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ACORN 2.1 influence on New South Wales temperature trends

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In October 2020 the Bureau of Meteorology again rewrote Australia's temperature history with the release of ACORN 2.1, an update to its homogenised ACORN 2 dataset (Australian Climate Observations Reference Network - Surface Air Temperatures) released in late 2018 that significantly increased the rate of climate warming since 1910.

There are 24 ACORN stations in New South Wales. This page analyses the daily temperatures at all 24 weather stations and averages the 12 with a start year of 1910 to ensure a uniform timescale. The other 12 excluded stations have temperature recordings starting in years after 1910, the most recent being Scone and Wyalong with a start year of 1965.

The 12 long-term weather stations analysed on this page (with a start year of 1910) had a 1910-1964 average maximum of 23.54C in ACORN 2 and a 1910-1964 average maximum of 23.54C in ACORN 2.1 - meaning ACORN 2.1 has not altered the historic maxima of ACORN 2.

The 12 long-term weather stations had a 1910-1964 average minimum of 10.53C in ACORN 2 and a 1910-1964 average minimum of 10.61C in ACORN 2.1 - a 0.08C warming of historic minima.

Daily temperatures in ACORN 2.1 and RAW have been annualised, and below are charts showing the difference between the ACORN 2.1 homogenised dataset when compared to original raw annual temperatures. This analysis only allows the inclusion of years within which there were no months with less than 15 days of recorded temperatures, as is the ACORN protocol.

12 New South Wales stations begin in 1910 and end in 2019 in ACORN 2.1 and RAW - Bathurst, Bourke, Cobar, Deniliquin, Inverell, Moruya Heads, Port Macquarie, Sydney, Tibooburra, Wagga Wagga, Walgett and Yamba. The first charts below show maximum and minimum temperature trends at these 12 stations with associated data.

Excel files at the bottom of each station chart and data summary can be downloaded to compare how the ACORN 2.1 algorithms influence daily, monthly and annual temperatures at all 24 sites since 1910.

acorn 2.1 new south wales maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 23.54C / raw 23.58C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 24.05C / raw 23.97C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.51C / raw warmed 0.39C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.10C / raw 0.11C

New South Wales 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 24.65C / raw 24.63C

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 23.71C in ACORN 2.1 and 23.61C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 24.75C in ACORN 2.1 and 24.74C in raw

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 - 23.67C / raw 23.53C

Download Excel spreadsheet for 12 New South Wales weather stations in ACORN 1, ACORN 2.1 and RAW

acorn 2.1 new south wales minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 10.61C / raw 11.38C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 11.49C / raw 11.77C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.88C / raw warmed 0.39C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.11C / raw 0.04C

New South Wales 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 11.90C / raw 11.93C

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 10.98C in ACORN 2.1 and 11.70C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 12.10C in ACORN 2.1 and 12.08C in raw

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 - 11.13C / raw 11.61C

Download Excel spreadsheet for 12 New South Wales weather stations in ACORN 1, ACORN 2.1 and RAW

Station menu

Bathurst, Bourke, Cabramurra, Canberra, Cobar, Coffs Harbour, Deniliquin, Dubbo, Gunnedah, Inverell, Moree, Moruya Heads, Nowra, Point Perpendicular, Port Macquarie, Richmond, Scone, Sydney, Tibooburra, Wagga Wagga, Walgett, Wilcannia, Williamtown, Wyalong, Yamba

Bathurst

acorn 2 bathurst maximum temperatures

1910-1964ACORN 2.1 19.79C / raw 19.50C

1965-2019ACORN 2.1 20.36C / raw 20.24C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.57C / raw warmed 0.74C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.13C / raw 0.22C

Bathurst 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 21.15C / raw 21.15C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 19.73C / raw 19.46C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 18.42% / raw - 58.19%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 14.53% / raw - 21.76%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 19.94C in ACORN 2.1 and 19.03C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 21.25C in ACORN 2.1 and 21.27C in raw

Bathurst 63005 has annual max temps back to 1909: 1909 = 18.16C

ACORN catalogue: Prior to December 1971 the screen did not strictly meet specifications, having single rather than double louvred sides. The site moved 800 m in an unknown direction in July 1950, and 30 m east in November 1978. On 16 April 1996 the site moved 200 m. Parallel observations continued at the old site for two years. The new site initially took a new number (063305) before adopting the original station number (063005) at the end of the comparison; such a sequence is an unusual practice in Australia. A site operated at Bathurst Gaol (063004) from 1858 to 1983 but has not been used in ACORN-SAT.

Bathurst max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 bathurst minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 5.80C / raw 6.90C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 6.39C / raw 6.55C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.59C / raw cooled 0.35C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.12C / raw -0.03C

Bathurst 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 6.70C / raw 6.71C

1961-90 - v1 6.30C / ACORN 2.1 6.14C / raw 6.40C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 20.75% / raw - 64.95%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 15.46% / raw - 24.04%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 5.74C in ACORN 2.1 and 7.23C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 6.89C in ACORN 2.1 and 6.89C in raw

Bathurst 63005 has annual min temps back to 1909: 1909 = 6.91C

Bathurst min Excel spreadsheets

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Bourke

acorn 2 bourke maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 27.40C / raw 27.47C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 27.87C / raw 27.60C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.47C / raw warmed 0.13C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.07C / raw 0.05C

Bourke 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 28.52C / raw 28.34C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 27.42C / raw 27.07C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.22% / raw - 85.82%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.04% / raw - 26.18%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 27.78C in ACORN 2.1 and 27.96C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 28.46C in ACORN 2.1 and 28.41C in raw

Bourke 48013 has annual max temps back to 1878: 1878-1909 = 28.62C

48013 overlap with 48239 11 November 1994 to 14 August 1996 : 48013 27.30C / 48239 27.69C

48239 overlap with 48245 15 December 1998 to 31 January 1999 : 48239 37.37C / 48245 37.23C

ACORN catalogue: Observations were originally made within the Bourke township (048013). This site had trees and buildings nearby and the lawn around the screen was regularly watered. There was a small site move within the Post Office yard in May 1937, and the screen was replaced in November 1964. A site (048239) was established on the southern side of the airport near the terminal building on 11 November 1994. Observations continued there until January 1999. The current site began operations in December 1998, 700 m north of the previous airport location but with only a minimal overlap. These data are used in ACORN-SAT from 1 January 1999.

1989-1998 raw max averaged 27.33C and post AWS 2000-2009 averaged 28.27C

Bourke max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 bourke minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 12.31C / raw 12.92C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 13.10C / raw 13.38C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.79C / raw warmed 0.46C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.17C / raw 0.10C

Bourke 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 13.24C / raw 13.56C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 12.63C / raw 13.18C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.67% / raw - 88.51%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.11% / raw - A29.76%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 12.25C in ACORN 2.1 and 12.82C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 13.95C in ACORN 2.1 and 13.79C in raw

Bourke 48013 has annual min temps back to 1879: 1879-1909 = 12.67C

48013 overlap with 48239 11 November 1994 to 15 August 1996 : 48013 13.90C / 48239 12.83C

48239 overlap with 48245 16 December 1998 to 31 January 1999 : 48239 22.20C / 48245 22.07C

1989-1998 raw min averaged 13.45C and post AWS 2000-2009 averaged 13.44C

Bourke min Excel spreadsheets

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Cabramurra

acorn 2.1 cabramurra maximum temperatures

1962-1990 - ACORN 2.1 11.28C / raw 11.47C

1991-2019 - ACORN 2.1 12.32C / raw 12.37C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 1.04C / raw warmed 0.90C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.38C / raw 0.29C

Cabramurra 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 12.65C / raw 12.65C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.23% / raw - 52.40%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 22.81% / raw - 21.09%

The first decade, 1962-1971, averaged 10.82C in ACORN 2.1 and 11.25C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 12.65C in ACORN 2.1 and 12.65C in raw

72091 overlap with 72161 20 December 1996 to 27 April 1999 : 72091 13.61C / 72161 12.92C

ACORN catalogue: The original site (072091) was about 400 m east of the township on top of a west-facing spur near the turnoff into the town from the Kiandra-Khancoban road. Data are available from this location since 1962, although there is evidence that observations may have been made from 1954 onwards. There are no indications of any moves at this site during its history, although there were more buildings in the vicinity in the 1950s and 1960s than there are now. The site continued temperature observations until April 1999. The automatic weather station (072161) is located 600 m west of the previous site and has been operating since 1996.

1986-1995 raw max averaged 11.49C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 12.66C

See Cabramurra Automatic Weather Station

Cabramurra max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2.1 cabramurra minimum temperatures

1962-1990 - ACORN 2.1 4.44C / raw 3.95C

1991-2019 - ACORN 2.1 5.00C / raw 4.85C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.56C / raw warmed 0.90C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.25C / raw 0.30C

Cabramurra 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 5.21C / raw 5.21C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 19.97% / raw - 58.87%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 22.78% / raw - 22.28%

The first decade, 1962-1971, averaged 4.10C in ACORN 2.1 and 3.87C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 5.29C in ACORN 2.1 and 5.29C in raw

72091 overlap with 72161 21 December 1996 to 28 April 1999 : 72091 4.95C / 72161 5.15C

1986-1995 raw min averaged 3.90C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 4.96C

Cabramurra min Excel spreadsheets

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Canberra

acorn 2.1 canberra maximum temperatures

1940-1979 - ACORN 2.1 19.29C / CDO raw 19.35C

1980-2019 - ACORN 2.1 20.42C / CDO raw 20.45C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 1.13C / raw warmed 1.10C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.26C / raw 0.26C

Canberra 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 21.07C / raw 21.08C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 19.50C / raw 19.56C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.51% / raw - 26.19%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.20% / raw - 11.89%

The first decade, 1940-1949, averaged 19.42C in ACORN 2.1 and 19.47C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 21.25C in ACORN 2.1 and 21.26C in raw

ACORN catalogue: The original site (070014) was on the eastern side of the airport. The data indicate an anomalous warming of minimum temperatures, of about 0.4 °C, in or around 1963, although there are no documented moves or other changes in the vicinity of the site at this time. There are indications in documentation of a possible move in about 1975 but no signal of this in the data. In December 1995 an automatic weather station was installed and the site moved 800 m to the northeast. The old site continued as a comparison for two years as number 070338; the data show no significant impact from the site move. A car park was built near the 070014 site in May 2006, which appears to have had a warming impact on minimum temperatures (largely cancelled out by the 2008 site change).

1985-1994 raw min averaged 19.63C and post AWS 1996-2005 averaged 20.45C

ACORN 2.1 digitises temperatures from 1914 : 1914-1939 = 19.30C

Canberra max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2.1 canberra minimum temperatures

1940-1979 - ACORN 2.1 5.30C / raw 6.19C

1980-2018 - ACORN 2.1 6.33C / raw 6.84C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 1.03C / raw warmed 0.65C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.26C / raw 0.04C

Canberra 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 6.59C / raw 6.92C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 5.73C / raw 6.46C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 18.77% / raw - 30.00%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 9.07% / raw - 11.65%

The first decade, 1940-1949, averaged 4.83C in ACORN 2.1 and 6.39C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 6.63C in ACORN 2.1 and 6.67C in raw

1985-1994 raw min averaged 6.69C and post AWS 1996-2005 averaged 6.85C

ACORN 2.1 digitises temperatures from 1914 : 1914-1939 = 4.70C

Canberra min Excel spreadsheets

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Cobar

acorn 2 cobar maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 24.75C / raw 25.66C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 25.59C / raw 25.49C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.84C / raw cooled 0.17C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.14C / raw 0.08C

Cobar 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 26.26C / raw 26.25C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 25.05C / raw 25.17C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 19.49% / raw - 85.44%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 9.98% / raw - 11.43%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 24.92C in ACORN 2.1 and 25.48C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 26.31C in ACORN 2.1 and 26.31C in raw

Cobar 48030 has annual max temps back to 1897: 1897-1909 = 25.22C

48030 overlap with 48027 21 May 1962 to 31 December 1965 : 48030 26.06C / 48027 24.49C

ACORN catalogue: The original site (048030) was at the Post Office in town, 1.7 km southeast of the current site. There are no clearly documented moves but there is evidence that the Post Office re-opened after a period of closure in 1924, and the data are consistent with a site move at around that time. The Meteorological Office site has been operating since 21 May 1962. An automatic weather station was installed on 1 May 1997. The site moved from the south to the north side of the office on 15 November 2000 (exact distance unclear, but appears to be about 100 m). A new Meteorological Office building was opened in 2005 but the instruments appear to have remained in the same place. There is a separate site (048237) at the airport which is not used in ACORN- SAT.

Assuming the AWS was operational from 1997, 1987-1996 raw min averaged 24.96C and post AWS 1998-2007 averaged 26.03C

Cobar max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 cobar minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 12.70C / raw 11.95C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 13.23C / raw 12.87C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.53C / raw warmed 0.92C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.04C / raw 0.05C

Cobar 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 13.56C / raw 13.24C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 12.93C / raw 12.55C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 18.53% / raw - 85.88%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 9.87% / raw - 11.00%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 13.03C in ACORN 2.1 and 12.84C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 13.42C in ACORN 2.1 and 13.31C in raw

Cobar 48030 has annual min temps back to 1897: 1897-1909 = 12.33C (also some slightly corrupted 1882-1890 = 11.53C)

48030 overlap with 48027 21 May 1962 to 31 December 1965 : 48030 11.57C / 48027 12.14C

Assuming the AWS was operational from 1997, 1987-1996 raw min averaged 12.74C and post AWS 1998-2007 averaged 13.14C

Cobar min Excel spreadsheets

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Coffs Harbour

acorn 2.1 coffs harbour maximum temperatures

1952-1985 - ACORN 2.1 23.39C / raw 23.15C

1986-2019 - ACORN 2.1 23.87C / raw 23.71C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.48C / raw warmed 0.56C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.16C / raw 0.16C

Coffs Harbour 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 23.99C / raw 23.95C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 23.45C / raw 23.12C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.72% / raw - 26.00%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.16% / raw - 11.71%

The first decade, 1952-1961, averaged 23.24C in ACORN 2.1 and 23.22C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 24.15C in ACORN 2.1 and 24.14C in raw

59040 overlap with 59151 9 August 2013 to 26 August 2015 : 59040 24.11C / 59151 24.21C

ACORN catalogue: The site performed temperature observations briefly in 1943 but did not start continuous observations until 1951. There are no clearly documented moves. A new Meteorological Office was opened on 25 September 1967 but it is unclear whether the instruments moved at this time. An automatic weather station was installed on 31 January 1995 and became the primary instrument on 1 November 1996.

1986-1995 raw max averaged 23.40C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 23.64C

Coffs Harbour max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2.1 coffs harbour minimum temperatures

1952-1985 - ACORN 2.1 13.11C / raw 13.77C

1986-2019 - ACORN 2.1 14.20C / raw 14.36C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 1.09C / raw warmed 0.59C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.28C / raw 0.22C

Coffs Harbour 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 14.29C / raw 14.33C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 13.33C / raw 14.05C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 18.45% / raw - 27.55%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 9.97% / raw - 11.71%

The first decade, 1952-1961, averaged 12.83C in ACORN 2.1 and 13.21C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 14.45C in ACORN 2.1 and 14.47C in raw

59040 overlap with 59151 10 August 2013 to 27 August 2015 : 59040 14.40C / 59151 14.25C

1986-1995 raw min averaged 14.34C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 14.40C

Coffs Harbour min Excel spreadsheets

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Deniliquin

acorn 2 deniliquin maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 22.48C / raw 22.79C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 23.14C / raw 23.18C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.66C / raw warmed 0.39C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.13C / raw 0.10C

Deniliquin 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 23.79C / raw 23.81C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 22.72C / raw 22.80C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 18.89% / raw - 72.73%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 21.03% / raw - 10.32%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 22.58C in ACORN 2.1 and 22.95C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 23.90C in ACORN 2.1 and 23.90C in raw

Deniliquin 74128 has annual max temps back to 1859: 1859-1861 + 1863 + 1868 + 1870-1909 = 24.81C

74128 overlap with 74258 3 June 1997 to 29 June 2003 : 74128 23.42C / 74258 23.30C

ACORN catalogue: The original site (074128) was located in the town area, with the site becoming built up from about 1950 onwards. The site moved 1 km northwest in September 1971, then moved to the airport (3.7 km south) in September 1984. Temperature observations continued at this location until 2003. The site number continues to be used for rainfall observations but these are made at a different location. The current site is about 500 m south of the last position of the previous site. It has been operating since May 1997.

1992-2001 raw max averaged 22.88C and post AWS 2003-2012 averaged 23.51C

Deniliquin max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 deniliquin minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 8.72C / raw 10.07C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 9.23C / raw 9.65C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.51C / raw cooled 0.42C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.08C / raw -0.04C

Deniliquin 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 9.58C / raw 9.66C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 8.99C / raw 9.75C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 16.70% / raw - 79.64%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 21.51% / raw - 13.04%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 8.84C in ACORN 2.1 and 10.12C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 9.68C in ACORN 2.1 and 9.68C in raw

Deniliquin 74128 has annual min temps back to 1859: 1868 + 1875-1905 + 11907-1909 = 8.41C

74128 overlap with 74258 4 June 1997 to 30 June 2003 : 74128 9.74C / 74258 9.28C

1992-2001 raw min averaged 9.60C and post AWS 2003-2012 averaged 9.50C

Deniliquin min Excel spreadsheets

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Dubbo

acorn 2.1 dubbo maximum temperatures

1921-1969 - ACORN 2.1 23.66C / raw 24.09C

1970-2019 - ACORN 2.1 24.46C / raw 24.43C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.80C / raw warmed 0.34C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.17C / raw 0.07C

Dubbo 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 25.05C / raw 25.03C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 23.89C / raw 23.91C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.21% / raw - 84.65%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.58% / raw - 12.59%

The first decade, 1921-1930, averaged 23.70C in ACORN 2.1 and 24.65C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 25.25C in ACORN 2.1 and 25.25C in raw

65012 overlap with 65070 16 January 1993 to 22 December 1999 : 65012 24.16C / 65070 23.68C

ACORN catalogue: The original site (065012) was in numerous locations near the town centre. Site moves are documented in 1921, April 1929, April 1938 (probably very small with installation of a new screen), July 1953 (‘next door‘, probably less than 30 m), November 1969 (15 m), January 1978 (150 m west) and February 1982 (300 m southwest). Most of these moves were necessitated by buildings in the vicinity of the site. There was a more significant move of 5 km northwest on 22 October 1986, placing it on the outer fringe of Dubbo where it remained until ceasing observations in January 2000. The airport site (065070) has been operating since 16 January 1993, about 1 km southeast of the previous site’s final location.

1990-1999 raw max averaged 24.03C and post AWS 2001-2010 averaged 24.82C

Dubbo max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2.1 dubbo minimum temperatures

1921-1969 - ACORN 2.1 9.25C / raw 10.56C

1970-2019 - ACORN 2.1 10.13C / raw 10.39C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.88C / raw cooled 0.17C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.15C / raw 0.05C

Dubbo 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 10.36C / raw 10.36C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 9.82C / raw 10.63C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 18.84% / raw - 87.97%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 9.74% / raw - 13.56%

The first decade, 1921-1930, averaged 9.11C in ACORN 2.1 and 9.99C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 10.47C in ACORN 2.1 and 10.47C in raw

65012 overlap with 65070 16 January 1993 to 23 December 1999 : 65012 10.04C / 65070 9.96C

1990-1999 raw min averaged 10.09C and post AWS 2001-2010 averaged 10.33C

Dubbo min Excel spreadsheets

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Gunnedah

acorn 2.1 gunnedah maximum temperatures

1949-1983 - ACORN 2.1 24.28C / raw 24.28C

1984-2019 - ACORN 2.1 24.99C / raw 24.99C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.71C / raw warmed 0.71C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.24C / raw 0.24C

Gunnedah 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 25.43C / raw 25.43C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 24.35C / raw 24.35C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 30.92% / raw - 30.91%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 9.85% / raw - 9.86%

The first decade, 1949-1958, averaged 24.16C in ACORN 2.1 and 24.16C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 25.60C in ACORN 2.1 and 25.60C in raw

Apart from the manual 55024, Gunnedah has an AWS 55202 also operating at the airport from 14 September 2001 to 31 December 2018 : 55024 25.54C / 55202 26.21C

ACORN catalogue: There is no evidence of any moves at this site since its opening in 1948. Two other sites have operated in the Gunnedah area: an automatic weather station at the airport (055202), and a town site (055023) which is currently at the swimming pool and ceased temperature measurements at the end of 2011. The town site had been operating since the 19th century but suffered from repeated and persistent problems, especially before 1950, and was not considered suitable to extend the record from the research farm backwards in time.

Gunnedah max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2.1 gunnedah minimum temperatures

1949-1983 - ACORN 2.1 11.88C / raw 11.88C

1984-2019 - ACORN 2.1 12.52C / raw 12.53C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.64C / raw warmed 0.65C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.19C / raw 0.19C

Gunnedah 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 12.69C / raw 12.70C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 12.05C / raw 12.05C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 33.50% / raw - 33.50%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.05% / raw - 10.03%

The first decade, 1949-1958, averaged 11.63C in ACORN 2.1 and 11.63C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 12.77C in ACORN 2.1 and 12.78C in raw

Apart from the manual 55024, Gunnedah has an AWS 55202 also operating at the airport from 15 September 2001 to 31 December 2018 : 55024 12.70C / 55202 10.17C

Gunnedah min Excel spreadsheets

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Inverell

acorn 2 inverell maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 23.19C / raw 23.79C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 23.81C / raw 24.01C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.62C / raw warmed 0.22C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.14C / raw 0.10C

Inverell 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 24.39C / raw 24.39C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 23.36C / raw 23.84C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 19.83% / raw - 80.74%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 11.22% / raw - 12.72%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 23.21C in ACORN 2.1 and 23.60C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 24.59C in ACORN 2.1 and 24.59C in raw

Inverell 56017 has annual max temps back to 1875: 1875-1876 + 1879-1884 + 1886-1909 = 22.87C

56017 overlap with 56242 1 March 1995 to 25 November 1997 : 56017 23.07C / 56242 22.94C

ACORN catalogue: The original site (056017) was within the Post Office grounds. Louvres on the screen were repaired in July 1940. Site diagrams indicate that a new building was built just to the south at some point between 1944 and 1950; data and comments on file suggest 1949. There was a move of a few metres (into a more enclosed location) within the Post Office grounds on 7 July 1961. On 20 September 1967 it moved about 100 m southwest to a more open location near the library on the northeast bank of the river. The current site (056242) has been operating at its present location since 1 March 1995. The Inverell town is located in a valley which is well-suited for cold air drainage. Another site (056018) operates at a research farm on a ridge approximately 2 km west of the town. That site has minimum temperatures which are consistently warmer than the town, especially in winter when typical differences are 3–4°C.

Inverell max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 inverell minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 5.99C / raw 7.47C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 7.32C / raw 7.76C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 1.33C / raw warmed 0.29C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.23C / raw 0.08C

Inverell 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 7.71C / raw 7.74C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 6.90C / raw 7.79C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.50% / raw - 80.83%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 12.30% / raw - 17.68%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 5.97C in ACORN 2.1 and 7.47C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 8.22C in ACORN 2.1 and 8.24C in raw

Inverell 56017 has annual max temps back to 1875: 1875-1876 + 1880 + 1882-1884 + 1886-1909 = 7.71C

56017 overlap with 56242 1 March 1995 to 26 November 1997 : 56017 7.06C / 56242 6.24C

Inverell min Excel spreadsheets

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Moree

acorn 2.1 moree maximum temperatures

1912-1965 - ACORN 2.1 26.82C / raw 27.19C

1966-2019 - ACORN 2.1 26.73C / raw 26.45C

ACORN 2.1 cooled 0.09C / raw cooled 0.74C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.04C / raw 0.00C

Moree 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 27.38C / raw 27.14C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 26.33C / raw 26.13C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 18.57% / raw - 89.47%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.67% / raw - 10.86%

The first decade, 1912-1921, averaged 27.19C in ACORN 2.1 and 27.36C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 27.55C in ACORN 2.1 and 27.39C in raw

53027 overlap with 53048 26 March 1964 to 31 December 1965 : 53027 26.50C / 53048 25.59C

53048 overlap with 53115 17 May 1995 to 31 August 1998 : 53048 25.66C / 53115 25.66C

ACORN catalogue:Early Moree observations were associated with the Post Office in the town area (053027). There is evidence of a possible small move when the screen was replaced in June 1950 but otherwise there are no documented moves. Observations have been made at the Post Office since the 19th century, but pre-1957 data are not currently included in ACORN-SAT as the digitisation of the daily data is being redone. Observations at the Post Office ceased at the end of 1965. The first airport site (053048) commenced operations in March 1964 and continued until August 1998. The current automatic weather station has been operating since 17 May 1995, 1.2 km southeast of the previous site.

1985-1994 raw max averaged 26.04C and post AWS 1996-2005 averaged 26.55C

Moree max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2.1 moree minimum temperatures

1912-1965 - ACORN 2.1 11.34C / raw 11.73C

1966-2019 - ACORN 2.1 12.48C / raw 12.50C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 1.14C / raw warmed 0.77C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.19C / raw 0.11C

Moree 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 12.93C / raw 12.69C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 12.11C / raw 12.20C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.24% / raw - 88.69%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.93% / raw - 10.91%

The first decade, 1912-1921, averaged 11.19C in ACORN 2.1 and 12.02C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 13.06C in ACORN 2.1 and 13.06C in raw

53027 overlap with 53048 26 March 1964 to 31 December 1965 : 53027 10.92C / 53048 10.11C

53048 overlap with 53115 18 May 1995 to 31 August 1998 : 53048 12.38C / 53115 11.58C

1985-1994 raw max averaged 12.57C and post AWS 1996-2005 averaged 12.35C

Moree min Excel spreadsheets

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Moruya Heads

acorn 2 moruya heads maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 19.98C / raw 19.78C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 20.44C / raw 20.42C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.46C / raw warmed 0.64C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.07C / raw 0.08C

Moruya Heads 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 20.80C / raw 20.81C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 20.25C / raw 20.13C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 22.80% / raw - 64.52%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 22.13% / raw - 22.14%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 20.14C in ACORN 2.1 and 20.02C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 20.82C in ACORN 2.1 and 20.82C in raw

ACORN catalogue: The site has been in the Pilot Station grounds since at least the start of ACORN-SAT in 1910. The only documented move was ’a few feet‘ south, in October 1966. An automatic weather station was installed at Moruya Airport (069148) in 1999. While the airport site (which is on flat ground on the other side of the Moruya River) is less than 2 km inland, under certain conditions the temperature differences between Moruya Airport and Moruya Heads can be dramatic due to the role the coastal ridge can play in blocking marine air from penetrating further inland. Minimum temperature differences of 5 °C or more between the sites on cold nights in the cooler months are a regular occurrence. Due to these large climatic differences it is unlikely the airport site will supersede the current Moruya Heads site in the foreseeable future.

1989-1998 raw max averaged 20.12C and post AWS 2000-2009 averaged 20.79C

Moruya Heads max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 moruya heads minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 10.69C / raw 11.19C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 11.65C / raw 11.65C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.96C / raw warmed 0.46C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.16C / raw 0.10C

Moruya Heads 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 12.09C / raw 12.09C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 11.26C / raw 11.27C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 25.85% / raw - 64.90%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 19.66% / raw - 19.66%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 10.59C in ACORN 2.1 and 11.21C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 12.18C in ACORN 2.1 and 12.18C in raw

1989-1998 raw min averaged 11.64C and post AWS 2000-2009 averaged 12.02C

Moruya Heads min Excel spreadsheets

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Nowra

acorn 2.1 nowra maximum temperatures

1956-1987 - ACORN 2.1 21.71C / raw 21.32C

1988-2019 - ACORN 2.1 22.25C / raw 22.02C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.54C / raw warmed 0.70C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.21C / raw 0.28C

Nowra 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 22.52C / raw 22.45C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 21.73C / raw 21.34C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 18.21% / raw - 27.84%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 9.96% / raw - 14.83%

The first decade, 1956-1965, averaged 21.50C in ACORN 2.1 and 21.12C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 20.62C in ACORN 2.1 and 22.62C in raw

ACORN catalogue: There is no evidence of any moves during the lifetime of the original site (068076). The first available data are from 1955, although there are indications in station documentation that observations were already being made in 1949. It closed in November 2000 with no overlap with the new site, but comparisons with neighbouring sites indicate no evidence of any significant differences in data between the two sites. The current site has been operating since November 2000, about 800 m west-southwest of the previous site. There are suggestions in the documentation that an automatic weather station had been operating near the present location for some time prior to 2000, but no data have been archived and it is unknown if the system was consistent with Bureau specifications.

1990-1999 raw max averaged 21.36C and post AWS 2001-2010 averaged 22.24C

Nowra max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2.1 moruya heads minimum temperatures

1956-1987 - ACORN 2.1 11.08C / CDO raw 11.26C

1988-2019 - ACORN 2.1 11.51C / CDO raw 11.51C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.43C / raw warmed 0.25C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.18C / raw 0.08C

Nowra 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 11.57C / raw 11.57C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 11.17C / raw 11.26C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 19.83% / raw - 28.20%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.39% / raw - 15.60%

The first decade, 1956-1965, averaged 10.77C in ACORN 2.1 and 11.31C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 11.76C in ACORN 2.1 and 11.76C in raw

1990-1999 raw min averaged 11.34C and post AWS 2001-2010 averaged 11.39C

Nowra min Excel spreadsheets

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Point Perpendicular

acorn 2.1 point perpendicular maximum temperatures

1946-1982 - ACORN 2.1 19.91C / raw 19.82C

1983-2019 - ACORN 2.1 20.42C / raw 20.41C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.51C / raw warmed 0.59C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.19C / raw 0.21C

Point Perpendicular 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 20.72C / raw 20.72C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 20.02C / raw 19.97C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.56% / raw - 95.13%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 18.22% / raw - 18.78%

The first decade, 1946-1955, averaged 19.61C in ACORN 2.1 and 19.51C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 20.83C in ACORN 2.1 and 22.83C in raw

68034 overlap with 68151 21 May 2001 to 29 June 2004 : 68034 20.42C / 68151 20.40C

ACORN catalogue: There are no documented moves at the original site (068034) during the course of ACORN-SAT. Digitised data at this location commence in 1946 but it is believed that observations extend back to at least 1924. A new screen was installed in November 1960, replacing one in poor repair. The current automatic weather station was established on 21 May 2001, just 3 m from the previous site. Overlapping observations continued until 15 August 2003; the comparison revealed no differences between the two sites, despite the presence of a concrete slab under the screen of the old site. The manual thermometers were transferred to the screen of 068151 and continued to be read as 068034 until June 2004.

1991-2000 raw averaged 20.12C and post AWS 2002-2011 averaged 20.58C

Point Perpendicular max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2.1 point perpendicular minimum temperatures

1946-1982 - ACORN 2.1 13.55C / raw 13.60C

1983-2019 - ACORN 2.1 14.15C / raw 14.10C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.60C / raw warmed 0.50C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.16C / raw 0.15C

Point Perpendicular 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 14.29C / raw 14.27C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 13.72C / raw 13.74C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 30.09% / raw - 95.80%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 21.15% / raw - 21.23%

The first decade, 1946-1955, averaged 13.44C in ACORN 2.1 and 13.50C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 14.48C in ACORN 2.1 and 14.48C in raw

68034 overlap with 68151 22 May 2001 to 30 June 2004 : 68034 13.85C / 68151 13.90C

1991-2000 raw averaged 13.82C and post AWS 2002-2011 averaged 14.18C

Point Perpendicular min Excel spreadsheets

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Port Macquarie

acorn 2 port macquarie maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 22.68C / raw 21.95C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 23.46C / raw 23.03C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.78C / raw warmed 1.08C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.15C / raw 0.21C

Port Macquarie 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 23.96C / raw 23.96C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 22.96C / raw 22.22C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 20.34% / raw - 66.93%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 11.75% / raw - 22.53%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 22.69C in ACORN 2.1 and 22.12C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 24.18C in ACORN 2.1 and 24.18C in raw

60026 overlap with 60139 25 July 1995 to 26 October 2003 : 60026 22.71 / 60139 23.41C

ACORN catalogue: The original site (060026) was located near the Pilot Station, close to the ocean on the eastern edge of the town centre. There was a move 90 m seaward (the exact direction is unclear) in January 1939, and a move 18 m to the southwest on 4 September 1968. On 6 October 1983, the site moved about 1 km south to a location in suburban Hill Street, about 1.5 km south of the city centre and approximately 700 m inland from the ocean. This location was less exposed to the ocean than this distance suggests because it was in a local hollow, and a ridge separated it from the beach. Temperature observations there ceased in October 2003. The site number 060026 continues to be used for rainfall observations but these are in a different location to the pre-2003 temperature observations. The current site (060139) is located on the southeast side of the airport runway. It began operations in 1995 but has only been used in the ACORN- SAT dataset from January 2000 because of some issues with its early data.

1990-1999 raw averaged 22.78C and post AWS 2001-2010 averaged 23.77C

Port Macquarie max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 port macquarie minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 10.88C / raw 12.72C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 12.24C / raw 13.25C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 1.36C / raw warmed 0.53C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.18C / raw -0.02C

Port Macquarie 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 12.66C / raw 12.66C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 11.73C / raw 13.45C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 18.95% / raw - 70.38%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 12.56% / raw - 23.02%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 11.13C in ACORN 2.1 and 13.04C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 12.89C in ACORN 2.1 and 12.89C in raw

60026 overlap with 60139 26 July 1995 to 27 October 2003 : 60026 14.00C / 60139 12.60C

1990-1999 raw averaged 13.89C and post AWS 2001-2010 averaged 12.51C

Port Macquarie min Excel spreadsheets

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Richmond

acorn 2.1 richmond maximum temperatures

1943-1981 - ACORN 2.1 24.05C / raw 23.70C

1982-2019 - ACORN 2.1 24.63C / raw 24.15C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.58C / raw warmed 0.45C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.16C / raw 0.16C

Richmond 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 24.92C / raw 24.49C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 24.17C / raw 23.73C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 19.10% / raw - 28.21%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.56% / raw - 18.66%

The first decade, 1943-1952, averaged 23.99C in ACORN 2.1 and 23.76C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 25.07C in ACORN 2.1 and 24.83C in raw

67033 overlap with 67105 21 October 1993 to 31 October 1994 : 67033 24.44C / 67105 24.48C

ACORN catalogue: The original site (067033) was also within the grounds of the RAAF base. It moved in May 1969. The automatic weather station (067105) was installed in late 1993 about 400 m northwest of the previous site. It was initially erratic and is not used in ACORN-SAT until the old site closed on 1 November 1994. There is a another site (067021) which operated in the first half of the century at Windsor, and may be able to be used to extend the dataset back in time once its data are digitised. The region is a major growth corridor for Sydney and there is evidence of anomalous warming of minimum temperatures in recent years.

1984-1993 raw averaged 23.66C and post AWS 1995-2004 averaged 23.99C

Richmond max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2.1 richmond minimum temperatures

1943-1981 - ACORN 2.1 10.31C / raw 11.12C

1982-2019 - ACORN 2.1 11.05C / raw 11.17C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.74C / raw warmed 0.05C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.24C / raw 0.10C

Richmond 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 11.17C / raw 11.12C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 10.54C / raw 11.14C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 18.41% / raw - 31.31%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.23% / raw - 18.97%

The first decade, 1943-1952, averaged 9.73C in ACORN 2.1 and 10.69C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 11.35C in ACORN 2.1 and 11.34C in raw

1984-1993 raw averaged 11.35C and post AWS 1995-2004 averaged 10.98C

Richmond min Excel spreadsheets

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Scone

acorn 2.1 scone maximum temperatures

1965-1991 - ACORN 2.1 23.80C / raw 23.89C

1992-2019 - ACORN 2.1 24.51C / raw 24.57C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.71C / raw warmed 0.68C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.34C / raw 0.29C

Scone 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 24.86C / raw 24.88C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 20.44% / raw - 29.15%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 13.97% / raw - 14.91%

The first decade, 1965-1974, averaged 23.71C in ACORN 2.1 and 23.93C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 25.25C in ACORN 2.1 and 25.25C in raw

61089 overlap with 61363 1 July 1990 to 31 December 2017 : 61089 24.44C / 61363 24.37C

ACORN catalogue: The original site (061089) was at the Scone Soil Conservation Research station, a research farm 8 km east-southeast of the town. There was only one small move (90 m east) in January 1978, which had no significant effect on the observations. This site continues to operate but has only been used in ACORN-SAT to the end of 2000. The airport site (061363) is about 10 km from the previous site. It has been operating since 1988 and has been used in ACORN-SAT since January 1997. It moved 500 m west on 9 December 2004. There was also a site (061069) in the town area which operated until 1991. This site has not been used in ACORN-SAT but might be used to extend the record back once its pre-1965 data have been digitised.

1990-1999 raw averaged 23.81C and post AWS 2001-2010 averaged 24.50C

Scone max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2.1 scone minimum temperatures

1965-1991 - ACORN 2.1 9.41C / raw 11.06C

1992-2019 - ACORN 2.1 10.08C / raw 10.49C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.67C / raw cooled 0.57C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.29C / raw -0.15C

Scone 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 10.19C / raw 10.26C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.46% / raw - 31.46%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 9.82% / raw - 12.25%

The first decade, 1965-1974, averaged 9.07C in ACORN 2.1 and 11.02C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 10.36C in ACORN 2.1 and 10.36C in raw

61089 overlap with 61363 2 July 1990 to 31 December 2017 : 61089 10.84C / 61363 9.98C

1990-1999 raw averaged 11.16C and post AWS 2001-2010 averaged 10.08C

Scone min Excel spreadsheets

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Sydney

acorn 2 sydney maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 22.41C / raw 21.69C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 22.94C / raw 22.53C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.53C / raw warmed 0.84C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.06C / raw 0.17C

Sydney 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 23.24C / raw 23.12C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 22.79C / raw 22.15C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.40% / raw - 26.41%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 9.99% / raw - 10.34%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 22.76C in ACORN 2.1 and 21.60C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 23.36C in ACORN 2.1 and 23.32C in raw

Sydney 66062 has annual max temps back to 1859: 1859-1909 = 20.98C

ACORN catalogue: Originally the site was in the main Observatory grounds. It moved about 100 m south to its current location in 1917. The earlier site was a more exposed location on a hilltop and had lower maximum and higher minimum temperatures than the current location. An automatic weather station was installed at the current site on 8 August 1990. The area is heavily built-up and has been since at least the late 19th century. An analysis of minimum temperature trends in the ACORN- SAT data showed no evidence of an abnormal warming trend relative to non- urban sites in the region, indicating that any urban influence on the data was already fully developed by the time ACORN-SAT begins in 1910.

1986-1995 raw max averaged 20.12C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 20.14C

Assuming AWS became operational in 1990, 1980-1989 raw max averaged 22.29C and post AWS 1991-2000 averaged 22.31C

Sydney max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 sydney minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 14.05C / raw 13.58C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 14.57C / raw 14.50C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.52C / raw warmed 0.92C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.08C / raw 0.14C

Sydney 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 14.86C / raw 14.86C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 14.34C / raw 14.22C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.61% / raw - 28.10%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 9.26% / raw - 10.77%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 14.22C in ACORN 2.1 and 13.64C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 15.01C in ACORN 2.1 and 15.01C in raw

Sydney 66062 has annual min temps back to 1859: 1859-1909 = 13.37C

Assuming AWS became operational in 1990, 1980-1989 raw min averaged 14.47C and post AWS 1991-2000 averaged 14.36C

Sydney min Excel spreadsheets

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Tibooburra

acorn 2 tibooburra maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 27.13C / raw 27.28C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 27.65C / raw 27.68C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.52C / raw warmed 0.40C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.13C / raw 0.12C

Tibooburra 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 28.40C / raw 28.37C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 27.16C / raw 27.16C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.38% / raw - 91.22%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 9.97% / raw - 11.92%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 27.01C in ACORN 2.1 and 27.10C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 28.34C in ACORN 2.1 and 28.33C in raw

46037 overlap with 46126 23 September 1997 to 8 January 2015 : 46037 28.22C / 46126 28.09C

ACORN catalogue: The site has had a number of moves over time. There is evidence of a move in November 1944 and a small move in 1960. A 500 m move to the southwest occurred in August 1980, and there is evidence of a move of a few metres some time between 1981 and 1984. There were moves of a few metres in September 1994 and of 15 m to the south in July 1996, to place the screen away from areas of bluestone landscaping and concrete, although neither move has had a significant impact on the observations. Minimum temperatures at Tibooburra suffered from persistent problems (most likely instrument faults) in the 1940s and most 1941–1949 minimum temperature data have not been used. An automatic weather station (046126) has been operating at Tibooburra Airport, about 5 km to the east, since September 1997. This may eventually supersede the existing manual site.

Tibooburra max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 tibooburra minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 13.56C / raw 13.57C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 14.48C / raw 14.48C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.92C / raw warmed 0.91C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.09C / raw 0.11C

Tibooburra 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 15.02C / raw 15.02C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 14.04C / raw 13.98C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 18.32% / raw - 89.83%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.42% / raw - 15.10%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 14.11C in ACORN 2.1 and 13.96C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 15.03C in ACORN 2.1 and 15.00C in raw

46037 overlap with 46126 24 September 1997 to 9 January 2015 : 46037 14.95C / 46126 15.00C

Tibooburra min Excel spreadsheets

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Wagga Wagga

acorn 2 wagga wagga maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 22.17C / raw 22.67C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 22.62C / raw 22.49C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.45C / raw cooled 0.18C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.08C / raw -0.01C

Wagga Wagga 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 23.26C / raw 23.25C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 22.18C / raw 21.97C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.75% / raw - 57.04%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 9.65% / raw - 11.35%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 22.45C in ACORN 2.1 and 23.21C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 23.20C in ACORN 2.1 and 23.20C in raw

Wagga Wagga 72151 has annual max temps back to 1872 : 1872-1873 + 1880-1884 + 1886-1906 + 1908-1909 = 24.22C

72151 overlap with 72150 17 January 1942 to 31 December 1950 : 72151 22.60C / 72150 21.60C

ACORN catalogue: The original site (072151) was in the Wagga Wagga town area. It was initially at the Post Office but moved to police station grounds in July 1925. There was a further move in April 1928. The screen was initially facing east before being reoriented in October 1933. Temperatures were observed at this location until 1953. Rainfall observations continued under the same site number until 1984 but moved to a different location in the suburb of Kooringal, southeast of the town centre. The airport site (072150) started operating in 1943. A grain shed to the northeast, built in 1969 and removed in 1999, cast shadows over the site after sunrise in mid-winter. The automatic weather station was installed on 21 October 1994 and became the primary instrument on 1 November 1996.

1986-1995 raw max averaged 21.98C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 23.02C

Wagga Wagga max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 wagga wagga minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 7.50C / raw 9.40C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 8.84C / raw 9.08C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 1.34C / raw cooled 0.32C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.20C / raw 0.04C

Wagga Wagga 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 9.43C / raw 9.45C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 8.36C / raw 8.86C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.37% / raw - 65.47%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.48% / raw - 12.71%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 7.71C in ACORN 2.1 and 9.24C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 9.66C in ACORN 2.1 and 9.67C in raw

Wagga Wagga 72151 has annual min temps back to 1872: 1872-1876 + 1879-1884 + 1886-1900 + 1902-1909 = 8.53C

72151 overlap with 72150 18 January 1942 to 31 December 1950 : 72151 9.8C / 72150 9.40C

1986-1995 raw min averaged 8.99C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 9.08C

Wagga Wagga min Excel spreadsheets

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Walgett

acorn 2 walgett maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 26.42C / raw 26.91C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 27.07C / raw 27.46C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.65C / raw warmed 0.55C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.14C / raw 0.14C

Walgett 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 28.00C / raw 28.08C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 26.39C / raw 27.10C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.56% / raw - 82.07%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.12% / raw - 29.33%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 26.81C in ACORN 2.1 and 26.72C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 28.17C in ACORN 2.1 and 28.17C in raw

Walgett 52026 has annual max temps back to 1879: 1879-1880 + 1884 + 1886 + 1888-1902 + 1904-1906 + 1908-1909 = 26.41C

52026 overlap with 52088 1 June 1993 to 30 June 1993 : 52026 18.30C / 52088 17.78C

ACORN catalogue: The original site (052026) was located within the town area. There may have been a small move in August 1960 when the screen was replaced. There are documented moves in November 1962 and October 1971, the latter putting it near the shire offices where it remained until closing in 1993. The airport site (052088) began operations on 2 June 1993, with no useful overlap with the town site. There was a site move to the other side of the airport on 21 May 1997 when the automatic weather station was installed.

Assuming 1997 was when AWS readings were adopted, 1987-1996 raw max averaged 27.06C and post AWS 1998-2007 averaged 27.77C

Walgett max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 walgett minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 10.46C / raw 12.29C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 11.62C / raw 12.51C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 1.16C / raw warmed 0.22C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.15C / raw -0.02C

Walgett 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 12.04C / raw 12.04C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 11.17C / raw 12.88C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 18.52% / raw - 82.97%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 21.52% / raw - 29.29%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 10.73C in ACORN 2.1 and 12.43C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 12.22C in ACORN 2.1 and 12.22C in raw

Walgett 52026 has annual min temps back to 1879: 1879-1880 + 1884 + 1885-1906 + 1908-1909 = 12.33C

52026 overlap with 52088 1 June 1993 to 30 June 1993 : 52026 6.02C / 52088 4.95C (but 52026 19 days and 52088 30 days)

Assuming 1997 was when AWS readings were adopted, 1987-1996 raw min averaged 12.77C and post AWS 1998-2007 averaged 11.91C

Walgett min Excel spreadsheets

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Wilcannia

acorn 2.1 wilcannia maximum temperatures

1957-1987 - ACORN 2.1 26.47C / raw 26.78C

1988-2019 - ACORN 2.1 27.03C / raw 27.07C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.56C / raw warmed 0.29C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.18C / raw 0.15C

Wilcannia 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 27.37C / raw 27.37C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 26.46C / raw 26.78C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 15.49% / raw - 99.72%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 6.87% / raw - 12.68%

The first decade, 1957-1966, averaged 26.47C in ACORN 2.1 and 26.62C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 27.44C in ACORN 2.1 and 27.43C in raw

46043 overlap with 46012 20 January 2000 to 9 January 2015 : 46043 27.22C / 46012 27.23C

ACORN catalogue: The site was originally in the town centre. It is possible that there were site moves at points in the 1960s and the 1980s. The documentation is inconclusive but the data indicate a move or other event around 1965–1966. The site became somewhat cluttered with nearby buildings, fences and cars in its later years, before a move about 700 m southwest to its present location on 1 December 1993. An automatic weather station (046012) has been operating at Wilcannia Airport, 4.5 km north of the town, since January 2000. It may eventually supersede the existing manual site.

2012-2014 raw max averaged 27.95C and post AWS 2016-2018 averaged 27.80C

Wilcannia max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2.1 wilcannia minimum temperatures

1957-1987 - ACORN 2.1 10.84C / raw 12.12C

1988-2019 - ACORN 2.1 11.81C / raw 12.20C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.97C / raw warmed 0.08C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.24C / raw 0.00C

Wilcannia 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 11.92C / raw 12.16C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 10.99C / raw 12.19C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.09% / raw - 99.75%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 9.94% / raw - 16.34%

The first decade, 1957-1966, averaged 10.69C in ACORN 2.1 and 12.14C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 11.96C in ACORN 2.1 and 12.12C in raw

46043 overlap with 46012 21 January 2000 to 10 January 2015 : 46043 12.07C / 46012 12.04C

2012-2014 raw min averaged 11.96C and post AWS 2016-2018 averaged 12.33C

Wilcannia min Excel spreadsheets

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Williamtown

acorn 2.1 williamtown maximum temperatures

1951-1984 - ACORN 2.1 23.07C / raw 22.80C

1985-2019 - ACORN 2.1 23.61C / raw 23.60C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.54C / raw warmed 0.80C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.22C / raw 0.30C

Williamtown 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 23.97C / raw 23.96C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 23.11C / raw 22.95C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 16.43% / raw - 31.69%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 9.49% / raw - 12.83%

The first decade, 1951-1960, averaged 22.94C in ACORN 2.1 and 22.47C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 24.24C in ACORN 2.1 and 24.24C in raw

ACORN catalogue: There is little available documentation prior to the 1990s. A comparison site (061379) operated in the late 1990s in anticipation of a site move which never took place. The automatic weather station was installed on 9 July 1999. There was a site move of about 250 m southwest on 15 February 2005. The old site continued as a comparison under the number 061407 but the comparison was terminated after a few months because development around the old site made it no longer representative of its former state, and the overlap data were not used to merge the sites.

1989-1998 raw max averaged 23.11C and post AWS 2000-2009 averaged 23.69C

Williamtown max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2.1 williamtown minimum temperatures

1951-1984 - ACORN 2.1 11.55C / raw 12.29C

1985-2019 - ACORN 2.1 12.45C / raw 12.59C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.90C / raw warmed 0.30C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.25C / raw 0.08C

Williamtown 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 12.60C / raw 12.60C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 11.73C / raw 12.30C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.92% / raw - 33.73%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.25% / raw - 11.85%

The first decade, 1951-1960, averaged 11.37C in ACORN 2.1 and 12.38C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 12.88C in ACORN 2.1 and 12.88C in raw

1989-1998 raw min averaged 12.67C and post AWS 2000-2009 averaged 12.32C

Williamtown min Excel spreadsheets

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Wyalong

acorn 2.1 wyalong maximum temperatures

1965-1991 - ACORN 2.1 22.70C / raw 23.26C

1992-2019 - ACORN 2.1 23.79C / raw 24.05C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 1.09C / raw warmed 0.79C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.40C / raw 0.28C

Wyalong 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 24.18C / raw 24.44C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 15.53% / raw - 68.84%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.86% / raw - 17.32%

The first decade, 1965-1974, averaged 22.54C in ACORN 2.1 and 23.17C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 24.33C in ACORN 2.1 and 24.42C in raw

73054 overlap with 50017 10 April 1999 to 9 January 2015 : 73054 24.14C / 50017 23.90C

ACORN catalogue: The site moved about 90 m on 14 December 1966, and there was a small move within the same yard on 26 February 1986. An automatic weather station (050017) has been operating since April 1999 at West Wyalong Airport, 2 km south of West Wyalong and 4.4 km west- southwest of the current site.

2012-2014 raw max averaged 24.49C and post AWS 2016-2018 averaged 24.80C

Wyalong max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2.1 wyalong minimum temperatures

1965-1991 - ACORN 2.1 9.60C / raw 9.77C

1992-2019 - ACORN 2.1 9.98C / raw 10.62C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.38C / raw warmed 0.85C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.17C / raw 0.28C

Wyalong 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 10.17C / raw 10.76C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 19.46% / raw - 68.81%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.84% / raw - 19.75%

The first decade, 1965-1974, averaged 9.23C in ACORN 2.1 and 9.25C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 10.01C in ACORN 2.1 and 10.53C in raw

73054 overlap with 50017 11 April 1999 to 10 January 2015 : 73054 10.69C / 50017 9.78C

2012-2014 raw max averaged 10.48C and post AWS 2016-2018 averaged 10.30C

Wyalong min Excel spreadsheets

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Yamba

acorn 2 yamba maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 23.50C / raw 22.86C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 23.91C / raw 23.48C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.41C / raw warmed 0.62C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.06C / raw 0.15C

Yamba 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 24.27C / raw 24.06C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 23.56C / raw 22.98C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 19.72% / raw - 80.16%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 8.96% / raw - 14.85%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 23.69C in ACORN 2.1 and 22.79C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 24.34C in ACORN 2.1 and 24.34C in raw

ACORN catalogue: The site has been on the headland throughout its history. A site move, probably of less than 50 m, took place on 22 November 1943 to opposite side of Pilot Station building. There was another move at some point between 1975 and 1980, probably of only a few metres. The current site was established on 16 October 2007, with the screen only 1.5 m from the screen for the previous site.

1997-2006 raw max averaged 23.63C and post AWS 2008-2017 averaged 24.18C

Yamba max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 yamba minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 15.13C / raw 15.19C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 15.65C / raw 15.64C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.52C / raw warmed 0.45C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.07C / raw 0.04C

Yamba 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 15.97C / raw 15.94C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 15.38C / raw 15.37C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 18.61% / raw - 82.81%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 15.01% / raw - 19.10%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 15.42C in ACORN 2.1 and 15.72C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 16.15C in ACORN 2.1 and 16.15C in raw

1997-2006 raw min averaged 15.75C and post AWS 2008-2017 averaged 16.07C

Yamba min Excel spreadsheets

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