2 - 17.06% / raw - 79.99%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 21.61% / v2 - 14.83% / raw - 21.64%

ACORN catalogue: This site has been located at the Wilsons Promontory lighthouse throughout its history, with no documented moves during the ACORN-SAT period. Bushfires affected the area in February 1951; the instrument enclosure was not directly affected but observations stopped for several months while staff housing was rebuilt. The screen was blown down in a June 1959 storm and had to be replaced. An automatic weather station was installed on 18 September 2000. Another bushfire in April 2005 also had no direct impact on the enclosure.

Assuming 2000 was when AWS readings were adopted, 1990-1999 raw max averaged 16.25C and post AWS 2001-2010 averaged 16.92C

Wilsons Promontory max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 wilsons promontory minimum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 11.63C / v2 11.74C / CDO raw 11.32C

1964-2017 - v1 11.92C / v2 12.12C / CDO raw 11.91C

v1 warmed 0.29C / v2 warmed 0.38C / raw warmed 0.59C

Average change per decade : v1 0.02C / v2 0.05C / raw 0.09C

Wilsons Promontory 2000-2017 - v1 12.35C / v2 12.36C / raw 12.35C (2018 was 12.66C)

1961-90 - v1 11.64C / v2 11.96C / raw 11.63C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 69.85% / v2 - 21.55% / raw - 82.84%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 23.09% / v2 - 14.42% / raw - 23.18%

Assuming 2000 was when AWS readings were adopted, 1990-1999 raw min averaged 11.73C and post AWS 2001-2010 averaged 12.26C

Wilsons Promontory min Excel spreadsheets

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