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ACORN 2 influence on South Australia temperature trends

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In late 2018 the Australian Bureau of Meteorology provided access to the ACORN 2 daily temperatures (Australian Climate Observations Reference Network - Surface Air Temperatures), which is the bureau's dataset of homogenised or adjusted raw temperatures at 112 Australian weather stations dating back to 1910.

It is assumed that ACORN 2 will replace the ACORN 1 dataset (introduced in 2012) as the historic reference used for comparison of modern temperatures. These are usually presented to the public as temperature anomalies compared to a 1961-90 baseline at each weather station.

There are 13 ACORN stations in South Australia. This page analyses the daily temperatures at all 13 weather stations but averages the five with a start year of 1910 to ensure a uniform timescale.

Daily temperatures in ACORN 1, ACORN 2 and RAW have been annualised, and below are charts showing the difference between the two homogenised datasets when compared to their original raw annual temperatures. This analysis only allows the inclusion of years within which there were no months with less than 15 days of recorded temperatures, as is the ACORN protocol.

Five South Australian stations begin in 1910 and end in 2017 in ACORN 1, ACORN 2 and RAW - Adelaide, Marree, Port Lincoln, Robe and Snowtown. The first charts below show maximum and minimum temperature trends at these five stations with associated data that, although not the same as all 13 ACORN stations across South Australia, suggest the new ACORN 2 dataset has warmed the state's ACORN 1 maximum by 0.43C and warmed its minimum by 0.06C comparing 1910-1963 with 1964-2017 (first and second halves).

Excel files at the bottom of each station chart and summary can be downloaded to compare how the ACORN 2 algorithms influence daily, monthly and annual temperatures at all five sites since 1910.

acorn 2 south australia maximum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 22.53C / v2 22.05C / raw 22.19C

1964-2017 - v1 22.86C / v2 22.81C / raw 22.96C

v1 warmed 0.33C / v2 warmed 0.76C / raw warmed 0.77C

Average change per decade : v1 0.06C / v2 0.11C / raw 0.10C

South Australia 2000-2017 - v1 23.36C / v2 23.26C / raw 23.37C

1961-90 - v1 22.59C / v2 - 22.60C / raw 22.73C

Download Excel spreadsheet for five South Australian weather stations in ACORN 1, ACORN 2 and RAW

acorn 2 south australia minimum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 10.97C / v2 10.90C / raw 11.30C

1964-2017 - v1 11.49C / v2 11.48C / raw 11.67C

v1 warmed 0.52C / v2 warmed 0.58C / raw warmed 0.37C

Average change per decade : v1 0.05C / v2 0.06C / raw 0.03C

South Australia 2000-2017 - v1 18.79C / v2 18.60C / raw 18.72C

1961-90 - v1 11.39C / v2 - 11.35C / raw 11.71C

Download Excel spreadsheet for five South Australian weather stations in ACORN 1 and ACORN 2 and RAW

Station menu

Adelaide, Cape Borda, Ceduna, Kyancutta, Marree, Mount Gambier, Nuriootpa, Oodnadatta, Port Lincoln, Robe, Snowtown, Tarcoola, Woomera

Adelaide

acorn 2 adelaide maximum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 22.14C / v2 22.00C / CDO raw 21.86C

1964-2017 - v1 22.38C / v2 22.32C / CDO raw 22.17C

v1 warmed 0.24C / v2 warmed 0.32C / raw warmed 0.31C

Average change per decade : v1 0.06C / v2 0.08C / raw 0.08C

Adelaide 2000-2017 - v1 22.96C / v2 22.95C / raw 22.92C (2018 was 23.60C)

1961-90 - v1 22.09C / v2 21.99C / raw 21.78C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 16.76% / v2 - 17.51% / raw - 21.02%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 10.53% / v2 - 10.10% / raw - 12.11%

Adelaide 23000 has annual max temps back to 1888: 1888-1909 = 21.87C

23000 overlap with 23090 1 February 1977 to 28 February 1979 : 23000 21.79C / 23090 21.92C

ACORN catalogue: Prior to 1977, the Regional Office (023000) was located at West Terrace, on the western edge of the central city and 3.2 km west of the current site, and observations were made there, continuing until early 1979. The site was on the edge of the main Adelaide parklands and appears to have been near the top of a small slope. There were site moves in 1944, November 1951 and a small move (15 m west) in 1962. Until 1948 there were two sets of observations made at Adelaide, one using a Glaisher stand and one using a Stevenson screen. The Glaisher stand observations, which generally had higher maximum temperatures (especially in summer), were the ones publicly reported at the time but the Stevenson screen observations are the ones used in the ACORN-SAT data (and in the Bureau’s database more generally). The widely-quoted record high temperature for Adelaide of 47.6 °C, set in January 1939, was measured in a Glaisher stand; the Stevenson screen value on this day was 46.1 °C. The current site was established in 1977. An automatic weather station was installed on 26 October 1992 and became the primary instrument on 1 November 1996.

1986-1995 raw max averaged 22.06C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 22.46C

Adelaide max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 adelaide minimum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 11.47C / v2 11.62C / CDO raw 11.94C

1964-2017 - v1 12.23C / v2 12.23C / CDO raw 12.39C

v1 warmed 0.76C / v2 warmed 0.61C / raw warmed 0.45C

Average change per decade : v1 0.12C / v2 0.08C / raw 0.07C

Adelaide 2000-2017 - v1 12.56C / v2 12.56C / raw 12.56C (2018 was 12.79C)

1961-90 - v1 12.06C / v2 12.07C / raw 12.40C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 19.31% / v2 - 19.05% / raw - 23.19%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 11.25% / v2 - 11.23% / raw - 11.91%

Adelaide 23000 has annual min temps back to 1888: 1888-1909 = 11.80C

23000 overlap with 23090 2 February 1977 to 28 February 1979 : 23000 12.76C / 23090 12.13C

1986-1995 raw min averaged 12.10C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 12.28C

Adelaide min Excel spreadsheets

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Cape Borda

acorn 2 cape borda maximum temperatures

1962-1989 - v1 18.10C / v2 18.42C / CDO raw 18.09C

1990-2017 - v1 18.91C / v2 19.02C / CDO raw 18.87C

v1 warmed 0.81C / v2 warmed 0.60C / raw warmed 0.78C

Average change per decade : v1 0.29C / v2 0.22C / raw 0.29C

Cape Borda 2000-2017 - v1 19.19C / v2 19.22C / raw 19.13C (2018 was 19.48C)

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 59.84% / v2 - 17.09% / raw - 59.41%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 20.19% / v2 - 13.29% / raw - 17.58%

22801 overlap with 22823 10 September 2002 to 30 July 2007 : 22801 18.94C / 22823 19.22C

ACORN catalogue: The former site (022801) was over bare ground in the grounds of the Cape Borda lighthouse. There was a small move within the lighthouse grounds at some point in the 1976–1978 period (the exact date is unclear). Observations continued until 2007; the original screen remains in place but contains no instruments. The current site has been operating since 2002. It is further inland and a less exposed location than the former site.

1992-2001 raw max averaged 18.56C and post AWS 2003-2012 averaged 19.03C

Cape Borda max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 cape borda minimum temperatures

1962-1989 - v1 11.30C / v2 11.06C / CDO raw 11.30C

1990-2017 - v1 11.61C / v2 11.36C / CDO raw 11.60C

v1 warmed 0.31C / v2 warmed 0.30C / raw warmed 0.30C

Average change per decade : v1 0.13C / v2 0.18C / raw 0.13C

Cape Borda 2000-2017 - v1 11.68C / v2 11.50C / raw 11.68C (2018 was 11.56C)

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 69.20% / v2 - 23.03% / raw - 68.13%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 19.89% / v2 - 13.98% / raw - 20.17%

22801 overlap with 22823 11 September 2002 to 31 July 2007 : 22801 11.62C / 22823 11.23C

1992-2001 raw max averaged 11.55C and post AWS 2003-2012 averaged 11.63C

Cape Borda min Excel spreadsheets

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Ceduna

acorn 2 ceduna maximum temperatures

1943-1979 - v1 23.43C / v2 22.56C / CDO raw 23.24C

1980-2017 - v1 24.09C / v2 23.57C / CDO raw 23.79C

v1 warmed 0.66C / v2 warmed 1.01C / raw warmed 0.55C

Average change per decade : v1 0.16C / v2 0.29C / raw 0.19C

Ceduna 2000-2017 - v1 24.30C / v2 24.09C / raw 24.09C (2018 was 24.41C)

1961-90 - v1 23.72C / v2 22.85C / raw 23.48C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 17.69% / v2 - 17.15% / raw - 27.43%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 10.37% / v2 - 10.32% / raw - 11.96%

ACORN catalogue: The site has been operating since 1939. An automatic weather station has been in place since July 1990 and has been the primary instrument since 1 November 1996. A new Meteorological Office building was opened in June 2010 but the thermometer screen does not appear to have moved. There was also a site (018011) at the Post Office in town between 1939 and 1951 but this was not used for ACORN-SAT as it did not provide a useful extension of the record; there is no indication of temperature observations at the Post Office prior to 1939.

1986-1995 raw max averaged 23.33C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 23.74C

Ceduna max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 ceduna minimum temperatures

1943-1979 - v1 10.01C / v2 9.79C / CDO raw 10.25C

1980-2017 - v1 10.66C / v2 10.64C / CDO raw 10.66C

v1 warmed 0.65C / v2 warmed 0.85C / raw warmed 0.41C

Average change per decade : v1 0.22C / v2 0.26C / raw 0.17C

Ceduna 2000-2017 - v1 10.89C / v2 10.89C / raw 10.89C (2018 was 11.17C)

1961-90 - v1 10.38C / v2 10.27C / raw 10.51C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 21.00% / v2 - 16.99% / raw - 33.07%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 13.42% / v2 - 9.98% / raw - 13.43%

1986-1995 raw min averaged 10.53C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 10.65C

Ceduna min Excel spreadsheets

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Kyancutta

acorn 2 kyancutta maximum temperatures

1931-1973 - v1 24.38C / v2 24.42C / CDO raw 24.94C

1974-2017 - v1 25.35C / v2 25.34C / CDO raw 25.39C

v1 warmed 0.97C / v2 warmed 0.92C / raw warmed 0.45C

Average change per decade : v1 0.15C / v2 0.11C / raw 0.02C

Kyancutta 2000-2017 - v1 25.74C / v2 25.74C / raw 25.75C (2018 was 26.2C)

1961-90 - v1 24.77C / v2 24.75C / raw 25.01C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 17.34% / v2 - 18.33% / raw - 31.70%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 14.34% / v2 - 14.54% / raw - 14.60%

ACORN catalogue: There is limited documentation prior to 1979. There was a small site move (less than 50 m) on 1 March 1994.

Kyancutta max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 kyancutta minimum temperatures

1931-1973 - v1 9.05C / v2 8.83C / CDO raw 9.06C

1974-2017 - v1 9.53C / v2 9.53C / CDO raw 9.52C

v1 warmed 0.48C / v2 warmed 0.70C / raw warmed 0.46C

Average change per decade : v1 0.09C / v2 0.15C / raw 0.09C

Kyancutta 2000-2017 - v1 9.73C / v2 9.73C / raw 9.73C (2018 was 10.15C)

1961-90 - v1 9.30C / v2 9.30C / raw 9.30C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 39.06% / v2 - 29.11% / raw - 39.06%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 15.68% / v2 - 15.68% / raw - 15.66%

Kyancutta min Excel spreadsheets

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Marree

acorn 2 marree maximum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 28.56C / v2 27.49C / CDO raw 27.49C

1964-2017 - v1 29.03C / v2 28.38C / CDO raw 29.17C

v1 warmed 0.47C / v2 warmed 0.89C / raw warmed 1.68C

Average change per decade : v1 0.07C / v2 0.16C / raw 0.23C

Marree 2000-2017 - v1 29.68C / v2 29.12C / raw 29.68C (2018 was 30.07C)

1961-90 - v1 28.67C / v2 27.91C / raw 28.86C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 17.31% / v2 - 16.85% / raw - 64.94%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 12.37% / v2 - 10.63% / raw - 11.86%

Marree 33046 has annual max temps back to 1908: 1908-1909 = 26.26C

7031 overlap with 7126 23 July 1998 to 8 January 2015 : 7031 29.72C / 7126 28.95C

ACORN catalogue: The first observations were made at Farina (017024), about 50 km to the south. Little documentation is available about the Farina site. The Marree site opened in 1939. There were issues with the enclosed nature of the site in the late 1980s and early 1990s, as well as with reports of metal sheets and motor vehicles near the screen. This improved in April 1993 when a shed to the west was demolished, a tree was removed and gravel was removed from around the screen area. An automatic weather station (017126) has been operating since July 1998 at Marree Airport, about 1 km southeast of the town. This is expected to eventually replace the current site.

Assuming the AWS was operational from 1998, 1988-1997 raw max averaged 28.96C and post AWS 1999-2008 averaged 29.72C

Marree max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 marree minimum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 13.23C / v2 13.05C / CDO raw 12.52C

1964-2017 - v1 13.71C / v2 13.65C / CDO raw 13.58C

v1 warmed 0.48C / v2 warmed 0.60C / raw warmed 1.06C

Average change per decade : v1 0.10C / v2 0.08C / raw 0.19C

Marree 2000-2017 - v1 14.16C / v2 14.04C / raw 14.14C (2018 was 13.79C)

1961-90 - v1 13.46C / v2 13.35C / raw 13.18C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 17.64% / v2 - 16.92% / raw - 68.50%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 11.19% / v2 - 9.52% / raw - 11.30%

Marree 33046 has annual min temps back to 1908: 1908-1909 = 11.19C

7031 overlap with 7126 24 July 1998 to 9 January 2015 : 7031 14.15C / 7126 13.90C

Assuming the AWS was operational from 1998, 1988-1997 raw min averaged 13.69C and post AWS 1999-2008 averaged 14.13C

Marree min Excel spreadsheets

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Mount Gambier

acorn 2 mount-gambier maximum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 18.81C / v2 19.03C / CDO raw 18.59C

1964-2017 - v1 19.28C / v2 19.36C / CDO raw 19.28C

v1 warmed 0.47C / v2 warmed 0.30C / raw warmed 0.69C

Average change per decade : v1 0.08C / v2 0.03C / raw 0.10C

Mount Gambier 2000-2017 - v1 19.72C / v2 19.73C / raw 19.72C (2018 was 20.01C)

1961-90 - v1 19.14C / v2 19.26C / raw 19.11C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 19.51% / v2 - 18.03% / raw - 36.22%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 11.59% / v2 - 9.64% / raw - 11.60%

Mount Gambier 26020 has annual max temps back to 1908: 1908-1909 = 18.60C

26020 overlap with 26021 1 February 1942 to 31 March 1952 : 26020 18.05C / 26021 18.09C

ACORN catalogue: Observations were originally made at the Post Office (026020). There are conflicting accounts of what type of screen may have been in use prior to 1913 and the possibility that a Glaisher stand may have been used in 1910–1912 cannot be discounted, although the data suggest it is unlikely. Observations from the Post Office ceased in 1952. The current site has been operating since 1941. It moved 800 m southwest in April 1964. An automatic weather station was installed in July 1993 and became the primary instrument on 1 November 1996.

1986-1995 raw max averaged 19.11C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 19.35C

Mount Gambier max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 mount-gambier minimum temperatures

1940-1978 - v1 7.77C / v2 7.55C / CDO raw 7.96C

1979-2017 - v1 8.61C / v2 8.59C / CDO raw 8.60C

v1 warmed 0.84C / v2 warmed 1.04C / raw warmed 0.64C

Average change per decade : v1 0.15C / v2 0.27C / raw 0.05C

Mount Gambier 2000-2017 - v1 8.71C / v2 8.71C / raw 8.71C (2018 was 8.78C)

1961-90 - v1 8.24C / v2 8.22C / raw 8.23C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 20.28% / v2 - 18.57% / raw - 28.50%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 12.62% / v2 - 10.05% / raw - 12.62%

Note: Mount Gambier 26020 begins its daily RAW minimum temperatures in 1940, unlike maxima which begin in 1910. Averages above are from 1940 but the chart above begins in 1910 so readers can see the ACORN trends during 1910-1939. ACORN 1 1910-1939 averaged 8.30C and ACORN 2 1910-1939 averaged 7.60C.

26020 overlap with 26021 1 February 1942 to 31 March 1952 : 26020 18.05C / 26021 18.09C

1986-1995 raw min averaged 8.60C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 8.45C

Mount Gambier min Excel spreadsheets

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Nuriootpa

acorn 2 nuriootpa maximum temperatures

1957-1986 - v1 20.97C / v2 20.80C / CDO raw 20.90C

1987-2017 - v1 21.40C / v2 21.39C / CDO raw 21.38C

v1 warmed 0.43C / v2 warmed 0.59C / raw warmed 0.48C

Average change per decade : v1 0.17C / v2 0.19C / raw 0.20C

Nuriootpa 2000-2017 - v1 21.69C / v2 21.66C / raw 21.66C (2018 was 22.42C)

1961-90 - v1 21.01C / v2 20.85C / raw 20.97C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 20.10% / v2 - 16.90% / raw - 26.08%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 18.51% / v2 - 17.52% / raw - 14.53%

23321 overlap with 23373 28 August 1996 to 28 February 1999 : 23321 21.61C / 23373 21.71C

ACORN catalogue: The original manual site (023321), which continued until 1999, was about 30 m away from the current site, in the same strip of open ground between rows of vines. There was some earth and rock near this site, at least in its later years. This site moved about 300 m south in August 1983. The current site has been operating since August 1996.

Assuming the AWS was operational from 1996, 1986-1995 raw min averaged 20.94C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 21.35C

Nuriootpa max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 nuriootpa minimum temperatures

1957-1986 - v1 8.64C / v2 8.52C / CDO raw 8.65C

1987-2017 - v1 9.14C / v2 9.13C / CDO raw 9.14C

v1 warmed 0.50C / v2 warmed 0.61C / raw warmed 0.49C

Average change per decade : v1 0.20C / v2 0.20C / raw 0.20C

Nuriootpa 2000-2017 - v1 9.27C / v2 9.25C / raw 9.25C (2018 was 9.23C)

1961-90 - v1 8.80C / v2 8.68C / raw 8.80C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 29.87% / v2 - 16.58% / raw - 30.08%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 17.38% / v2 - 15.90% / raw - 12.91%

23321 overlap with 23373 28 August 1996 to 28 February 1999 : 23321 9.08C / 23373 8.96C

Assuming the AWS was operational from 1996, 1986-1995 raw min averaged 8.98C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 9.01C

Nuriootpa min Excel spreadsheets

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Oodnadatta

acorn 2 oodnadatta maximum temperatures

1941-1978 - v1 28.87C / v2 28.65C / CDO raw 28.71C

1979-2017 - v1 29.50C / v2 29.44C / CDO raw 29.58C

v1 warmed 0.63C / v2 warmed 0.79C / raw warmed 0.87C

Average change per decade : v1 0.15C / v2 0.17C / raw 0.21C

Oodnadatta 2000-2017 - v1 29.70C / v2 29.70C / raw 29.72C (2018 was 30.74C)

1961-90 - v1 29.11C / v2 28.87C / raw 29.08C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 22.54% / v2 - 18.40% / raw - 26.25%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 10.78% / v2 - 9.68% / raw - 11.15%

1984-1993 raw max averaged 28.78C and post AWS 1995-2004 averaged 29.39C

ACORN catalogue: Observations from 1940 until 1985 came from the former Meteorological Office at the airport, using the current site number (017043). After the closure of the Meteorological Office in 1985, observations were made at the police station (017114) in the town. These observations became increasingly intermittent and ceased altogether in 1991. The automatic weather station, in almost exactly the same location as the original Meteorological Office, began operating in November 1994.

Oodnadatta max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 oodnadatta minimum temperatures

1941-1978 - v1 14.33C / v2 14.38C / CDO raw 14.33C

1979-2017 - v1 15.00C / v2 15.08C / CDO raw 15.06C

v1 warmed 0.67C / v2 warmed 0.70C / raw warmed 0.73C

Average change per decade : v1 0.18C / v2 0.21C / raw 0.18C

Oodnadatta 2000-2017 - v1 15.17C / v2 15.17C / raw 15.17C (2018 was 14.75C)

1961-90 - v1 14.49C / v2 14.79C / raw 14.50C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 26.78% / v2 - 18.64% / raw - 26.71%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 15.49% / v2 - 9.45% / raw - 11.20%

1984-1993 raw min averaged 14.27C and post AWS 1995-2004 averaged 15.08C

Oodnadatta min Excel spreadsheets

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Port Lincoln

acorn 2 port lincoln maximum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 20.43C / v2 20.10C / CDO raw 20.56C

1964-2017 - v1 20.94C / v2 20.77C / CDO raw 21.09C

v1 warmed 0.51C / v2 warmed 0.67C / raw warmed 0.53C

Average change per decade : v1 0.09C / v2 0.11C / raw 0.03C

Port Lincoln 2000-2017 - v1 21.45C / v2 21.45C / raw 21.44C (2018 was 22.02C)

1961-90 - v1 20.64C / v2 20.40C / raw 20.91C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 16.38% / v2 - 18.02% / raw - 74.01%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 10.15% / v2 - 9.77% / raw - 14.65%

Port Lincoln 18070 has max temps back to 1892 : 1892-1909 = 20.55C

ACORN catalogue: The original site (018070) was in the town centre. In its later years this site was quite built-up, with buildings, a fence and a concrete surface in the vicinity. There were numerous small moves in its history, with documented moves in October 1924, December 1941, July 1962, February 1975 and October 1986 (40 m east). It closed in March 2002. The current site has been operating since 1992.

Port Lincoln max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 port lincoln minimum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 10.77C / v2 10.88C / CDO raw 11.67C

1964-2017 - v1 11.26C / v2 11.41C / CDO raw 11.66C

v1 warmed 0.49C / v2 warmed 0.53C / raw cooled 0.01C

Average change per decade : v1 0.03C / v2 0.03C / raw 0.01C

Port Lincoln 2000-2017 - v1 11.42C / v2 11.42C / raw 11.41C (2018 was 11.44C)

1961-90 - v1 11.21C / v2 11.46C / raw 12.03C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 19.82% / v2 - 16.61% / raw - 75.32%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 9.18% / v2 - 9.80% / raw - 15.45%

Port Lincoln 18070 has min temps back to 1892 : 1892-1909 = 10.76C

Port Lincoln min Excel spreadsheets

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Robe

acorn 2 robe maximum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 18.56C / v2 18.09C / CDO raw 17.90C

1964-2017 - v1 18.53C / v2 18.32C / CDO raw 18.53C

v1 cooled 0.03C / v2 warmed 0.23C / raw warmed 0.63C

Average change per decade : v1 -0.01C / v2 0.04C / raw 0.08C

Robe 2000-2017 - v1 18.60C / v2 18.59C / raw 18.60C (2018 was 18.86C)

1961-90 - v1 18.62C / v2 18.17C / raw 18.55C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 19.94% / v2 - 18.03% / raw - 58.69%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 20.28% / v2 - 12.27% / raw - 20.37%

Robe 26026 has annual max temps back to 1885: 1885-1909 = 17.89C

ACORN catalogue: There were issues with the screen door for some years prior to repairs in 1930. There was a very small move (3 m) in October 1943, and documentation also suggests a small move at some point in the decade prior to 1956 but there is no clear evidence of its nature or timing. There was a move 200 m east in November 1968 An automatic weather station (026105) was installed at Robe Airport, 5 km east-southeast of the town, in 2003. It is at an inland location quite different climatically from the town site, so is not expected to be a direct replacement for the town site.

Assuming 2003 was when AWS readings were adopted, 1993-2002 raw max averaged 18.36C and post AWS 2004-2013 averaged 18.63C

Robe max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 robe minimum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 10.83C / v2 10.71C / CDO raw 10.83C

1964-2017 - v1 11.25C / v2 11.29C / CDO raw 11.21C

v1 warmed 0.42C / v2 warmed 0.58C / raw warmed 0.38C

Average change per decade : v1 0.04C / v2 0.06C / raw 0.04C

Robe 2000-2017 - v1 11.39C / v2 11.39C / raw 11.39C (2018 was 11.23C)

1961-90 - v1 11.12C / v2 11.18C / raw 11.06C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 69.93% / v2 - 32.00% / raw - 64.92%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 19.55% / v2 - 19.50% / raw - 19.63%

Robe 26026 has annual min temps back to 1885: 1885-1909 = 10.49C

Assuming 2003 was when AWS readings were adopted, 1993-2002 raw min averaged 11.35C and post AWS 2004-2013 averaged 11.42C

Robe min Excel spreadsheets

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Snowtown

acorn 2 snowtown maximum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 23.14C / v2 22.71C / CDO raw 23.27C

1964-2017 - v1 23.57C / v2 23.55C / CDO raw 23.75C

v1 warmed 0.43C / v2 warmed 0.84C / raw warmed 0.48C

Average change per decade : v1 0.09C / v2 0.14C / raw 0.09C

Snowtown 2000-2017 - v1 24.18C / v2 24.18C / raw 24.19C (2018 was 24.94C)

1961-90 - v1 23.11C / v2 23.14C / raw 23.50C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 18.64% / v2 - 18.16% / raw - 78.10%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 19.67% / v2 - 19.68% / raw - 22.70%

Snowtown 21046 has annual max temps for 1909 = 21.72C

21046 overlap with 21133 23 July 1998 to 29 June 2001 : 21046 24.41C / 21133 23.97C

ACORN catalogue: The former site (021046), which continued until June 2001, was located in the town. Small moves within the town are documented in April 1948, July 1971 and on 4 August 1993 (15 m). The current site has been operating since 1998.

1988-1997 raw max averaged 23.65C and post AWS 1999-2008 averaged 24.15C

Snowtown max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 snowtown minimum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 8.44C / v2 8.14C / CDO raw 9.54C

1964-2017 - v1 8.67C / v2 8.73C / CDO raw 9.53C

v1 warmed 0.23C / v2 warmed 0.59C / raw cooled 0.01C

Average change per decade : v1 0.02C / v2 0.05C / raw -0.09C

Snowtown 2000-2017 - v1 9.01C / v2 8.99C / raw 8.99C (2018 was 8.93C)

1961-90 - v1 8.49C / v2 8.60C / raw 9.87C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 17.11% / v2 - 20.10% / raw - 83.18%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 19.80% / v2 - 19.92% / raw - 21.77%

Snowtown 21046 has annual min temps for 1909 = 8.50C

21046 overlap with 21133 24 July 1998 to 30 June 2001 : 21046 10.42C / 21133 9.03C

1988-1997 raw min averaged 9.96C and post AWS 1999-2008 averaged 8.88C

Snowtown min Excel spreadsheets

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Tarcoola

acorn 2 tarcoola maximum temperatures

1922-1969 - v1 26.61C / v2 26.17C / CDO raw 26.60C

1970-2017 - v1 27.26C / v2 27.01C / CDO raw 27.39C

v1 warmed 0.65C / v2 warmed 0.84C / raw warmed 0.79C

Average change per decade : v1 0.12C / v2 0.17C / raw 0.12C

Tarcoola 2000-2017 - v1 27.68C / v2 27.68C / raw 27.74C (2018 was 28.12C)

1961-90 - v1 26.86C / v2 26.43C / raw 26.96C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 20.70% / v2 - 17.67% / raw - 70.37%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 16.27% / v2 - 16.28% / raw - 20.37%

16044 overlap with 16098 1 October 1997 to 9 August 1999 : 16044 26.64C / 16098 27.64C

ACORN catalogue: The original site (016044) was in the settlement. No documentation is available prior to 1995. A new building was erected in its vicinity in early 1998 and observations ended in August 1999. The current site has been operating since 1997, on mostly flat ground 1.4 km northeast of the original site and at a slightly higher. In its early years the automatic station suffered from numerous data outages due to power supply problems.

1987-1996 raw max averaged 27.48C and post AWS 1998-2007 averaged 27.53C

Tarcoola max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 tarcoola minimum temperatures

1922-1969 - v1 11.40C / v2 10.71C / CDO raw 11.06C

1970-2017 - v1 11.63C / v2 11.83C / CDO raw 11.87C

v1 warmed 0.23C / v2 warmed 1.12C / raw warmed 0.81C

Average change per decade : v1 0.10C / v2 0.26C / raw 0.23C

Tarcoola 2000-2017 - v1 12.16C / v2 12.45C / raw 12.19C (2018 was 12.16C)

1961-90 - v1 11.27C / v2 11.22C / raw 11.67C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 18.33% / v2 - 17.11% / raw - 73.95%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 15.29% / v2 - 9.29% / raw - 18.69%

16044 overlap with 16098 2 October 1997 to 10 August 1999 : 16044 11.57C / 16098 12.34C

1987-1996 raw min averaged 11.74C and post AWS 1998-2007 averaged 12.06C

Tarcoola min Excel spreadsheets

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Woomera

acorn 2 woomera maximum temperatures

1950-1988 - v1 25.56C / v2 25.49C / CDO raw 25.48C

1989-2017 - v1 26.32C / v2 26.40C / CDO raw 26.32C

v1 warmed 0.76C / v2 warmed 0.91C / raw warmed 0.84C

Average change per decade : v1 0.21C / v2 0.24C / raw 0.25C

Woomera 2000-2017 - v1 26.62C / v2 26.66C / raw 26.62C (2018 was 27.17C)

1961-90 - v1 25.61C / v2 25.61C / raw 25.59C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 22.53% / v2 - 17.11% / raw - 26.76%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 12.55% / v2 - 10.17% / raw - 12.56%

ACORN catalogue: TThe site has been operating since 1949, with a documented move of about 75 m in January 1980, and another about 2 km south on 16 May 1991. An automatic weather station was installed in June 1991 and became the primary instrument on 1 November 1996.

1986-1995 raw max averaged 25.75C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 26.30C

Woomera max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 woomera minimum temperatures

1950-1988 - v1 12.45C / v2 12.41C / CDO raw 12.50C

1989-2017 - v1 13.10C / v2 13.08C / CDO raw 13.10C

v1 warmed 0.65C / v2 warmed 0.67C / raw warmed 0.60C

Average change per decade : v1 0.24C / v2 0.24C / raw 0.21C

Woomera 2000-2017 - v1 13.27C / v2 13.27C / raw 13.27C (2018 was 13.30C)

1961-90 - v1 12.65C / v2 12.61C / raw 12.66C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 22.59% / v2 - 18.94% / raw - 30.46%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 12.90% / v2 - 10.90% / raw - 12.92%

1986-1995 raw max averaged 12.72C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 13.13C

Woomera min Excel spreadsheets

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