climate change wa

ACORN 2 influence on Australian temperature trends

New South Wales Northern Territory Queensland South Australia Tasmania Victoria Western Australia


The Bureau of Meteorology has again rewritten Australia's temperature history with the release of an update to its homogenised dataset that significantly increases the rate of climate warming since 1910.

The rewritten dataset increases Australia's per decade rate of warming by 23% and provides examples of algorithm miscalculations such as Carnarvon on the west coast having Australia's hottest ever daytime temperature at 51C.

In late 2018 the BoM provided access to the daily temperatures calculated by ACORN 2 (Australian Climate Observations Reference Network - Surface Air Temperatures), which is a revision of the bureau's ACORN 1 dataset of homogenised or adjusted raw temperatures at 112 Australian weather stations dating back to 1910.

It is assumed that ACORN 2 will replace the ACORN 1 dataset (introduced in 2012) as the historic reference used for comparison of modern temperatures. These are usually presented to the public as temperature anomalies compared to a 1961-90 baseline at each weather station.

The revision poses questions about the validity of the ACORN 1 temperature adjustments that for seven years (2012-2019) have inaccurately calculated Australia's warming trend since 1910. The revision's consequent widespread and significant historic temperature alterations pose questions about the validity of ACORN 2 itself.

It's worth noting examples of these alterations that have ACORN 1 listing Albany as having Australia's hottest ever day in 1933 (51.2C vs 44.8C originally), superseded by ACORN 2 which lists Carnarvon as having Australia's hottest ever day in 1953 (51.0C vs 47.7C originally).

Note: Researcher Ken Stewart has closely analysed ACORN 1 and ACORN 2 daily plots to determine trends, daily adjustments, records, diurnal temperature range, minima greater than maxima and the square wave phenomenon at all West Australian ACORN stations (link) and will be similarly analysing all Australian states and territories.

The offical explanation

The BoM has released an ACORN-SAT version 2 research report which explains various of the changes to ACORN 1. For example, the report estimates the response times of electronic Automatic Weather Stations (AWS), mostly introduced during and since 1996, had an Australia-wide effect around +0.01C for maximum temperatures and from zero to -0.01C for minimum temperatures (albeit up to +0.08C for maxima in arid locations such as Alice Springs). No specific adjustment for this recording equipment change was made in version 2 of ACORN.

This is similar to BoM testing which found an approximate +0.1C artificial mean temperature increase at the time of 1972 metrication, probably caused by about 60% of all Fahrenheit temperatures being rounded (x.0F) by observers since 1910 (see station rounding percentages below). This adjustment also was not included in the ACORN homogenisation on the premise that major La Ninas, record rainfall and record cloud cover in the early to mid 1970s may have caused the temperature to warm naturally (see Metrication influence on Australian temperature trends).

The BoM's ACORN 2 research report table below shows linear trends in estimated C warming per decade at all 112 Australian stations using the ACORN 1, ACORN 2 and unhomogenised Australian Water Availability Project datasets (AWAP is almost identical to RAW) from 1910 to 2016 and from 1960 to 2016. The per decade rate of 1910-2016 mean temperature warming in ACORN 2 is 23% higher than ACORN 1 and 53.7% higher than raw.

acorn 2 table

The table below shows linear trends in estimated C warming per decade at the 57 stations analysed on this page using the ACORN 1, ACORN 2 and RAW datasets from 1910 to 2017 and from 1960 to 2017.

acorn 2 table

Analysis

This page analyses the daily temperatures at Australia's 57 ACORN weather stations with a start year of 1910. The other 55 excluded stations have temperature recordings starting after the year 1910, the most recent being Learmonth with a start year of 1975.

Daily temperatures in ACORN 1, ACORN 2 and RAW have been annualised, and charts on this page show the difference between the two homogenised datasets when compared to their original raw annual temperatures. This analysis only allows the inclusion of years within which there were no months with less than 15 days of recorded temperatures, in accordance with the ACORN protocol.

57 stations begin in 1910 and end in 2017 in ACORN 1, ACORN 2 and RAW, and the first national charts below show averaged maximum and minimum temperature trends at all these stations with associated data. Although not necessarily indicative of all 112 ACORN stations across Australia, the 57 long-term stations suggest Australia's maximum is 0.10C warmer in ACORN 2 than ACORN 1, and Australia's minimum is 0.20C warmer in ACORN 2 than ACORN 1 when comparing 1964-2017 with 1910-1963 (first and second halves).

When the bureau presents ACORN 2 as the official record of Australia's temperature history, the rate of warming will be significantly greater than calculated by ACORN 1 since 2012. The ACORN 1 homogenisation process was evidently inaccurate and the Australian public will be expected to assume the ACORN 2 process is accurate.

Comparing maximum in the averaged first half of the record (1910-1963) with the averaged second half (1964-2017) at the 57 stations analysed below, ACORN 2 warmed 0.49C, ACORN 1 warmed 0.39C and raw warmed 0.32C.

Comparing minimum in the averaged first half of the record (1910-1963) with the averaged second half (1964-2017) at the 57 stations analysed below, ACORN 2 warmed 0.71C, ACORN 1 warmed 0.51C and raw warmed 0.39C.

acorn 2 australia maximum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 24.98C / v2 24.83C / raw 25.03C

1964-2017 - v1 25.37C / v2 25.32C / raw 25.35C

v1 warmed 0.39C / v2 warmed 0.49C / raw warmed 0.32C

Average change per decade : v1 0.09C / v2 0.09C / raw 0.08C

57 Australian stations 2000-2017 - v1 25.79C / v2 25.76C / raw 25.78C

1961-90 - v1 25.09C / v2 25.02C / raw 25.08C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 19.77% / v2 - 18.67% / raw - 58.64%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 13.93% / v2 - 11.92% / raw - 16.92%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 25.00C in v1, 24.87C in v2 and 25.06C in raw

The final decade, 2008-2017, averaged 25.84C in v1, 25.79C in v2 and 25.84C in raw

Prior to and including 1980, ACORN 2 cools raw max by an average 0.16C (25.02C > 24.86C), whereas ACORN 1 cooled raw by an average 0.03C (25.02C > 24.99C)

Australia max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 australia minimum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 13.38C / v2 12.98C / CDO raw 13.48C

1964-2017 - v1 13.89C / v2 13.69C / CDO raw 13.87C

v1 warmed 0.51C / v2 warmed 0.71C / raw warmed 0.39C

Average change per decade : v1 0.08C / v2 0.12C / raw 0.06C

57 Australian stations 2000-2017 - v1 14.12C / v2 14.03C / raw 14.05C

1961-90 - v1 13.67C / v2 13.39C / raw 13.70C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 22.54% / v2 - 19.60% / raw - 61.86%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 14.45% / v2 - 13.33% / raw - 17.85%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 13.43C in v1, 13.01C in v2 and 13.56C in raw

The final decade, 2008-2017, averaged 14.21C in v1, 14.14C in v2 and 14.16C in raw

Prior to and including 1980, ACORN 2 cools raw min by an average 0.45C (13.50C > 13.05C), whereas ACORN 1 cooled raw by an average 0.07C (13.50C > 13.43C)

Australia min Excel spreadsheets

The rounding relationship

An average 60.25% of all Fahrenheit temperatures recorded from 1910 to 1971 were x.0 rounded numbers without a decimal, with a likely but unproven cooling influence due to a greater number of observers (many farmers or post office staff rather than weather bureau employees) writing, for example, 86.7F as 86 rather than 87 because they considered it more accurate and honest.

The relationships between raw maximum temperatures and their .0F/C rounding, as well as their decadal averages, are charted and tabulated below.

australia maximum temperature rounding

australia maximum temperature decadal trend

The relationships between raw minimum temperatures and their .0F/C rounding, as well as their decadal averages, are charted and tabulated below.

australia minimum temperature rounding

australia minimum temperature decadal trend

Extremely hot or not?

Extreme daily temperatures can be defined as equal to or hotter than 37.8C, which before 1972 metrication was known as a century temperature at or above 100F. The table below compares 1910-1963 with 1964-2017 at the 57 weather stations, showing that the total and average number of days at 37.8C or more increased 7.6% in ACORN 1, increased 15.9% in ACORN 2 and decreased 3.3% in RAW.

From 1910 to 1963, ACORN 2 reduces the number of 37.8C+ days in ACORN 1 by 12.5% and reduces the number of 37.8c+ days in RAW by 19.9%. From 1964 to 2017, ACORN 2 reduces the number of 37.8c+ days in ACORN 1 by 5.8% and reduces the number of 37.8c+ days in RAW by 4.0% The averaged temperature of days at 37.8C or more didn't change in ACORN 1, increased 0.1C in ACORN 2 and increased 0.2C in RAW (download all 57 stations Excel).

australia extreme temperatures

The hottest day among the 57 stations in ACORN 2 was Carnarvon at 51.0C on 23 January 1953, which would officially be the hottest day ever recorded in Australia (vs Oodnadatta Airport at 50.7C on 2 January 1960 - source). In the ACORN 1 dataset, 23 January 1953 at Carnarvon was 48.5C. In RAW it was 47.7C. ACORN 1 lists Albany at 51.2C on 8 February 1933 but ACORN 2 cools this day to 49.5C (RAW 44.8C).

Pre-1910 averages

45 of the 57 ACORN stations below have RAW temperatures for different periods before 1910, and these are contained within data summaries below the charts.

When all pre-1910 averaged years of dailies (only years with all months including at least 15 days of observation) are collectively averaged, the maximum was 25.50C. This compares with the 1910-1963 collective average at those same 45 stations of 25.50C. There is no change to the average maximum.

When all pre-1910 averaged years of dailies are collectively averaged, the minimum was 13.08C. This compares with the 1910-1963 collective average at those same 45 stations of 13.46C. The averaged minimum increased 0.38C.

These averages comprise several hundreds years of daily temperature when totalled among the different locations but are in no way an accurate representation of pre-1910 averages across Australia, nor of themselves as there are widely differing timescales from one year to several decades before 1910, pre-Stevenson thermometer screens, etc.

If taken at face value as indicative of pre-1910 temperatures, the minimum warming might be due to the beginning of the urban heat island effect, climatic recovery from the Little Ice Age which ended in the late 1800s, increased artificial warming of the 1910-1963 timescale, or a combination of these. As climate warming is said to have begun in the 1970s, it is unlikely to be due to carbon dioxide. Pre-1910 and 1910-1963 averages for the 45 stations can be downloaded here.

The 1961-90 anomaly baseline

It is unclear how the 1961-1990 baseline for temperature anomalies will be affected by the dataset update, but at the 57 1910-2017 stations analysed below the 1961-1990 average maximum was 25.02C in ACORN 2, 25.09C in ACORN 1 and 25.08C in RAW, and the 1961-1990 anomaly baseline in minimum was 13.39C in ACORN 2, 13.67C in ACORN 1 and 13.70C in RAW. The cooler the 1961-1990 baseline, the greater the anomalous warming since then.

It is unlikely that any of the datasets, including raw, is an accurate record of true temperatures since 1910 because of undocumented and unadjusted influences such as screen and equipment changes or degradation, nearby site infrastructure, rainfall variations, urban and airport heat island warming tied to population growth, smog reduction, AWS response times, the validity of area averaging which influences an ACORN temperature based on neighbouring stations sometimes hundreds of kilometres away, and the majority rounding of Fahrenheit temperatures before 1972.

Excel files on this page can be downloaded to compare how the ACORN 2 algorithms influence daily, monthly and annual temperatures at all 57 sites since 1910. If downloading an Excel, note that all daily temperatures are averaged within the second spreadsheet tables as annuals in column E but the ACORN-compliant and relevant annuals are in column AX. Note that all averaged annual temperatures and rounding estimates below are calculated by this website and are not official calculations presented by the BoM.

Seasonal adjustments

The tables below show the summer, autumn, winter and spring maximum and minimum averages of the 57 long-term weather stations in ACORN 1 and ACORN 2, and the cooling or warming adjustments that ACORN 2 had made in the 1910-1963 and 1964-2017 timeframes.

australia seasonal maximum temperature adjustments

Annual maximum seasonal averages at all 57 long-term stations Excel spreadsheets

australia seasonal minima temperature adjustments

Annual minimum seasonal averages at all 57 long-term stations Excel spreadsheets

ACORN 2 averaged adjustments have caused a greater cooling of the warmer months in 1910-1963, resulting in a higher rate of warming in summer and spring over the 108 years.

An example is seasonal minimum temperatures at Alice Springs where ACORN 2 has further cooled the 1910-1963 summer average by -1.51C, warmed the autumn average by 0.06C, warmed the winter average by 0.39C and cooled the spring average by -1.39C compared to ACORN 1, the earlier dataset that made incorrect adjustments.

Station menu

Adelaide, Albany, Alice Springs, Bathurst, Boulia, Bourke, Bridgetown, Broome, Bundaberg, Burketown, Cairns, Cape Leeuwin, Cape Moreton, Cape Otway, Carnarvon, Charleville, Charters Towers, Cobar, Darwin, Deniliquin, Eddystone Point, Esperance, Gabo Island, Gayndah, Georgetown, Geraldton, Halls Creek, Inverell, Kalgoorlie, Katanning, Kerang, Launceston, Longreach, Low Head, Mackay, Marble Bar, Marree, Melbourne, Mildura, Miles, Moruya Heads, Normanton, Palmerville, Perth, Port Lincoln, Port Macquarie, Richmond (Qld), Robe, Snowtown, Sydney, Tennant Creek, Tibooburra, Wagga Wagga, Walgett, Wandering, Wilsons Promontory, Yamba

Adelaide

acorn 2 adelaide maximum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 22.14C / v2 22.00C / CDO raw 21.86C

1964-2017 - v1 22.38C / v2 22.32C / CDO raw 22.17C

v1 warmed 0.24C / v2 warmed 0.32C / raw warmed 0.31C

Average change per decade : v1 0.06C / v2 0.08C / raw 0.08C

Adelaide 2000-2017 - v1 22.96C / v2 22.95C / raw 22.92C (2018 was 23.60C)

1961-90 - v1 22.09C / v2 21.99C / raw 21.78C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 16.76% / v2 - 17.51% / raw - 21.02%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 10.53% / v2 - 10.10% / raw - 12.11%

Adelaide 23000 has annual max temps back to 1888: 1888-1909 = 21.87C

23000 overlap with 23090 1 February 1977 to 28 February 1979 : 23000 21.79C / 23090 21.92C

ACORN catalogue: Prior to 1977, the Regional Office (023000) was located at West Terrace, on the western edge of the central city and 3.2 km west of the current site, and observations were made there, continuing until early 1979. The site was on the edge of the main Adelaide parklands and appears to have been near the top of a small slope. There were site moves in 1944, November 1951 and a small move (15 m west) in 1962. Until 1948 there were two sets of observations made at Adelaide, one using a Glaisher stand and one using a Stevenson screen. The Glaisher stand observations, which generally had higher maximum temperatures (especially in summer), were the ones publicly reported at the time but the Stevenson screen observations are the ones used in the ACORN-SAT data (and in the Bureau’s database more generally). The widely-quoted record high temperature for Adelaide of 47.6 °C, set in January 1939, was measured in a Glaisher stand; the Stevenson screen value on this day was 46.1 °C. The current site was established in 1977. An automatic weather station was installed on 26 October 1992 and became the primary instrument on 1 November 1996.

1986-1995 raw max averaged 22.06C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 22.46C

Adelaide max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 adelaide minimum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 11.47C / v2 11.62C / CDO raw 11.94C

1964-2017 - v1 12.23C / v2 12.23C / CDO raw 12.39C

v1 warmed 0.76C / v2 warmed 0.61C / raw warmed 0.45C

Average change per decade : v1 0.12C / v2 0.08C / raw 0.07C

Adelaide 2000-2017 - v1 12.56C / v2 12.56C / raw 12.56C (2018 was 12.79C)

1961-90 - v1 12.06C / v2 12.07C / raw 12.40C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 19.31% / v2 - 19.05% / raw - 23.19%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 11.25% / v2 - 11.23% / raw - 11.91%

Adelaide 23000 has annual min temps back to 1888: 1888-1909 = 11.80C

23000 overlap with 23090 2 February 1977 to 28 February 1979 : 23000 12.76C / 23090 12.13C

1986-1995 raw min averaged 12.10C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 12.28C

Adelaide min Excel spreadsheets

Back to station menu

Albany

acorn 2 albany maximum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 20.08C / v2 19.59C / raw 19.80C

1964-2017 - v1 20.06C / v2 20.07C / raw 20.29C

v1 cooled 0.02C / v2 warmed 0.48C / raw warmed 0.49C

Average change per decade : v1 0.09C / v2 0.14C / raw 0.07C

Albany 2000-2017 - v1 20.41C / v2 20.49C / raw 20.41C (2018 was 20.76C)

1961-90 - v1 19.95C / v2 - 19.87C / raw 20.24C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 18.73% / v2 - 19.19% / raw - 51.31%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 10.30% / v2 - 10.24% / raw - 11.03%

Albany 9500 has annual max temps back to 1907: 1907-1909 = 19.91C

9741 overlap with 9999 16 May 2012 to 24 February 2014 : 9741 20.72C / 9999 20.95C

ACORN catalogue: Observations commenced at the airport site (009741) in April 1965. There were no overlapping observations at the time. However, in 2002 a site was re-established near the former town site and using its number, and the post- 2002 observations have been used to estimate suitable adjustments for the 1965 move. There has been one known move since the site has been located at the airport, 150 m to the northeast on 4 August 1992. An automatic weather station was installed at this time and became the primary instrument on 1 November 1996.

1986-1995 raw max averaged 20.12C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 20.14C

Albany max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 albany minimum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 10.08C / v2 10.10C / raw 11.76C

1964-2017 - v1 10.54C / v2 10.64C / raw 10.58C

v1 warmed 0.46C / v2 warmed 0.54C / raw cooled 1.18C

Average change per decade : v1 0.05C / v2 0.03C / raw -0.10C

Albany 2000-2017 - v1 10.70C / v2 10.69C / raw 10.70C (2018 was 10.54C)

1961-90 - v1 10.45C / v2 10.61C / raw 10.72C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 20.66% / v2 - 17.71% / raw - 53.86%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 12.10% / v2 - 9.64% / raw - 12.10%

Albany 9500 has annual min temps back to 1907: 1907-1909 = 11.12C

9741 overlap with 9999 17 May 2012 to 25 February 2014 : 9741 10.83C / 9999 10.70C

1986-1995 raw min averaged 10.50C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 10.65C

Albany min Excel spreadsheets

Back to station menu

Alice Springs

acorn 2 alice springs maximum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 28.05C / v2 28.10C / CDO raw 28.29C

1964-2017 - v1 28.99C / v2 29.24C / CDO raw 28.99C

v1 warmed 0.94C / v2 warmed 1.14C / raw warmed 0.70C

Average change per decade : v1 0.15C / v2 0.20C / raw 0.09C

Alice Springs 2000-2017 - v1 29.45C / v2 29.45C / raw 29.45C (2018 was 30.73C)

1961-90 - v1 28.59C / v2 28.98C / raw 28.59C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 30.62% / v2 - 17.33% / raw - 50.52%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 11.35% / v2 - 10.03% / raw - 11.35%

Alice Springs 15540 has annual max temps back to 1879: 1879-1889 + 1891 +1893-1909 = 28.85C

15540 overlap with 15590 1 November 1941 to 31 December 1953 : 15540 28.51C / 15590 28.13C

ACORN catalogue: The original site (015540) was at the Telegraph Station, 3 km north of the town. There is no known documentation of the screen type at the Telegraph Station but the observations are consistent with a Stevenson screen having been used there. The site was enclosed by a rock wall about 1 m high and painted white that would have interrupted wind flow and reflected heat. Observations moved to the Post Office on 23 January 1932. The Post Office site continued until 1953 but data after 1944 were not used in ACORN-SAT as there appear to have been changes at the Post Office site around the time that the airport site opened. Measurements have been taken at the airport (015590) since 1941. There was a site move (550 m east-northeast) in July 1974. An automatic weather station was installed on 21 March 1991 and became the primary instrument on 1 November 1996. The site moved a few metres west on 27 May 2002.

1986-1995 raw max averaged 28.95C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 29.49C

Alice Springs max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 alice springs minimum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 12.50C / v2 11.89C / CDO raw 13.09C

1964-2017 - v1 13.13C / v2 12.36C / CDO raw 13.21C

v1 warmed 0.63C / v2 warmed 0.47C / raw warmed 0.12C

Average change per decade : v1 0.09C / v2 0.10C / raw -0.01C

Alice Springs 2000-2017 - v1 13.38C / v2 12.88C / raw 13.18C (2018 was 13.28C)

1961-90 - v1 12.76C / v2 11.86C / raw 13.10C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 18.56% / v2 - 18.39% / raw - 55.25%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 10.05% / v2 - 9.76% / raw - 11.55%

Alice Springs 15540 has annual min temps back to 1879: 1879-1902 + 1904-1909 = 12.83C

15540 overlap with 15590 1 November 1941 to 31 December 1953 : 15540 12.46C / 15590 12.86C

1986-1995 raw min averaged 13.68C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 13.24C

Alice Springs min Excel spreadsheets

Back to station menu

Bathurst

acorn 2 bathurst maximum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 20.10C / v2 19.80C / CDO raw 19.52C

1964-2017 - v1 20.22C / v2 20.26C / CDO raw 20.13C

v1 warmed 0.12C / v2 warmed 0.46C / raw warmed 0.61C

Average change per decade : v1 0.05C / v2 0.11C / raw 0.20C

Bathurst 2000-2017 - v1 21.03C / v2 21.02C / raw 21.02C (2018 was 21.76C)

1961-90 - v1 19.69C / v2 19.73C / raw 19.44C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 29.33% / v2 - 28.28% / raw - 58.19%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 21.89% / v2 - 14.35% / raw - 21.89%

Bathurst 63005 has annual max temps back to 1909: 1909 = 18.16C

ACORN catalogue: Prior to December 1971 the screen did not strictly meet specifications, having single rather than double louvred sides. The site moved 800 m in an unknown direction in July 1950, and 30 m east in November 1978. On 16 April 1996 the site moved 200 m. Parallel observations continued at the old site for two years. The new site initially took a new number (063305) before adopting the original station number (063005) at the end of the comparison; such a sequence is an unusual practice in Australia. A site operated at Bathurst Gaol (063004) from 1858 to 1983 but has not been used in ACORN-SAT.

Bathurst max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 bathurst minimum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 6.07C / v2 5.80C / CDO raw 6.93C

1964-2017 - v1 6.45C / v2 6.34C / CDO raw 6.50C

v1 warmed 0.38C / v2 warmed 0.54C / raw cooled 0.43C

Average change per decade : v1 0.05C / v2 0.11C / raw -0.04C

Bathurst 2000-2017 - v1 6.66C / v2 6.65C / raw 6.66C (2018 was 7.09C)

1961-90 - v1 6.30C / v2 6.14C / raw 6.40C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 24.04% / v2 - 27.66% / raw - 64.53%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 23.92% / v2 - 14.98% / raw - 23.94%

Bathurst 63005 has annual min temps back to 1909: 1909 = 6.91C

Bathurst min Excel spreadsheets

Back to station menu

Boulia

acorn 2 boulia maximum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 31.66C / v2 30.69C / CDO raw 31.63C

1964-2017 - v1 32.22C / v2 31.74C / CDO raw 31.97C

v1 warmed 0.56C / v2 warmed 1.05C / raw warmed 0.34C

Average change per decade : v1 0.06C / v2 0.13C / raw 0.01C

Boulia 2000-2017 - v1 32.38C / v2 32.15C / raw 32.38C (2018 was 33.26C)

1961-90 - v1 32.10C / v2 31.44C / raw 31.84C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 21.20% / v2 - 21.34% / raw - 48.66%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 13.01% / v2 - 11.44% / raw - 23.52%

Boulia 52026 has annual max temps back to 1889: 1889-1891 + 1897-1901 + 1905 + 1907-1909 = 31.65C

ACORN catalogue: The site was originally in the town centre. A damaged screen was replaced in March 1917; there were periods of suspect maximum temperature data in the lead-up to this. Small moves took place in September 1965 and June 1970 (unconfirmed). The town site had a well-watered lawn surface, at least in its later years. The site moved to its current location at the airport in July 1999.

Boulia max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 boulia minimum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 16.56C / v2 16.11C / CDO raw 16.65C

1964-2017 - v1 17.59C / v2 17.54C / CDO raw 17.55C

v1 warmed 1.03C / v2 warmed 1.43C / raw warmed 0.90C

Average change per decade : v1 0.16C / v2 0.20C / raw 0.16C

Boulia 2000-2017 - v1 18.11C / v2 18.05C / raw 18.10C (2018 was 18.56C)

1961-90 - v1 17.18C / v2 17.07C / raw 17.12C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 21.73% / v2 - 20.61% / raw - 45.77%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 14.57% / v2 - 14.49% / raw - 20.53%

Boulia 52026 has annual min temps back to 1889: 1889-1892 + 1900-1901 + 1905-1909 = 15.96C

Boulia min Excel spreadsheets

Back to station menu

Bourke

acorn 2 bourke maximum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 27.49C / v2 27.45C / CDO raw 27.48C

1964-2017 - v1 27.64C / v2 27.84C / CDO raw 27.51C

v1 warmed 0.15C / v2 warmed 0.39C / raw warmed 0.03C

Average change per decade : v1 0.01C / v2 0.04C / raw 0.01C

Bourke 2000-2017 - v1 28.14C / v2 28.43C / raw 28.19C (2018 was 29.48C)

1961-90 - v1 27.36C / v2 27.46C / raw 27.07C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 17.83% / v2 - 19.24% / raw - 85.82%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 17.69% / v2 - 10.13% / raw - 26.87%

Bourke 48013 has annual max temps back to 1878: 1878-1909 = 28.62C

48013 overlap with 48239 11 November 1994 to 14 August 1996 : 48013 27.30C / 48239 27.69C

48239 overlap with 48245 15 December 1998 to 31 January 1999 : 48239 37.37C / 48245 37.23C

ACORN catalogue: Observations were originally made within the Bourke township (048013). This site had trees and buildings nearby and the lawn around the screen was regularly watered. There was a small site move within the Post Office yard in May 1937, and the screen was replaced in November 1964. A site (048239) was established on the southern side of the airport near the terminal building on 11 November 1994. Observations continued there until January 1999. The current site began operations in December 1998, 700 m north of the previous airport location but with only a minimal overlap. These data are used in ACORN-SAT from 1 January 1999.

1989-1998 raw max averaged 27.33C and post AWS 2000-2009 averaged 28.27C

Bourke max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 bourke minimum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 12.09C / v2 11.90C / CDO raw 12.93C

1964-2017 - v1 13.11C / v2 12.62C / CDO raw 13.33C

v1 warmed 1.02C / v2 warmed 0.72C / raw warmed 0.43C

Average change per decade : v1 0.18C / v2 0.17C / raw 0.08C

Bourke 2000-2017 - v1 13.59C / v2 13.20C / raw 13.53C (2018 was 13.86C)

1961-90 - v1 12.78C / v2 12.20C / raw 13.18C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 24.09% / v2 - 19.96% / raw - 88.49%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 12.40% / v2 - 10.15% / raw - 30.60%

Bourke 48013 has annual min temps back to 1879: 1879-1909 = 12.67C

48013 overlap with 48239 11 November 1994 to 15 August 1996 : 48013 13.90C / 48239 12.83C

48239 overlap with 48245 16 December 1998 to 31 January 1999 : 48239 22.20C / 48245 22.07C

1989-1998 raw min averaged 13.45C and post AWS 2000-2009 averaged 13.44C

Bourke min Excel spreadsheets

Back to station menu

Bridgetown

acorn 2 bridgetown maximum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 22.12C / v2 21.32C / raw 22.41C

1964-2017 - v1 22.46C / v2 21.86C / raw 22.46C

v1 warmed 0.54C / v2 warmed 0.54C / raw warmed 0.05C

Average change per decade : v1 0.09C / v2 0.13C / raw 0.08C

Bridgetown 2000-2017 - v1 22.88C / v2 22.34C / raw 22.88C (2018 was 22.32C)

1961-90 - v1 22.17C / v2 - 21.53C / raw 22.22C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 17.82% / v2 - 18.56% / raw - 57.23%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 15.43% / v2 - 9.52% / raw - 17.52%

Bridgetown 9510 has annual max temps back to 1907: 1907-1909 = 21.89C

9510 overlap with 9617 5 March 1998 to 30 August 2012 : 9510 22.95C / 9617 22.18C

ACORN catalogue: There was a small move (10 m) in November 1935. The screen was replaced in January 1942 and in January 1998. An automatic weather station (009617) was installed at the showgrounds, 1.2 km northwest of the current site, in December 1997 and is expected to eventually replace the current site.

2002-2011 raw max averaged 23.13C and post AWS 2013-2017 averaged 22.43C

Bridgetown max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 bridgetown minimum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 7.45C / v2 7.67C / raw 7.70C

1964-2017 - v1 8.62C / v2 8.47C / raw 8.60C

v1 warmed 1.17C / v2 warmed 0.80C / raw warmed 0.90C

Average change per decade : v1 0.15C / v2 0.13C / raw 0.10C

Bridgetown 2000-2017 - v1 8.83C / v2 8.58C / raw 8.83C (2018 was 8.36C)

1961-90 - v1 8.39C / v2 - 8.39C / raw 8.39C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 42.41% / v2 - 18.27% / raw - 56.45%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 17.89% / v2 - 9.83% / raw - 17.84%

Bridgetown 9510 has annual min temps back to 1907: 1907-1909 = 7.28C

9510 overlap with 9617 6 March 1998 to 31 August 2012 : 9510 8.77C / 9617 8.31C

2002-2011 raw min averaged 8.84C and post AWS 2013-2017 averaged 8.89C

Bridgetown min Excel spreadsheets

Back to station menu

Broome

acorn 2 broome maximum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 31.96C / v2 31.44C / raw 32.04C

1964-2017 - v1 32.27C / v2 32.16C / CDO raw 32.27C

v1 warmed 0.31C / v2 warmed 0.72C / raw warmed 0.23C

Average change per decade : v1 0.13C / v2 0.16C / raw 0.10C

Broome 2000-2017 - v1 32.43C / v2 32.43C / raw 32.43C (2018 was 32.30C)

1961-90 - v1 32.19C / v2 32.00C / raw 32.19C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 32.83% / v2 - 17.07% / raw - 40.37%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 10.61% / v2 - 9.47% / raw - 10.61%

Broome 3002 has annual max temps back to 1897: 1897-1909 = 31.98C

3002 overlap with 3003 11 August 1939 to 31 October 1953 : 3002 32.82C / 3003 32.22C

ACORN catalogue: The Meteorological Office site (003003) has been operating since 1939, with no documented moves. Anecdotal reports indicate that the Meteorological Office may have been in the town in its early years but there are no clear indications of this, either in available documentation or in the data. An automatic weather station was installed on 21 July 1995, in a new screen about 10 m away from the original screen. Manual observations were continued in the original screen as a comparison until 2000 under the station number 003089. Some instruments were relocated in 2007, shortly before the commissioning of a new meteorological office building, but the screen appears to have been moved only slightly if at all.

Assuming the AWS was operational from 1995, 1985-1994 raw max averaged 32.32C and post AWS 1996-2005 averaged 31.99C

Broome max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 broome minimum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 21.40C / v2 21.35C / CDO raw 21.24C

1964-2017 - v1 21.30C / v2 21.76C / CDO raw 21.30C

v1 cooled 0.10C / v2 warmed 0.41C / raw warmed 0.06C

Average change per decade : v1 0.04C / v2 0.09C / raw 0.06C

Broome 2000-2017 - v1 21.62C / v2 21.76C / raw 21.55C (2018 was 20.81C)

1961-90 - v1 20.96C / v2 21.64C / raw 21.14C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 17.76% / v2 - 20.07% / raw - 45.08%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 10.33% / v2 - 9.61% / raw - 11.80%

Broome 3002 has annual min temps back to 1897: 1897-1909 = 21.11C

3002 overlap with 3003 11 August 1939 to 31 October 1953 : 3002 21.17C / 3003 21.03C

Assuming the AWS was operational from 1995, 1985-1994 raw min averaged 21.54C and post AWS 1996-2005 averaged 21.24C

Broome min Excel spreadsheets

Back to station menu

Bundaberg

acorn 2 bundaberg maximum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 26.49C / v2 26.94C / CDO raw 26.57C

1964-2017 - v1 26.73C / v2 27.18C / CDO raw 26.87C

v1 warmed 0.24C / v2 warmed 0.24C / raw warmed 0.30C

Average change per decade : v1 0.07C / v2 0.02C / raw 0.06C

Bundaberg 2000-2017 - v1 27.23C / v2 27.41C / raw 27.22C (2018 was 27.80C)

1961-90 - v1 26.37C / v2 26.95C / raw 26.62C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 18.91% / v2 - 20.57% / raw - 48.14%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 10.97% / v2 - 10.32% / raw - 15.01%

Bundaberg 39015 has annual max temps back to 1893: 1893-1909 = 27.19C

39015 overlap with 39128 1 June 1959 to 4 January 1971 : 39015 26.28C / 39128 25.91C

ACORN catalogue: The original site (039015) was located at the Post Office in the centre of town. A new screen was installed in June 1913. There was a small move into a new screen in June 1933, and a move of 50 m in July 1953. The site was enclosed, particularly in its later years, and there were bitumen surfaces in the vicinity from 1984 onwards. Observations began at the airport (039128) in July 1990. An automatic weather station was installed on 19 December 1997. The site moved on 1 July 2010 from the northern to the southern part of the airport, about 2 km south. There was also a site at the airport (also using the number 039128) between 1959 and 1970 but this has not been used in ACORN-SAT.

Assuming 1997 was when AWS readings were adopted, 1987-1996 raw max averaged 26.78C and post AWS 1998-2007 averaged 27.12C

Bundaberg max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 bundaberg minimum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 15.65C / v2 14.85C / CDO raw 15.96C

1964-2017 - v1 16.60C / v2 15.84C / CDO raw 16.81C

v1 warmed 0.95C / v2 warmed 0.99C / raw warmed 0.85C

Average change per decade : v1 0.09C / v2 0.16C / raw 0.09C

Bundaberg 2000-2017 - v1 16.66C / v2 16.31C / raw 16.66C (2018 was 16.22C)

1961-90 - v1 16.42C / v2 15.40C / raw 16.87C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 19.43% / v2 - 18.80% / raw - 52.52%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 11.68% / v2 - 9.71% / raw - 15.41%

Bundaberg 39015 has annual min temps back to 1893: 1893-1909 = 15.96C

39015 overlap with 39128 1 June 1959 to 5 January 1971 : 39015 16.26C / 39128 15.68C

Assuming 1997 was when AWS readings were adopted, 1987-1996 raw min averaged 16.90C and post AWS 1998-2007 averaged 16.75C

Bundaberg min Excel spreadsheets

Back to station menu

Burketown

acorn 2 burketown maximum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 32.12C / v2 32.17C / CDO raw 32.14C

1964-2017 - v1 33.18C / v2 32.95C / CDO raw 32.89C

v1 warmed 1.06C / v2 warmed 0.78C / raw warmed 0.75C

Average change per decade : v1 0.13C / v2 0.09C / raw 0.13C

Burketown 2000-2017 - v1 33.23C / v2 33.04C / raw 33.15C (2018 was 33.90C)

1961-90 - v1 33.21C / v2 32.86C / raw 32.94C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 16.85% / v2 - 26.56% / raw - 65.93%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 12.26% / v2 - 9.72% / raw - 22.08%

Burketown 29004 has annual max temps back to 1891: 1891-1901 + 1903-1909 = 31.84C

29004 overlap with 29077 16 October 2001 to 30 June 2009 : 29004 32.29C / 29077 33.23C

ACORN catalogue: The original site was at the Post Office (029004). It was located on a watered lawn within the town in its later years. The screen was replaced in May 1966. There were numerous missed observations during the 1970s. Documented site moves took place in August 1986 (50 m north) and September 1995 (25 m east-southeast). The site closed in July 2009. The current automatic weather station at the airport began observations in October 2001. The change in surface type from the Post Office (watered lawn) to the airport (natural grassland) is clearly shown in the maximum temperatures, which are substantially higher at the airport during the winter and spring (dry season). There is little difference during the wet season when the vegetation is normally green at both sites.

Assuming 2001 was when AWS readings were adopted, 1991-2000 raw max averaged 32.35C and post AWS 2002-2011 averaged 33.13C

Burketown max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 burketown minimum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 19.73C / v2 19.31C / CDO raw 19.68C

1964-2017 - v1 20.74C / v2 20.42C / CDO raw 20.69C

v1 warmed 1.01C / v2 warmed 1.11C / raw warmed 1.01C

Average change per decade : v1 0.09C / v2 0.12C / raw 0.09C

Burketown 2000-2017 - v1 20.69C / v2 20.53C / raw 20.69C (2018 was 20.33C)

1961-90 - v1 20.57C / v2 20.12C / raw 20.41C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 71.15% / v2 - 25.95% / raw - 71.18%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 22.26% / v2 - 10.19% / raw - 22.47%

Burketown 29004 has annual min temps back to 1891: 1891-1909 = 19.73C

29004 overlap with 29077 17 October 2001 to 1 July 2009 : 29004 21.15C / 29077 20.72C

Assuming 2001 was when AWS readings were adopted, 1991-2000 raw min averaged 20.90C and post AWS 2002-2011 averaged 20.70C

Burketown min Excel spreadsheets

Back to station menu

Cairns

acorn 2 cairns maximum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 28.63C / v2 29.13C / CDO raw 29.02C

1964-2017 - v1 29.14C / v2 29.37C / CDO raw 29.14C

v1 warmed 0.51C / v2 warmed 0.24C / raw warmed 0.12C

Average change per decade : v1 0.13C / v2 0.04C / raw 0.05C

Cairns 2000-2017 - v1 29.44C / v2 29.55C / raw 29.44C (2018 was 29.91C)

1961-90 - v1 28.91C / v2 29.19C / raw 28.91C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 23.31% / v2 - 18.61% / raw - 36.38%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 11.96% / v2 - 10.40% / raw - 11.96%

Cairns 31010 has annual max temps back to 1890 : 1890-1899 + 1901-1904 + 1906-1909 = 28.71C

31010 overlap with 31011 22 October 1942 to 30 September 1953 : 31010 28.83C / 31011 28.76C

ACORN catalogue: The original site was at the Cairns Post Office (031010), within the town area. There is a documented move in December 1929 from a relatively enclosed site to a slightly more open one. Observations continued at the Post Office until 1953. Observations have been made at the airport (031011) since 1943. In December 1992 the site moved 1.5 km northwest (to the other side of the runway). Comparisons of the data with neighbours suggest that this move had no significant effect on temperatures. An automatic weather station was installed at this time and became the primary instrument on 1 November 1996.

1986-1995 raw max averaged 29.23C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 29.25C

Cairns max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 cairns minimum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 19.70C / v2 19.79C / CDO raw 20.21C

1964-2017 - v1 20.71C / v2 20.78C / CDO raw 20.88C

v1 warmed 1.01C / v2 warmed 0.99C / raw warmed 0.67C

Average change per decade : v1 0.19C / v2 0.15C / raw 0.10C

Cairns 2000-2017 - v1 21.10C / v2 20.10C / raw 21.10C (2018 was 20.87C)

1961-90 - v1 20.36C / v2 20.45C / raw 20.74C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 19.91% / v2 - 17.01% / raw - 40.13%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 9.50% / v2 - 10.38% / raw - 12.20%

Cairns 31010 has annual min temps back to 1897 : 1897--1909 = 20.04C

31010 overlap with 31011 22 October 1942 to 30 September 1953 : 31010 20.09C / 31011 20.39C

1986-1995 raw min averaged 21.02C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 20.94C

Cairns min Excel spreadsheets

Back to station menu

Cape Leeuwin

acorn 2 cape leeuwin maximum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 19.25C / v2 19.33C / CDO raw 19.52C

1964-2017 - v1 19.91C / v2 19.86C / CDO raw 20.03C

v1 warmed 0.66C / v2 warmed 0.53C / raw warmed 0.51C

Average change per decade : v1 0.14C / v2 0.12C / raw 0.08C

Cape Leeuwin 2000-2017 - v1 20.22C / v2 20.22C / raw 20.22C (2018 was 20.10C)

1961-90 - v1 19.79C / v2 19.66C / raw 19.89C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 15.35% / v2 - 19.18% / raw - 62.38%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 15.42% / v2 - 17.53% / raw - 27.11%

Cape Leeuwin 9518 has annual max temps back to 1907: 1907-1909 = 19.97C

ACORN catalogue: The site moved 250 m in October 1978. An automatic weather station was installed on 3 February 1993. It moved again to the west-northwest on 14 April 1999; the distance of the move appears to be small but increased the exposure of the site.

Assuming the AWS was operational from 1993, 1983-1992 raw max averaged 20.17C and post AWS 1994-2003 averaged 20.13C

Cape Leeuwin max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 cape leeuwin minimum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 14.28C / v2 13.71C / CDO raw 14.00C

1964-2017 - v1 14.46C / v2 14.41C / CDO raw 14.27C

v1 warmed 0.18C / v2 warmed 0.70C / raw warmed 0.27C

Average change per decade : v1 0.05C / v2 0.11C / raw 0.07C

Cape Leeuwin 2000-2017 - v1 14.68C / v2 14.68C / raw 14.68C (2018 was 14.55C)

1961-90 - v1 14.29C / v2 14.17C / raw 13.99C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 10.60% / v2 - 17.19% / raw - 68.12%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 18.61% / v2 - 19.13% / raw - 28.43%

Cape Leeuwin 9518 has annual min temps back to 1907: 1907-1909 = 13.90C

Assuming the AWS was operational from 1993, 1983-1992 raw min averaged 14.23C and post AWS 1994-2003 averaged 14.59C

Cape Leeuwin min Excel spreadsheets

Back to station menu

Cape Moreton

acorn 2 cape moreton maximum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 23.74C / v2 23.52C / CDO raw 23.19C

1964-2017 - v1 23.93C / v2 23.76C / CDO raw 23.50C

v1 warmed 0.19C / v2 warmed 0.24C / raw warmed 0.31C

Average change per decade : v1 0.05C / v2 0.05C / raw 0.05C

Cape Moreton 2000-2017 - v1 24.22C / v2 24.23C / raw 24.18C (2018 was 24.19C)

1961-90 - v1 23.73C / v2 23.45C / raw 23.05C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 17.55% / v2 - 19.06% / raw - 66.60%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 10.80% / v2 - 10.48% / raw - 12.42%

ACORN catalogue: The location is mostly unchanged since observations began. A new screen was installed in April 1939. The only documented site move was a small one (less than 50 m) when an automatic weather station was installed on 3 August 1995. This move has had a large impact on rainfall but has had little impact on temperatures.

Assuming the AWS was operational from 1995, 1985-1994 raw max averaged 23.19C and post AWS 1996-2005 averaged 23.87C

Cape Moreton max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 cape moreton minimum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 17.52C / v2 17.53C / CDO raw 17.80C

1964-2017 - v1 18.41C / v2 18.42C / CDO raw 18.43C

v1 warmed 0.89C / v2 warmed 0.89C / raw warmed 0.63C

Average change per decade : v1 0.13C / v2 0.13C / raw 0.09C

Cape Moreton 2000-2017 - v1 18.83C / v2 18.83C / raw 18.85C (2018 was 18.73C)

1961-90 - v1 18.01C / v2 18.01C / raw 17.98C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 45.82% / v2 - 44.42% / raw - 72.35%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 15.16% / v2 - 15.14% / raw - 15.13%

Assuming the AWS was operational from 1995, 1985-1994 raw min averaged 18.30C and post AWS 1996-2005 averaged 18.80C

Cape Moreton min Excel spreadsheets

Back to station menu

Cape Otway

acorn 2 cape otway maximum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 15.96C / v2 16.61C / CDO raw 16.46C

1964-2017 - v1 16.71C / v2 17.10C / CDO raw 17.02C

v1 warmed 0.75C / v2 warmed 0.49C / raw warmed 0.56C

Average change per decade : v1 0.13C / v2 0.08C / raw 0.08C

Cape Otway 2000-2017 - v1 17.32C / v2 17.47C / raw 17.26C (2018 was 17.72C)

1961-90 - v1 16.37C / v2 16.98C / raw 16.91C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 27.74% / v2 - 20.77% / raw - 79.13%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 29.44% / v2 - 8.47% / raw - 34.15%

Cape Otway 90015 has annual max temps back to 1865 with randomly missing days: 1865-1909 = 18.67C

ACORN catalogue: This site has been in the grounds of the Cape Otway lighthouse throughout its history. The screen was reported as being in poor condition, and replaced, in July 1954. There was a small site move in September 1966. The first automatic weather station was installed on 15 April 1994, but this proved unreliable and it was replaced in March 1995.

1985-1994 raw max averaged 17.05C and post AWS 1996-2005 averaged 16.91C

Cape Otway max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 cape otway minimum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 10.36C / v2 10.41C / CDO raw 10.52C

1964-2017 - v1 11.09C / v2 11.05C / CDO raw 10.96C

v1 warmed 0.73C / v2 warmed 0.64C / raw warmed 0.54C

Average change per decade : v1 0.05C / v2 0.11C / raw 0.07C

Cape Otway 2000-2017 - v1 11.37C / v2 11.37C / raw 11.36C (2018 was 11.60C)

1961-90 - v1 10.85C / v2 10.78C / raw 10.69C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 19.14% / v2 - 26.24% / raw - 80.74%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 29.99% / v2 - 30.09% / raw - 33.79%

Cape Otway 90015 has annual min temps back to 1865 with randomly missing days: 1865-1909 = 10.21C

1985-1994 raw min averaged 10.76C and post AWS 1996-2005 averaged 11.15C

Cape Otway min Excel spreadsheets

Back to station menu

Carnarvon

acorn 2 carnarvon maximum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 27.38C / v2 27.52C / CDO raw 26.71C

1964-2017 - v1 27.61C / v2 27.96C / CDO raw 27.50C

v1 warmed 0.33C / v2 warmed 0.44C / raw warmed 0.79C

Average change per decade : v1 0.09C / v2 0.09C / raw 0.16C

Carnarvon 2000-2017 - v1 27.93C / v2 28.28C / raw 27.93C (2018 was 27.94C)

1961-90 - v1 27.45C / v2 27.72C / raw 27.20C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 16.69% / v2 - 17.21% / raw - 37.42%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 11.70% / v2 - 9.56% / raw - 11.70%

Carnarvon 6062 has annual max temps back to 1907: 1907-1909 = 26.78C

6062 overlap with 6011 10 January 1945 to 31 August 1950 : 6062 26.94C / 6011 27.17C

ACORN catalogue: The Meteorological Office site (006011) opened in 1945. The site moved about 800 m southeast at an unclear date; the data are consistent with it taking place around 1974. An automatic weather station was installed on 22 October 1990 and became the primary instrument on 1 November 1996. There are indications of a possible site move around 1996–1997 but no evidence of any impact on the data.

1986-1995 raw max averaged 27.42C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 27.52C

Carnarvon max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 carnarvon minimum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 15.94C / v2 16.22C / CDO raw 17.15C

1964-2017 - v1 17.10C / v2 17.07C / CDO raw 17.21C

v1 warmed 1.16C / v2 warmed 0.85C / raw warmed 0.06C

Average change per decade : v1 0.21C / v2 0.17C / raw 0.03C

Carnarvon 2000-2017 - v1 17.23C / v2 17.23C / raw 17.23C (2018 was 17.26C)

1961-90 - v1 16.89C / v2 16.90C / raw 17.17C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 17.54% / v2 - 17.04% / raw - 44.28%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 11.89% / v2 - 9.54% / raw - 11.80%

Carnarvon 6062 has annual min temps back to 1907: 1907-1909 = 16.41C

6062 overlap with 6011 10 January 1945 to 31 August 1950 : 6062 17.46C / 6011 17.37C

1986-1995 raw min averaged 17.22C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 17.14C

Carnarvon min Excel spreadsheets

Back to station menu

Charleville

acorn 2 charleville maximum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 27.76C / v2 27.68C / CDO raw 28.68C

1964-2017 - v1 28.59C / v2 28.47C / CDO raw 28.41C

v1 warmed 0.83C / v2 warmed 0.79C / raw cooled 0.27C

Average change per decade : v1 0.10C / v2 0.11C / raw 0.01C

Charleville 2000-2017 - v1 29.01C / v2 28.9C / raw 28.95C (2018 was 30.35C)

1961-90 - v1 28.18C / v2 28.02C / raw 27.96C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 16.82% / v2 - 16.91% / raw - 42.90%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 9.95% / v2 - 10.71% / raw - 10.01%

Charleville 44022 has annual max temps back to 1890: 1890-1909 = 27.85C

44022 overlap with 44021 7 April 1942 to 30 September 1953 : 44022 28.48C / 44021 27.40C

ACORN catalogue: The original site (044022) was in town, at the school. In September 1914 it moved to the Post Office. This site continued until 1953 but is not used in ACORN-SAT after 1948. Observations commenced at the Meteorological Office at the airport (044021) in 1943, although only data from January 1949 onwards have been used in ACORN-SAT. There was a move in or shortly before April 1961. In August 1990 an automatic weather station was installed, followed by a site move 150 m east on 12 September 1990. The automatic weather station became the primary instrument on 1 November 1996. In October 2003 the airport site was moved about 600 m west, to its current location. Observations from the previous site continued until February 2006, under number 044221. Neighbours rather than the overlapping data are used to merge the two main Charleville sites, as the data indicate substantial changes at both sites in or near 1949, although there is no documentation of what those changes might have been for either site.

1986-1995 raw max averaged 28.34C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 28.77C

Charleville max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 charleville minimum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 12.80C / v2 11.98C / CDO raw 13.25C

1964-2017 - v1 13.61C / v2 13.25C / CDO raw 13.81C

v1 warmed 0.81C / v2 warmed 1.27C / raw warmed 0.56C

Average change per decade : v1 0.13C / v2 0.23C / raw 0.07C

Charleville 2000-2017 - v1 14.05C / v2 14.02C / raw 14.09C (2018 was 14.88C)

1961-90 - v1 13.28C / v2 12.72C / raw 13.44C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 19.86% / v2 - 17.69% / raw - 49.76%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 10.07% / v2 - 10.25% / raw - 11.65%

Charleville 44022 has annual min temps back to 1890: 1890-1909 = 13.05C

44022 overlap with 44021 9 April 1942 to 30 September 1953 : 44022 12.97C / 44021 13.25C

1986-1995 raw min averaged 13.94C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 13.85C

Charleville min Excel spreadsheets

Back to station menu

Charters Towers

acorn 2 charters towers maximum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 29.48C / v2 29.58C / CDO raw 30.08C

1964-2017 - v1 30.07C / v2 29.96C / CDO raw 30.26C

v1 warmed 0.59C / v2 warmed 0.38C / raw warmed 0.18C

Average change per decade : v1 0.15C / v2 0.10C / raw 0.04C

Charters Towers 2000-2017 - v1 30.39C / v2 30.40C / raw 30.40C (2018 was 31.18C)

1961-90 - v1 29.85C / v2 29.61C / raw 30.11C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 18.17% / v2 - 17.52% / raw - 56.37%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 11.29% / v2 - 12.35% / raw - 17.56%

Charters Towers 34002 has annual max temps back to 1894: 1894-1909 = 30.28C

ACORN catalogue: The original site (034002) was located in the town area. A new screen was installed in April 1939. Small moves took place in June 1947 (15 m south), December 1953 and April 1975 (10 m), the 1953 move taking place after a shed and incinerator were built nearby. The site closed in December 1992. The airport site opened in December 1992, with no overlap with the previous site. A new screen was installed in October 2000.

Charters Towers max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 charters towers minimum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 16.94C / v2 16.20C / CDO raw 16.90C

1964-2017 - v1 17.40C / v2 17.17C / CDO raw 17.60C

v1 warmed 0.46C / v2 warmed 0.97C / raw warmed 0.70C

Average change per decade : v1 0.08C / v2 0.18C / raw 0.14C

Charters Towers 2000-2017 - v1 17.55C / v2 17.44C / raw 17.55C (2018 was 17.30C)

1961-90 - v1 17.12C / v2 16.93C / raw 17.41C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 17.85% / v2 - 18.94% / raw - 57.82%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 13.42% / v2 - 10.28% / raw - 18.69%

Charters Towers 34002 has annual min temps back to 1894: 1894-1909 = 17.01C

Charters Towers min Excel spreadsheets

Back to station menu

Cobar

acorn 2 cobar maximum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 24.96C / v2 24.74C / CDO raw 25.65C

1964-2017 - v1 25.55C / v2 25.50C / CDO raw 25.43C

v1 warmed 0.59C / v2 warmed 0.76C / raw cooled 0.22C

Average change per decade : v1 0.11C / v2 0.11C / raw 0.05C

Cobar 2000-2017 - v1 26.10C / v2 26.11C / raw 26.10C (2018 was 27.59C)

1961-90 - v1 25.22C / v2 25.04C / raw 25.17C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 18.04% / v2 - 19.46% / raw - 85.44%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 10.43% / v2 - 9.95% / raw - 11.50%

Cobar 48030 has annual max temps back to 1897: 1897-1909 = 25.22C

48030 overlap with 48027 21 May 1962 to 31 December 1965 : 48030 26.06C / 48027 24.49C

ACORN catalogue: The original site (048030) was at the Post Office in town, 1.7 km southeast of the current site. There are no clearly documented moves but there is evidence that the Post Office re-opened after a period of closure in 1924, and the data are consistent with a site move at around that time. The Meteorological Office site has been operating since 21 May 1962. An automatic weather station was installed on 1 May 1997. The site moved from the south to the north side of the office on 15 November 2000 (exact distance unclear, but appears to be about 100 m). A new Meteorological Office building was opened in 2005 but the instruments appear to have remained in the same place. There is a separate site (048237) at the airport which is not used in ACORN- SAT.

Assuming the AWS was operational from 1997, 1987-1996 raw min averaged 24.96C and post AWS 1998-2007 averaged 26.03C

Cobar max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 cobar minimum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 11.98C / v2 12.23C / CDO raw 11.96C

1964-2017 - v1 12.42C / v2 12.71C / CDO raw 12.81C

v1 warmed 0.44C / v2 warmed 0.48C / raw warmed 0.85C

Average change per decade : v1 0.07C / v2 0.06C / raw 0.03C

Cobar 2000-2017 - v1 13.00C / v2 13.16C / raw 13.17C (2018 was 13.73C)

1961-90 - v1 12.04C / v2 12.40C / raw 12.55C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 17.31% / v2 - 19.46% / raw - 85.84%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 9.53% / v2 - 9.59% / raw - 11.05%

Cobar 48030 has annual min temps back to 1897: 1897-1909 = 12.33C (also some slightly corrupted 1882-1890 = 11.53C)

48030 overlap with 48027 21 May 1962 to 31 December 1965 : 48030 11.57C / 48027 12.14C

Assuming the AWS was operational from 1997, 1987-1996 raw min averaged 12.74C and post AWS 1998-2007 averaged 13.14C

Cobar min Excel spreadsheets

Back to station menu

Darwin

acorn 2 darwin maximum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 31.46C / v2 31.04C / CDO raw 32.10C

1964-2017 - v1 32.19C / v2 32.08C / CDO raw 32.19C

v1 warmed 0.73C / v2 warmed 1.04C / raw warmed 0.09C

Average change per decade : v1 0.13C / v2 0.18C / raw 0.02C

Darwin 2000-2017 - v1 32.43C / v2 32.42C / raw 32.42C (2018 was 32.82C)

1961-90 - v1 32.02C / v2 31.74C / raw 32.02C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 22.32% / v2 - 18.07% / raw - 32.61%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 11.31% / v2 - 9.64% / raw - 11.31%

Darwin 14016 has annual max temps back to 1885: 1885-1909 = 32.97C

14016 overlap with 14015 1 February 1941 to 31 January 1942 : 14016 31.42C / 14015 30.85C

ACORN catalogue: Earlier observations were made at the Post Office (014016), in the central city area. This is on a peninsula in Darwin Harbour which means that the prevailing dry-season southeasterlies have a trajectory over Darwin Harbour (whereas at the airport they are over land). The site deteriorated progressively from the mid-1930s, becoming overshadowed by trees, especially after 1937. The site (along with the remainder of the Post Office) was destroyed in the Japanese air raids of February 1942 and never rebuilt. The airport site (014015) has been operating since February 1941. An automatic weather station was installed on 1 October 1990 and became the primary instrument on 1 November 1996. The site moved about 900 m east (along the southern edge of the airport) on 7 August 2001, with observations at the original site continuing under the station number 014040 until June 2007.

1986-1995 raw max averaged 32.11C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 32.23C

Darwin max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 darwin minimum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 22.64C / v2 22.69C / CDO raw 23.39C

1964-2017 - v1 23.24C / v2 23.17C / CDO raw 23.28C

v1 warmed 0.60C / v2 warmed 0.48C / raw cooled 0.11C

Average change per decade : v1 0.08C / v2 0.07C / raw -0.04C

Darwin 2000-2017 - v1 23.17C / v2 23.17C / raw 23.17C (2018 was 23.45C)

1961-90 - v1 23.19C / v2 23.07C / raw 23.29C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 17.75% / v2 - 16.47% / raw - 33.85%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 11.67% / v2 - 9.12% / raw - 11.93%

Darwin 14016 has annual min temps back to 1885: 1885-1909 = 23.56C

14016 overlap with 14015 1 February 1941 to 31 January 1942 : 14016 24.20C / 14015 22.67C

1986-1995 raw min averaged 23.60C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 23.13C

Darwin min Excel spreadsheets

Back to station menu

Deniliquin

acorn 2 deniliquin maximum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 22.44C / v2 22.49C / CDO raw 22.81C

1964-2017 - v1 23.10C / v2 23.05C / CDO raw 23.09C

v1 warmed 0.66C / v2 warmed 0.56C / raw warmed 0.28C

Average change per decade : v1 0.12C / v2 0.11C / raw 0.08C

Deniliquin 2000-2017 - v1 23.67C / v2 23.67C / raw 23.70C (2018 was 24.97C)

1961-90 - v1 22.82C / v2 22.72C / raw 22.80C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 17.98% / v2 - 18.89% / raw - 72.73%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 21.50% / v2 - 21.50% / raw - 10.32%

Deniliquin 74128 has annual max temps back to 1859: 1859-1861 + 1863 + 1868 + 1870-1909 = 24.81C

74128 overlap with 74258 3 June 1997 to 29 June 2003 : 74128 23.42C / 74258 23.30C

ACORN catalogue: The original site (074128) was located in the town area, with the site becoming built up from about 1950 onwards. The site moved 1 km northwest in September 1971, then moved to the airport (3.7 km south) in September 1984. Temperature observations continued at this location until 2003. The site number continues to be used for rainfall observations but these are made at a different location. The current site is about 500 m south of the last position of the previous site. It has been operating since May 1997.

1992-2001 raw max averaged 22.88C and post AWS 2003-2012 averaged 23.51C

Deniliquin max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 deniliquin minimum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 8.58C / v2 8.73C / CDO raw 10.08C

1964-2017 - v1 9.18C / v2 9.19C / CDO raw 9.65C

v1 warmed 0.70C / v2 warmed 0.46C / raw cooled 0.43C

Average change per decade : v1 0.12C / v2 0.09C / raw -0.04C

Albany 2000-2017 - v1 9.57C / v2 9.57C / raw 9.66C (2018 was 9.63C)

1961-90 - v1 8.96C / v2 8.99C / raw 9.75C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 17.58% / v2 - 16.47% / raw - 79.54%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 21.51% / v2 - 21.99% / raw - 13.14%%

Deniliquin 74128 has annual min temps back to 1859: 1868 + 1875-1905 + 11907-1909 = 8.41C

74128 overlap with 74258 4 June 1997 to 30 June 2003 : 74128 9.74C / 74258 9.28C

1992-2001 raw min averaged 9.60C and post AWS 2003-2012 averaged 9.50C

Deniliquin min Excel spreadsheets

Back to station menu

Eddystone Point

acorn 2 eddystone point maximum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 17.13C / v2 17.29C / CDO raw 16.66C

1964-2017 - v1 17.79C / v2 17.87C / CDO raw 17.28C

v1 warmed 0.66C / v2 warmed 0.58C / raw warmed 0.68C

Average change per decade : v1 0.08C / v2 0.06C / raw 0.13C

Eddystone Point 2000-2017 - v1 18.19C / v2 18.20C / raw 18.19C (2018 was 18.36C)

1961-90 - v1 17.56C / v2 17.67C / raw 16.76C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 17.58% / v2 - 17.77% / raw - 67.46%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 22.64% / v2 - 16.04% / raw - 30.53%

ACORN catalogue: There is little documentation on the site prior to the 1990s, but it is believed that there were no significant site moves between 1908 and 1996. An automatic weather station was installed in late 1996, with an associated site move about 70 m southeast. Parallel observations were carried out with the former site (using the station number 092115), but some observations from the new site were incorrectly recorded against the comparison number, making it impracticable to use the parallel observations to assess the impact of the move.

Assuming the AWS was operational from 1996, 1986-1995 raw max averaged 17.09C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 17.88C

Eddystone Point max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 eddystone point minimum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 10.07C / v2 9.95C / CDO raw 9.79C

1964-2017 - v1 10.56C / v2 10.51C / CDO raw 10.51C

v1 warmed 0.51C / v2 warmed 0.56C / raw warmed 0.72C

Average change per decade : v1 0.07C / v2 0.08C / raw 0.10C

Eddystone Point 2000-2017 - v1 10.72C / v2 10.72C / raw 10.72C (2018 was 10.86C))

1961-90 - v1 10.47C / v2 10.38C / raw 10.41C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 18.19% / v2 - 16.66% / raw - 67.62%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 22.85% / v2 - 24.31% / raw - 33.13%

Assuming the AWS was operational from 1996, 1986-1995 raw min averaged 10.37C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 10.60C

Eddystone Point min Excel spreadsheets

Back to station menu

Esperance

acorn 2 esperance maximum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 21.19C / v2 21.03C / CDO raw 21.19C

1964-2017 - v1 21.64C / v2 21.59C / CDO raw 21.85C

v1 warmed 0.45C / v2 warmed 0.56C / raw warmed 0.66C

Average change per decade : v1 0.10C / v2 0.11C / raw 0.13C

Esperance 2000-2017 - v1 22.03C / v2 22.03C / raw 22.03C (2018 was 22.11C)

1961-90 - v1 21.46C / v2 21.34C / raw 21.75C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 18.39% / v2 - 18.93% / raw - 50.10%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 9.72% / v2 - 10.49% / raw - 11.29%

Esperance 9541 has annual max temps back to 1907: 1907-1909 = 20.57C

There is no 9541 overlap with 9789

ACORN catalogue: The Meteorological Office site (009789) opened in 1969, with no useful overlap with the previous site. It has not moved. An automatic weather station was installed in April 1996 and became the primary instrument on 1 November 1996. There are indications that vegetation was removed near the site in late 1998 or 1999.

1986-1995 raw max averaged 21.74C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 21.81C

Esperance max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 esperance minimum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 11.31C / v2 10.97C / CDO raw 11.44C

1964-2017 - v1 12.02C / v2 12.00C / CDO raw 12.05C

v1 warmed 0.71C / v2 warmed 1.03C / raw warmed 0.61C

Average change per decade : v1 0.09C / v2 0.15C / raw 0.10C

Esperance 2000-2017 - v1 12.30C / v2 12.29C / raw 12.30C (2018 was 12.51C)

1961-90 - v1 11.82C / v2 11.79C / raw 11.90C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 18.58% / v2 - 19.27% / raw - 55.15%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 13.22% / v2 - 10.36% / raw - 13.22%

Esperance 9541 has annual max temps back to 1907: 1907-1909 = 10.73C

There is no 9541 overlap with 9789

1986-1995 raw min averaged 11.94C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 12.09C

Esperance max Excel spreadsheets

Back to station menu

Gabo Island

acorn 2 gabo island maximum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 17.85C / v2 18.24C / CDO raw 17.37C

1964-2017 - v1 18.32C / v2 18.38C / CDO raw 18.14C

v1 warmed 0.47C / v2 warmed 0.14C / raw warmed 0.77C

Average change per decade : v1 0.07C / v2 0.00C / raw 0.16C

Gabo Island 2000-2017 - v1 18.78C / v2 18.78C / raw 18.78C (2018 was 19.04C)

1961-90 - v1 18.11C / v2 18.24C / raw 17.75C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 17.00% / v2 - 18.79% / raw - 84.29%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 15.70% / v2 - 15.72% / raw - 17.79%

ACORN catalogue: The site has been in the general vicinity of the island’s lighthouse throughout its history. New screens were installed in September 1927 and July 1961. On 13 March 1981 the site was moved away from the lighthouse buildings. The automatic weather station was installed in August 2000 but only used for wind observations until August 2007.

1997-2006 raw max averaged 18.59C and post AWS 2008-2017 averaged 18.85C

Gabo Island max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 gabo island minimum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 11.68C / v2 11.65C / CDO raw 12.26C

1964-2017 - v1 12.42C / v2 12.32C / CDO raw 12.50C

v1 warmed 0.74C / v2 warmed 0.67C / raw warmed 0.24C

Average change per decade : v1 0.15C / v2 0.08C / raw 0.03C

Gabo Island 2000-2017 - v1 12.67C / v2 12.67C / raw 12.67C (2018 was 12.17C)

1961-90 - v1 12.31C / v2 12.11C / raw 12.50C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 19.78% / v2 - 22.66% / raw - 84.52%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 18.75% / v2 - 18.09% / raw - 21.58%%

1997-2006 raw min averaged 12.59C and post AWS 2008-2017 averaged 12.73C

Gabo Island min Excel spreadsheets

Back to station menu

Gayndah

acorn 2 gayndah maximum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 27.71C / v2 27.73C / CDO raw 28.05C

1964-2017 - v1 28.25C / v2 28.20C / CDO raw 28.39C

v1 warmed 0.54C / v2 warmed 0.47C / raw warmed 0.34C

Average change per decade : v1 0.05C / v2 0.05C / raw 0.01C

Gayndah 2000-2017 - v1 28.75C / v2 28.72C / raw 28.84C (2018 was 28.96C)

1961-90 - v1 27.78C / v2 27.72C / raw 28.03C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 20.27% / v2 - 19.12% / raw - 49.47%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 13.27% / v2 - 9.24% / raw - 14.97%

Gayndah 39039 has annual max temps back to 1894: 1894-1909 = 28.08C

39039 overlap with 39066 28 January 2003 to 30 June 2009 : 39039 28.91C / 39066 28.67C

ACORN catalogue: The original site (039039) was on a block next to the Post Office in the main town area, about 10 m from the main street. There are no documented moves at the site but overhanging trees were a problem at times. New screens were supplied in October 1945 and June 1999. This site closed in July 2009. The current site, about 1.2 km northeast of the previous site, has been operating since January 2003.

Assuming the AWS was operational from 2003, 1993-2002 raw max averaged 28.64C and post AWS 2004-2013 averaged 28.61C

Gayndah max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 gayndah minimum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 13.95C / v2 13.29C / CDO raw 13.12C

1964-2017 - v1 14.43C / v2 14.28C / CDO raw 14.40C

v1 warmed 0.48C / v2 warmed 0.99C / raw warmed 1.28C

Average change per decade : v1 0.05C / v2 0.10C / raw 0.16C

Gayndah 2000-2017 - v1 14.57C / v2 14.46C / raw 14.50C (2018 was 13.80C)

1961-90 - v1 14.24C / v2 14.00C / raw 14.19C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 19.13% / v2 - 18.91% / raw - 51.39%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 10.36% / v2 - 9.69% / raw - 16.43%

Gayndah 39039 has annual min temps back to 1894: 1894-1909 = 12.93C

39039 overlap with 39066 29 January 2003 to 1 July 2009 : 39039 14.69C / 39066 14.45C

Assuming the AWS was operational from 2003, 1993-2002 raw min averaged 14.50C and post AWS 2004-2013 averaged 14.44C

Gayndah min Excel spreadsheets

Back to station menu

Georgetown

acorn 2 georgetown maximum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 32.59C / v2 32.11C / CDO raw 32.33C

1964-2017 - v1 32.77C / v2 32.61C / CDO raw 33.01C

v1 warmed 0.18C / v2 warmed 0.50C / raw warmed 0.68C

Average change per decade : v1 0.06C / v2 0.10C / raw 0.09C

Georgetown 2000-2017 - v1 32.81C / v2 32.87C / raw 32.97C (2018 was 32.89C)

1961-90 - v1 32.78C / v2 32.35C / raw 32.85C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 18.16% / v2 - 15.67% / raw - 73.02%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 9.23% / v2 - 9.39% / raw - 21.88%

Georgetown 30018 has annual max temps back to 1909: 1909 = 32.58C

30018 overlap with 30124 1 June 2004 to 9 October 2007 : 30018 33.40C / 30124 32.44C

ACORN catalogue: The original site (030018) was in the town area. A new screen was supplied in November 1922. There are no documented moves; however, there were numerous changes in site condition over the years as the site became overgrown at times. This was a particular problem in the early 1960s and at one point vines were reported as growing through the screen; much data from this period has been flagged as suspect. These issues ceased with the appointment of a new observer in 1965. The current site began operating in May 2004. The old site continued until 2007 but deteriorated rapidly in its last years due to encroaching trees, so the overlapping data were not used in merging the two sites.

1994-2003 raw max averaged 33.48C and post AWS 2005-2014 averaged 32.70C

Georgetown max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 georgetown minimum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 18.09C / v2 17.97C / CDO raw 18.16C

1964-2017 - v1 18.60C / v2 18.60C / CDO raw 18.84C

v1 warmed 0.51C / v2 warmed 0.63C / raw warmed 0.68C

Average change per decade : v1 0.15C / v2 0.10C / raw 0.09C

Albany 2000-2017 - v1 18.85C / v2 18.89C / raw 19.07C (2018 was 18.53C)

1961-90 - v1 18.28C / v2 18.29C / raw 18.50C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 18.33% / v2 - 20.40% / raw - 81.77%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 9.58% / v2 - 9.98% / raw - 20.95%

Georgetown 30018 has annual min temps back to 1894: 1894-1909 = 18.26C

30018 overlap with 30124 2 June 2004 to 10 October 2007 : 30018 18.41C / 30124 18.73C

1994-2003 raw min averaged 19.13C and post AWS 2005-2014 averaged 19.03C

Georgetown min Excel spreadsheets

Back to station menu

Geraldton

acorn 2 geraldton maximum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 25.58C / v2 25.12C / CDO raw 25.10C

1964-2017 - v1 25.95C / v2 25.83C / CDO raw 26.10C

v1 warmed 0.37C / v2 warmed 0.61C / raw warmed 0.1.00C

Average change per decade : v1 0.15C / v2 0.19C / raw 0.22C

Geraldton 2000-2017 - v1 26.53C / v2 26.56C / raw 26.54C (2018 was 26.27C)

1961-90 - v1 25.58C / v2 25.36C / raw 25.89C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 19.41% / v2 - 18.30% / raw - 35.65%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 11.09% / v2 - 9.50% / raw - 11.48%

Geraldton 8050 has annual max temps back to 1907: 1907-1909 = 24.87C

8050 overlap with 8051 24 August 1941 to 31 October 1953 : 8050 24.85C / 8051 25.54C

8051 overlap with 8315 20 July 2011 to 19 June 2014 : 8051 27.13C / 8315 27.37C

ACORN catalogue: The original site (008050) was in the town area near the coast, with a small move in 1927. Observations at this location continued until 1953 but it was not used in ACORN-SAT after 1942. Rainfall observations continue to be made under this site number, but at a different location to that used for the pre-1942 temperature observation. Observations from the airport site commenced in 1941. An automatic weather station was installed at the site on 20 June 1990 and became the primary instrument on 1 November 1996. A new site (008315) opened approximately 1 km to the south in July 2011 and is expected to become the main Geraldton site after completion of a comparison period.

1986-1995 raw max averaged 25.77C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 26.13C

Geraldton max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 geraldton minimum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 13.31C / v2 13.03C / CDO raw 14.35C

1964-2017 - v1 13.65C / v2 13.59C / CDO raw 13.66C

v1 warmed 0.34C / v2 warmed 0.56C / raw cooled 0.69C (unlikely)

Average change per decade : v1 0.06C / v2 0.12C / raw -0.09C

Geraldton 2000-2017 - Geraldton 2000-2017 v1 13.77C / v2 13.76C / raw 13.77C (2018 was 13.53C)

1961-90 - v1 13.55C / v2 13.45C / raw 13.59C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 20.42% / v2 - 18.31% / raw - 39.13%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 12.38% / v2 - 10.15% / raw - 12.40%

Geraldton 8050 has annual min temps back to 1907: 1907-1909 = 14.27C

8050 overlap with 8051 23 August 1941 to 31 October 1953 : 8050 14.42C / 8051 13.45C

8051 overlap with 8315 21 July 2011 to 20 June 2014 : 8051 14.07C / 8315 14.17C

1986-1995 raw min averaged 13.57C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 13.74C

Geraldton min Excel spreadsheets

Back to station menu

Halls Creek

acorn 2 halls creek maximum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 33.66C / v2 32.34C / CDO raw 33.55C

1964-2017 - v1 33.85C / v2 33.08C / CDO raw 33.55C

v1 warmed 0.19C / v2 warmed 0.74C / raw static 0.00C

Average change per decade : v1 0.06C / v2 0.16C / raw -0.01C

Halls Creek 2000-2017 - v1 33.62C / v2 33.33C / raw 33.54C (2018 was 34.60C)

1961-90 - v1 34.02C / v2 32.82C / raw 33.55C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 18.39% / v2 - 16.39% / raw - 44.26%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 10.74% / v2 - 10.57% / raw - 11.76%

Halls Creek 2011 has annual max temps back to 1898: 1898-1900 + 1902-1908 = 33.37C

2011 overlap with 2012 19 January 1946 to 31 May 1952 : 2011 34.17C / 2012 34.06C

ACORN catalogue: The first site (002011) was located in the old Halls Creek township (the town itself was moved in the 1950s). Observations continued at this location until 1952. Observations resumed briefly in the late 1960s and early 1970s but these were not used in ACORN-SAT. The original Meteorological Office site opened in 1944, 11 km west- northwest of the previous site. Maximum and minimum temperatures were archived only from November 1949 onwards. In about 1967, there was a site move of about 650 m west-northwest. The current site is an automatic weather station installed in a new screen about 10 m from the old screen on 25 August 1996. Parallel manual observations continued in the old screen until 2001 under the site number 002071.

Assuming the AWS was operational from 1996, 1986-1995 raw max averaged 33.84C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 33.49C

Halls Creek max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 halls creek minimum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 19.49C / v2 20.26C / CDO raw 18.28C

1964-2017 - v1 20.22C / v2 20.14C / CDO raw 20.14C

v1 warmed 0.73C / v2 cooled 0.12C / raw warmed 1.86C

Average change per decade : v1 0.12C / v2 0.03C / raw 0.25C

Halls Creek 2000-2017 - Halls Creek 2000-2017 v1 20.06C / v2 20.07C / raw 20.07C (2018 was 20.21C)

1961-90 - v1 20.22C / v2 20.06C / raw 19.99C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 18.67% / v2 - 16.83% / raw - 48.53%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 11.93% / v2 - 10.22% / raw - 11.93%

Halls Creek 2011 has annual min temps back to 1899: 1899-1900 + 1903-1909 = 17.68C

2011 overlap with 2012 19 January 1946 to 31 May 1952 : 2011 18.61C / 2012 19.62C

Assuming the AWS was operational from 1996, 1986-1995 raw min averaged 20.78C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 20.12C

Halls Creek min Excel spreadsheets

Back to station menu

Inverell

acorn 2 inverell maximum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 23.12C / v2 23.20C / CDO raw 23.78C

1964-2017 - v1 23.77C / v2 23.71C / CDO raw 23.94C

v1 warmed 0.65C / v2 warmed 0.51C / raw warmed 0.16C

Average change per decade : v1 0.13C / v2 0.10C / raw 0.06C

Inverell 2000-2017 - v1 24.19C / v2 24.19C / raw 24.19C (2018 was 25.50C)

1961-90 - v1 23.46C / v2 23.36C / raw 23.84C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 19.51% / v2 - 19.83% / raw - 80.74%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 11.33% / v2 - 11.49% / raw - 13.06%

Inverell 56017 has annual max temps back to 1875: 1875-1876 + 1879-1884 + 1886-1909 = 22.87C

56017 overlap with 56242 1 March 1995 to 25 November 1997 : 56017 23.07C / 56242 22.94C

ACORN catalogue: The original site (056017) was within the Post Office grounds. Louvres on the screen were repaired in July 1940. Site diagrams indicate that a new building was built just to the south at some point between 1944 and 1950; data and comments on file suggest 1949. There was a move of a few metres (into a more enclosed location) within the Post Office grounds on 7 July 1961. On 20 September 1967 it moved about 100 m southwest to a more open location near the library on the northeast bank of the river. The current site (056242) has been operating at its present location since 1 March 1995. The Inverell town is located in a valley which is well-suited for cold air drainage. Another site (056018) operates at a research farm on a ridge approximately 2 km west of the town. That site has minimum temperatures which are consistently warmer than the town, especially in winter when typical differences are 3–4°C.

Inverell max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 inverell minimum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 5.97C / v2 5.99C / CDO raw 7.47C

1964-2017 - v1 7.27C / v2 7.27C / CDO raw 7.74C

v1 warmed 1.30C / v2 warmed 1.28C / raw warmed 0.27C

Average change per decade : v1 0.27C / v2 0.21C / raw 0.06C

Inverell 2000-2017 - v1 7.82C / v2 7.66C / raw 7.68C (2018 was 8.75C)

1961-90 - v1 6.66C / v2 6.90C / raw 7.79C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 18.20% / v2 - 17.13% / raw - 80.59%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 12.69% / v2 - 12.50% / raw - 18.12%

Inverell 56017 has annual max temps back to 1875: 1875-1876 + 1880 + 1882-1884 + 1886-1909 = 7.71C

56017 overlap with 56242 1 March 1995 to 26 November 1997 : 56017 7.06C / 56242 6.24C

Inverell min Excel spreadsheets

Back to station menu

Kalgoorlie

acorn 2 kalgoorlie maximum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 25.03C / v2 24.58C / CDO raw 25.55C

1964-2017 - v1 25.39C / v2 25.01C / CDO raw 25.39C

v1 warmed 0.36C / v2 warmed 0.43C / raw cooled 0.16C

Average change per decade : v1 0.10C / v2 0.13C / raw -0.02C

Kalgoorlie 2000-2017 - v1 25.74C / v2 25.47C / raw 25.74C (2018 was 25.85C)

1961-90 - v1 25.23C / v2 24.81C / raw 25.23C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 25.22% / v2 - 17.86% / raw - 38.39%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 11.70% / v2 - 10.21% / raw - 11.70%

Kalgoorlie 12039 max extends back to 1907: 1907-1909 = 24.91C

12039 overlap with 12038 1 Jan 1943 to 13 Oct 1953 : 12039 25.14C 12038 24.96C

ACORN catalogue: Observations were made at the Post Office (012039), about 4 km north- northeast of the current site until 1953. This site moved approximately 90 m in December 1936. The Meteorological Office site (012038) has been operating since 1939. An automatic weather station was installed on 12 August 1992 and became the primary instrument on 1 November 1996. The office moved 300 m to the south on 7 September 1993; it is unclear whether the instruments also moved although the data suggest that any move had no significant impact on observations.

1986-1995 raw max averaged 25.06C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 25.52C

Kalgoorlie max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 kalgoorlie minimum temperatures

1910-1963 - 1910-1963 - v1 11.91C / v2 11.54C / CDO raw 11.98C

1964-2017 - v1 12.27C / v2 12.28C / CDO raw 11.92C

v1 warmed 0.36C / v2 warmed 0.74C / raw cooled 0.06C

Average change per decade : v1 0.06C / v2 0.12C / raw 0.03C

Kalgoorlie 2000-2017 - v1 12.36C / v2 12.33C / raw 12.31C (2018 was 12.45C)

1961-90 - v1 12.17C / v2 12.23C / raw 11.66C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 17.77% / v2 - 18.42% / raw - 38.29%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 9.29% / v2 - 9.84% / raw - 11.46%

Kalgoorlie 12039 min extends back to 1907: 1907-1909 = 11.30C

12039 overlap with 12038 1 Jan 1943 to 13 Oct 1953 : 12039 12.09C 12038 11.14C

1986-1995 raw min averaged 11.75C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 12.04C

Kalgoorlie min Excel spreadsheets

Back to station menu

Katanning

acorn 2 katanning maximum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 21.83C / v2 21.56C / CDO raw 22.00C

1964-2017 - v1 22.34C / v2 22.05C / CDO raw 22.28C

v1 warmed 0.51C / v2 warmed 0.49C / raw warmed 0.28C

Average change per decade : v1 0.07C / v2 0.08C / raw 0.07C

Katanning 2000-2017 - v1 22.64C / v2 22.47C / raw 22.64C (2018 was 22.28C)

1961-90 - v1 22.17C / v2 21.75C / raw 22.07C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 18.60% / v2 - 19.16% / raw - 59.04%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 18.41% / v2 - 28.83% / raw - 20.91%

Katanning 10579 raw max extends back to 1907: 1907-1909 = 22.08C

10579 and 10916 overlap 8 Jan 1999 to 30 Aug 2012 : 10579 22.58C 10916 22.33C

ACORN catalogue: There are documented site moves in July 1987 (100 m north), January 1952 (200 m) and December 1942 (10 m north). A new screen was installed on 11 February 1980. An automatic weather station (010916) has been operating since December 1998 about 5 km east of the town, and is expected to eventually replace the existing site.

2002-2011 raw max averaged 22.67C and post AWS 2013-2017 averaged 22.56C

Katanning max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 katanning minimum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 9.04C / v2 8.42C / CDO raw 9.38C

1964-2017 - v1 9.37C / v2 9.39C / CDO raw 9.46C

v1 warmed 0.33C / v2 warmed 0.97C / raw warmed 0.08C

Average change per decade : v1 0.05C / v2 0.16C / raw 0.02C

Katanning 2000-2017 - v1 9.47C / v2 9.52C / raw 9.46C (2018 was 9.68C)

1961-90 - v1 9.29C / v2 9.26C / raw 9.51C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 16.27% / v2 - 18.76% / raw - 61.75%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 27.15% / v2 - 28.46% / raw - 28.68%

Katanning 10579 raw min extends back to 1907: 1907-1909 = 8.72C

10579 and 10916 overlap 9 Jan 1999 to 31 Aug 2012 : 10579 9.32C 10916 9.45C

2002-2011 raw min averaged 9.32C and post AWS 2013-2017 averaged 9.77C

Katanning min Excel spreadsheets

Back to station menu

Kerang

acorn 2 kerang maximum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 22.17C / v2 22.47C / CDO raw 22.84C

1964-2017 - v1 23.02C / v2 23.00C / CDO raw 23.01C

v1 warmed 0.85C / v2 warmed 0.53C / raw warmed 0.17C

Average change per decade : v1 0.16C / v2 0.13C / raw 0.11C

Kerang 2000-2017 - v1 23.72C / v2 23.72C / raw 23.73C (2018 was 24.59C)

1961-90 - v1 22.64C / v2 22.61C / raw 22.64C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 29.06% / v2 - 18.30% / raw - 57.86%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 16.73% / v2 - 16.74% / raw - 16.94%

ACORN catalogue: The site has been within the township since it was established. It moved in August 1932, June 1956 and June 1957; the latter placed it in a yard within a built-up area which was cluttered from time to time. The screen was noted as being incorrectly oriented in November 1945 and again in February 1968. The site moved 1 km north to its current location on 18 January 2000.

Kerang max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 kerang minimum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 8.56C / v2 8.57C / CDO raw 9.11C

1964-2017 - v1 9.46C / v2 9.42C / CDO raw 9.73C

v1 warmed 0.90C / v2 warmed 0.85C / raw warmed 0.62C

Average change per decade : v1 0.17C / v2 0.16C / raw 0.07C

Kerang 2000-2017 - v1 9.81C / v2 9.81C / raw 9.81C (2018 was 10.10C)

1961-90 - v1 9.28C / v2 9.23C / raw 9.70C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 16.73% / v2 - 17.29% / raw - 53.79%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 12.07% / v2 - 12.96% / raw - 17.22%

Kerang min Excel spreadsheets

Back to station menu

Launceston

acorn 2 launceston maximum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 17.46C / v2 17.35C / CDO raw 17.92C

1964-2017 - v1 17.82C / v2 17.80C / CDO raw 17.26C

v1 warmed 0.36C / v2 warmed 0.45C / raw cooled 0.66C

Average change per decade : v1 0.06C / v2 0.08C / raw -0.04C

Launceston 2000-2017 - v1 18.15C / v2 18.13C / raw 17.80C (2018 was 18.15C)

1961-90 - v1 17.67C / v2 17.63C / raw 16.99C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 16.39% / v2 - 17.82% / raw - 34.68%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 10.84% / v2 - 9.76% / raw - 12.13%

Launceston 91049 has annual max temps back to 1901: 1901-1902 + 1904-1909 17.78C

91049 overlap with 91104 1 April 1939 to 30 December 1959 : 91049 18.18C / 91104 16.61C

91104 overlaps with 91311 29 July 2004 to 16 June 2009 : 91104 17.59C / 91311 18.27C

ACORN catalogue: The original site (091049) was at several locations around the centre of Launceston. There was a site move in December 1929 and further site moves on 29 March 1941, 29 September 1942 and 26 February 1948. Temperature observations continued at this location until 1959 but they were not used in ACORN-SAT after 1947. The first airport site (091104) was close to the terminal building and operated from 1939. It moved at some point in 1968–1969 to a location on the western side of the runway and north of the terminal. An automatic weather station was installed at this location on 19 May 1992 and became the primary instrument on 1 November 1996. The site continued until June 2009. The current site (091311) began operating at its current location 1.4 km southeast of the previous site on 12 July 2004. The airport is 160 m higher in elevation than the town, and is also further from the ocean. This results in markedly lower temperatures than those in the town, especially overnight.

1986-1995 raw max averaged 17.05 and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 17.43C

Launceston max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 launceston minimum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 4.71C / v2 5.14C / CDO raw 7.01C

1964-2017 - v1 5.92C / v2 5.96C / CDO raw 6.27C

v1 warmed 1.21C / v2 warmed 0.82C / raw cooled 0.74C

Average change per decade : v1 0.17C / v2 0.12C / raw -0.12C

Launceston 2000-2017 - v1 6.31C / v2 6.31C / raw 6.31C (2018 was 6.30C)

1961-90 - v1 5.66C / v2 5.73C / raw 6.32C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 16.58% / v2 - 18.99% / raw - 40.52%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 11.68% / v2 - 10.19% / raw - 13.03%

Launceston 91049 has annual min temps back to 1898: 1898 + 1902 + 1906-1909 6.20C

91049 overlap with 91104 1 April 1939 to 31 December 1959 : 91049 6.68C / 91104 5.95C

91104 overlaps with 91311 30 July 2004 to 17 June 2009 : 91104 6.39C / 91311 6.28C

1986-1995 raw min averaged 6.34C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 6.09C

Launceston min Excel spreadsheets

Back to station menu

Longreach

acorn 2 longreach maximum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 31.27C / v2 31.37C / CDO raw 31.24C

1964-2017 - v1 31.81C / v2 31.44C / CDO raw 31.51C

v1 warmed 0.54C / v2 warmed 0.07C / raw warmed 0.27C

Average change per decade : v1 0.09C / v2 0.04C / raw 0.09C

Longreach 2000-2017 - v1 31.89C / v2 31.44C / raw 31.51C (2018 was 33.30C)

1961-90 - v1 31.68C / v2 31.09C / raw 31.21C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 17.64% / v2 - 16.44% / raw - 64.41%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 9.32% / v2 - 9.92% / raw - 12.31%

Longreach 36030 has annual max temps back to 1897: 1897-1901 + 1904-1907 + 1909 = 31.58C

36030 overlap with 36031 1 March 1966 to 30 May 1973 : 36030 31.34C / 36031 30.99C

ACORN catalogue: The first observations were made at the Post Office (036030). There were no documented moves at this site. New screens were installed in October 1911 and November 1924, and building works were reported in the vicinity in September 1949. This site continued until 1973 but was not used in ACORN-SAT beyond 1969. The Meteorological Office (036031) has been in operation since 1966. An automatic weather station and a new screen were installed in May 1996, with manual observations continuing for a year under the site number 036167.

1987-1996 raw max averaged 31.41C and post AWS 1998-2007 averaged 31.86C

Longreach max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 longreach minimum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 15.10C / v2 14.23C / CDO raw 15.40C

1964-2017 - v1 16.11C / v2 15.47C / CDO raw 15.94C

v1 warmed 1.01C / v2 warmed 1.24C / raw warmed 0.54C

Average change per decade : v1 0.14C / v2 0.21C / raw 0.12C

Longreach 2000-2017 - v1 16.27C / v2 16.22C / raw 17.35C (2018 was 33.30C)

1961-90 - v1 15.88C / v2 14.80C / raw 15.70C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 16.23% / v2 - 19.48% / raw - 69.84%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 9.96% / v2 - 10.38% / raw - 13.32%

Longreach 36030 has annual min temps back to 1897: 1897-1901 + 1906-1909 = 15.15C

36030 overlap with 36031 2 March 1966 to 27 April 1973 : 36030 16.08C / 36031 15.19C

1987-1996 raw min averaged 16.20C and post AWS 1998-2007 averaged 16.19C

Longreach min Excel spreadsheets

Back to station menu

Low Head

acorn 2 low head maximum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 15.59C / v2 15.81C / CDO raw 15.74C

1964-2017 - v1 16.34C / v2 16.34C / CDO raw 16.84C

v1 warmed 0.75C / v2 warmed 0.53C / raw warmed 0.90C

Average change per decade : v1 -0.18C / v2 -0.24C / raw -0.29C

Low Head 2000-2017 - v1 16.67C / v2 16.67C / raw 16.67C (2018 was 16.92C)

1961-90 - v1 16.19C / v2 16.18C / raw 16.90C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 19.29% / v2 - 19.67% / raw - 65.03%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 11.74% / v2 - 10.16% / raw - 25.49%

Low Head 91057 has annual max temps back to 1895: 1895-1899 + 1901-1909 = 15.61C

91057 overlap with 91293 8 January 1998 to 5 December 2001 : 91057 17.58C / 91293 16.65C

ACORN catalogue: The original site (091057) was in the grounds of the Low Head lighthouse, which is on a small hill south of the headland. Prior to June 1937 the screen did not strictly meet Stevenson screen specifications, and was painted brown for a time around 1933, a period when the standard of observations was poor for a few years. Comparison of documentation from 1933 and 1940 indicate either a site move or new buildings during that time, with the latter being more likely. The site moved by 8 m in April 1949. At some point between 1968 and 1986 a gravel driveway was built in close proximity to the screen (the data suggest this occurred in about 1970). The site moved by 25 m on 15 August 1988. The automatic weather station (091293) began operating on 8 January 1998 at a site 200 m north of the previous location.

Assuming the AWS was operational from 1998, 1988-1997 raw max averaged 17.13C and post AWS 1999-2008 averaged 16.59C

Low Head max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 low head minimum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 9.80C / v2 9.76C / CDO raw 9.50C

1964-2017 - v1 10.20C / v2 10.34C / CDO raw 10.01C

v1 warmed 0.40C / v2 warmed 0.58C / raw warmed 0.51C

Average change per decade : v1 0.07C / v2 0.09C / raw 0.11C

Low Head 2000-2017 - v1 10.58C / v2 10.58C / raw 10.59C (2018 was 11.00C)

1961-90 - v1 9.88C / v2 10.11C / raw 9.71C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 16.67% / v2 - 15.92% / raw - 63.05%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 19.96% / v2 - 10.08% / raw - 29.29%

Low Head 91057 has annual min temps back to 1895: 1895-1899 + 1901-1909 = 8.58C

91057 overlap with 91293 9 January 1998 to 12 December 2001 : 91057 10.07C / 91293 10.61C

Assuming the AWS was operational from 1998, 1988-1997 raw min averaged 9.85C and post AWS 1999-2008 averaged 10.46C

Low Head min Excel spreadsheets

Back to station menu

Mackay

acorn 2 mackay maximum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 25.83C / v2 25.44C / CDO raw 26.90C

1964-2017 - v1 26.48C / v2 26.36C / CDO raw 26.55C

v1 warmed 0.65C / v2 warmed 0.92C / raw cooled 0.35C

Average change per decade : v1 0.10C / v2 0.15C / raw 0.03C

Albany 2000-2017 - v1 26.89C / v2 26.89C / raw 26.89C (2018 was 27.64C)

1961-90 - v1 26.14C / v2 25.92C / raw 26.43C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 16.54% / v2 - 17.65% / raw - 43.56%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 11.62% / v2 - 9.49% / raw - 11.61%

Mackay 33046 has annual max temps back to 1908: 1908-1909 = 26.67C

33046 overlap with 33047 1 January 1908 to 30 April 1950 : 33046 26.78C / 33047 28.00C

33047 overlap with 33119 25 September 1959 to 4 June 2012 : 33047 27.60 / 33119 26.41C

ACORN catalogue: The earlier part of the Mackay dataset uses data from the Post Office (033046). This site had a temporary move due to building in late 1922, and further moves in 1939 and 1941, the latter placing it in a rather enclosed location. The Post Office site closed in 1950. Data from the Te Kowai Experimental Station (033047) located 5 km west of the town were used between 1948 and 1965. This is a small but apparently good-quality subset of the full record from this site. The Meteorological Office site (033119) commenced observations in 1959, and no known site moves have taken place. An automatic weather station was installed in October 1995, although manual observations continued until 2001 under the site number 033297. Because of its greater proximity to the coast and its hilltop location, the Meteorological Office has substantially lower maximum temperatures, and higher minimum temperatures (especially in winter) than any of the other sites that have existed historically in the Mackay area.

Assuming the AWS was operational from 1995, 1985-1994 raw max averaged 26.49C and post AWS 1996-2005 averaged 26.80C

Mackay max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 mackay minimum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 18.15C / v2 18.01C / CDO raw 17.70C

1964-2017 - v1 19.17C / v2 18.94C / CDO raw 19.08C

v1 warmed 1.02C / v2 warmed 0.93C / raw warmed 1.38C

Average change per decade : v1 0.20C / v2 0.18C / raw 0.16C

Albany 2000-2017 - v1 19.44C / v2 19.45C / raw 19.44C (2018 was 19.60C)

1961-90 - v1 18.84C / v2 18.45C / raw 18.47C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 21.19% / v2 - 18.15% / raw - 51.71%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 11.75% / v2 - 9.91% / raw - 11.75%%

Mackay 33046 has annual min temps back to 1890: 1890-1909 = 17.73C

33046 overlap with 33047 1 January 1908 to 30 April 1950 : 33046 18.23C / 33047 16.45C

33047 overlap with 33119 25 September 1959 to 5 June 2012 : 33047 16.57 / 33119 19.04C

Assuming the AWS was operational from 1995, 1985-1994 raw min averaged 19.22C and post AWS 1996-2005 averaged 19.35C

Mackay min Excel spreadsheets

Back to station menu

Marble Bar

acorn 2 marble bar maximum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 34.89C / v2 34.76C / CDO raw 35.45C

1964-2017 - v1 35.11C / v2 35.13C / CDO raw 35.20C

v1 warmed 0.22C / v2 warmed 0.37C / raw cooled 0.25C

Average change per decade : v1 0.08C / v2 0.10C / raw 0.00C

Marble Bar 2000-2017 - v1 35.42C / v2 35.42C / raw 35.43C (2018 was 35.91C)

1961-90 - v1 34.97C / v2 35.02C / raw 35.03C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 15.84% / v2 - 17.52% / raw - 64.14%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 14.89% / v2 - 14.86% / raw - 16.79%

Marble Bar 4020 raw max extends back to 1903: 1903-1909 = 35.18C

4020 overlap with 4106 26 September 2000 to 22 August 2006 : 4020 35.21C / 4106 34.98C

ACORN catalogue: The station has been located in or near the settlement of Marble Bar throughout its history. There is documentation from November 1944 of a proposed move but no firm documentation that it was carried out, although the data suggest that it was. The minimum thermometer was reported to have been reading low in January 1965 and was replaced. The site moved in May 1967 (small), on 1 August 1984 (500 m east), on 19 July 1988 (1 km east) and on 2 October 1997 (300 m southwest). The automatic weather station opened in September 2000, with instruments in the same screen as the former manual site (004020). The manual site continued until 2006 but was only used in ACORN-SAT until the end of 2002 because of deteriorating data quality after that.

Assuming the AWS was operational from 2000, 1990-1999 raw max averaged 35.50C and post AWS 2001-2010 averaged 35.41C

Marble Bar max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 marble bar minimum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 19.64C / v2 19.15C / CDO raw 19.72C

1964-2017 - v1 19.94C / v2 19.66C / CDO raw 20.33C

v1 warmed 0.30C / v2 warmed 0.51C / raw warmed 0.61C

Average change per decade : v1 0.05C / v2 0.11C / raw 0.04C

Marble Bar 2000-2017 - v1 20.24C / v2 20.03C / raw 20.40C (2018 was 20.03C)

1961-90 - v1 19.53C / v2 19.18C / raw 20.01C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 17.37% / v2 - 15.21% / raw - 73.98%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 15.02% / v2 - 10.05% / raw - 17.03%

Marble Bar 4020 raw min extends back to 1902: 1902 + 1904-1909 = 19.39C

4020 overlap with 4106 27 September 2000 to 23 August 2006 : 4020 20.14C / 4106 19.90C

Assuming the AWS was operational from 2000, 1990-1999 raw min averaged 20.95C and post AWS 2001-2010 averaged 20.38C

Marble Bar min Excel spreadsheets

Back to station menu

Marree

acorn 2 marree maximum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 28.56C / v2 27.49C / CDO raw 27.49C

1964-2017 - v1 29.03C / v2 28.38C / CDO raw 29.17C

v1 warmed 0.47C / v2 warmed 0.89C / raw warmed 1.68C

Average change per decade : v1 0.07C / v2 0.16C / raw 0.23C

Marree 2000-2017 - v1 29.68C / v2 29.12C / raw 29.68C (2018 was 30.07C)

1961-90 - v1 28.67C / v2 27.91C / raw 28.86C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 17.31% / v2 - 16.85% / raw - 64.94%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 12.37% / v2 - 10.63% / raw - 11.86%

Marree 17024 has annual max temps back to 1908: 1908-1909 = 26.26C

17024 overlap with 17031 23 July 1998 to 8 January 2015 : 17024 29.72C / 17031 28.95C

ACORN catalogue: The first observations were made at Farina (017024), about 50 km to the south. Little documentation is available about the Farina site. The Marree site opened in 1939. There were issues with the enclosed nature of the site in the late 1980s and early 1990s, as well as with reports of metal sheets and motor vehicles near the screen. This improved in April 1993 when a shed to the west was demolished, a tree was removed and gravel was removed from around the screen area. An automatic weather station (017126) has been operating since July 1998 at Marree Airport, about 1 km southeast of the town. This is expected to eventually replace the current site.

Assuming the AWS was operational from 1998, 1988-1997 raw max averaged 28.96C and post AWS 1999-2008 averaged 29.72C

Marree max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 marree minimum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 13.23C / v2 13.05C / CDO raw 12.52C

1964-2017 - v1 13.71C / v2 13.65C / CDO raw 13.58C

v1 warmed 0.48C / v2 warmed 0.60C / raw warmed 1.06C

Average change per decade : v1 0.10C / v2 0.08C / raw 0.19C

Marree 2000-2017 - v1 14.16C / v2 14.04C / raw 14.14C (2018 was 13.79C)

1961-90 - v1 13.46C / v2 13.35C / raw 13.18C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 17.64% / v2 - 16.92% / raw - 68.50%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 11.19% / v2 - 9.52% / raw - 11.30%

Marree 17024 has annual min temps back to 1908: 1908-1909 = 11.19C

17024 overlap with 17031 24 July 1998 to 9 January 2015 : 17024 14.15C / 17031 13.90C

Assuming the AWS was operational from 1998, 1988-1997 raw min averaged 13.69C and post AWS 1999-2008 averaged 14.13C

Marree min Excel spreadsheets

Back to station menu

Melbourne

acorn 2 melbourne maximum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 20.16C / v2 19.13C / CDO raw 19.75C

1964-2017 - v1 20.50C / v2 19.77C / CDO raw 20.30C

v1 warmed 0.34C / v2 warmed 0.64C / raw warmed 0.55C

Average change per decade : v1 0.10C / v2 0.12C / raw 0.14C

Melbourne 2000-2017 - v1 20.99C / v2 20.32C / raw 20.98C (2018 was 20.72C)

1961-90 - v1 20.35C / v2 19.53C / raw 19.96C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 16.09% / v2 - 16.99% / raw - 23.20%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 10.47% / v2 - 10.88% / raw - 11.20%

Melbourne 86071 has annual max temps back to 1856: 1856-1909 = 19.56C

86071 overlap with 86338 1 June 2013 to 5 January 2015 : 86071 20.84C / 86338 20.09C

ACORN catalogue: The site has been in its current location, on the northeastern edge of the junction of Victoria and La Trobe streets, since January 1908. There were strong rises in minimum temperature through the late 1950s and 1960s, possibly associated with increasing levels of road traffic (the lack of further increases after 1970 may indicate that by then the traffic was at saturation level from the viewpoint of its effect on the observations). An automatic weather station has been in place since August 1986 and became the primary instrument on 1 November 1996. A large apartment building was built across the street to the south of the site in 1996–1997, which coincides with a discernible rise in minimum temperatures. Earlier observations were made at the old Melbourne Observatory (in the Domain south of the Yarra River) from 1863 to 1907, and in a number of locations in the vicinity of Flagstaff Hill prior to 1863.

1986-1995 raw max averaged 20.00C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 20.83C

Melbourne max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 melbourne minimum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 10.84C / v2 10.32C / CDO raw 9.95C

1964-2017 - v1 11.63C / v2 11.29C / CDO raw 11.34C

v1 warmed 0.79C / v2 warmed 0.97C / raw warmed 1.39C

Average change per decade : v1 0.11C / v2 0.16C / raw 0.18C

Melbourne 2000-2017 - v1 11.88C / v2 11.58C / raw 11.88C (2018 was 11.72C)

1961-90 - v1 11.54C / v2 11.15C / raw 10.99C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 19.46% / v2 - 18.85% / raw - 26.56%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 9.33% / v2 - 10.18% / raw - 11.49%

Melbourne 86071 has annual min temps back to 1856: 1856-1909 = 9.57C

86071 overlap with 86338 2 June 2013 to 6 January 2015 : 86071 11.79C / 86338 11.48C

1986-1995 raw min averaged 11.19C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 11.66C

Melbourne min Excel spreadsheets

Back to station menu

Mildura

acorn 2 mildura maximum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 23.93C / v2 24.36C / CDO raw 24.01C

1964-2017 - v1 24.05C / v2 24.50C / CDO raw 24.02C

v1 warmed 0.12C / v2 warmed 0.14C / raw warmed 0.01C

Average change per decade : v1 0.06C / v2 0.07C / raw 0.07C

Mildura 2000-2017 - v1 24.77C / v2 25.00C / raw 24.77C (2018 was 25.70C)

1961-90 - v1 23.75C / v2 24.30C / raw 23.67C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 20.41% / v2 - 19.70% / raw - 65.19%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 11.38% / v2 - 9.62% / raw - 11.94%

Mildura 76077 has annual max temps back to 1890: 1890-1892 + 1895-1898 + 1900-1906 + 1909 = 25.35C

76077 overlap with 76031 26 August 1948 to 30 December 1949 : 76077 23.75C / 76031 23.34C

ACORN catalogue: The original site (076077) was within the Mildura town area. It moved in August 1927. After this move the screen was oriented northeast, but it was realigned to face south in July 1933. There was a small site move in March 1943. Temperature observations continued until 1949. Observations have been made at the airport site (076031) since 1946. Site moves took place on 11 August 1992 (from the aerodrome apron to the Meteorological Office) and in July 1989 (only a small move). The automatic weather station was installed on 1 October 1989, and became the primary instrument on 1 November 1996. There was rapid development of irrigated agriculture in the Mildura region in the period between the two World Wars, and this appears to be associated with an anomalous cooling trend in maximum temperature at Mildura over this period (amounting to 0.3–0.4°C over 30 years). The non-ACORN-SAT site of Griffith, which has a similar history of irrigation development, shows a similar trend.

1986-1995 raw max averaged 23.62C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 24.29C

Mildura max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 mildura minimum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 9.93C / v2 9.89C / CDO raw 10.49C

1964-2017 - v1 10.34C / v2 10.18C / CDO raw 10.40C

v1 warmed 0.41C / v2 warmed 0.29C / raw cooled 0.09C

Average change per decade : v1 0.12C / v2 0.09C / raw 0.05C

Mildura 2000-2017 - v1 10.58C / v2 10.59C / raw 10.59C (2018 was 11.10C)

1961-90 - v1 10.29C / v2 9.98C / raw 10.39C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 17.45% / v2 - 19.47% / raw - 67.94%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 10.37% / v2 - 9.93% / raw - 13.11%

Mildura 76077 has annual min temps back to 1890: 1890 + 1892-1909 = 9.97C

76077 overlap with 76031 26 August 1948 to 31 December 1949 : 76077 9.94C / 76031 9.55C

1986-1995 raw min averaged 10.20C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 10.26C

Mildura min Excel spreadsheets

Back to station menu

Miles

acorn 2 miles maximum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 26.92C / v2 27.04C / CDO raw 27.17C

1964-2017 - v1 27.03C / v2 27.37C / CDO raw 27.28C

v1 warmed 0.11C / v2 warmed 0.33C / raw warmed 0.11C

Average change per decade : v1 0.04C / v2 0.04C / raw 0.04C

Miles 2000-2017 - v1 27.83C / v2 27.97C / raw 27.89C (2018 was 28.41C)

1961-90 - v1 26.43C / v2 26.90C / raw 26.74C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 15.15% / v2 - 17.43% / raw - 60.80%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 21.76% / v2 - 10.85% / raw - 12.69%

42023 overlap with 42112 10 July 1997 to 14 March 2005 : 42023 28.09C / 42112 27.81C

ACORN catalogue: The former site (042023) was located in the town. The screen was reported in September 1929 as having numerous missing louvres. It became somewhat overgrown from about 1990 onwards, but continued to measure temperatures until 2005. Rainfall continues to be measured at this site. The current site has been operating since July 1997, about 300 m west- northwest of the previous site.

1995-2004 raw max averaged 27.81C and post AWS 2006-2015 averaged 27.67C

Miles max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 miles minimum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 12.25C / v2 11.32C / CDO raw 11.93C

1964-2017 - v1 12.66C / v2 12.59C / CDO raw 12.60C

v1 warmed 0.41C / v2 warmed 1.27C / raw warmed 0.67C

Average change per decade : v1 0.05C / v2 0.17C / raw 0.05C

Albany 2000-2017 - v1 12.90C / v2 12.90C / raw 12.91C (2018 was 12.64C)

1961-90 - v1 12.43C / v2 12.25C / raw 12.27C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 19.44% / v2 - 17.44% / raw - 65.26%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 24.45% / v2 - 22.77% / raw - 13.90%

42023 overlap with 42112 11 July 1997 to 15 March 2005 : 42023 13.02C / 42112 13.03C

1995-2004 raw min averaged 12.88C and post AWS 2006-2015 averaged 12.85C

Miles min Excel spreadsheets

Back to station menu

Moruya Heads

acorn 2 moruya heads maximum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 19.90C / v2 19.97C / CDO raw 19.78C

1964-2017 - v1 20.41C / v2 20.42C / CDO raw 20.39C

v1 warmed 0.51C / v2 warmed 0.45C / raw warmed 0.61C

Average change per decade : v1 0.07C / v2 0.06C / raw 0.08C

Moruya Heads 2000-2017 - v1 20.78C / v2 20.78C / raw 20.78C (2018 was 21.03C)

1961-90 - v1 20.23C / v2 20.25C / raw 20.13C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 21.78% / v2 - 22.80% / raw - 64.52%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 22.48% / v2 - 22.50% / raw - 22.51%

ACORN catalogue: The site has been in the Pilot Station grounds since at least the start of ACORN-SAT in 1910. The only documented move was ’a few feet‘ south, in October 1966. An automatic weather station was installed at Moruya Airport (069148) in 1999. While the airport site (which is on flat ground on the other side of the Moruya River) is less than 2 km inland, under certain conditions the temperature differences between Moruya Airport and Moruya Heads can be dramatic due to the role the coastal ridge can play in blocking marine air from penetrating further inland. Minimum temperature differences of 5 °C or more between the sites on cold nights in the cooler months are a regular occurrence. Due to these large climatic differences it is unlikely the airport site will supersede the current Moruya Heads site in the foreseeable future.

1989-1998 raw max averaged 20.12C and post AWS 2000-2009 averaged 20.79C

Moruya Heads max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 moruya heads minimum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 11.05C / v2 10.69C / CDO raw 11.21C

1964-2017 - v1 11.60C / v2 11.60C / CDO raw 11.60C

v1 warmed 0.55C / v2 warmed 0.91C / raw warmed 0.39C

Average change per decade : v1 0.12C / v2 0.16C / raw 0.09C

Moruya Heads 2000-2017 - v1 12.08C / v2 12.08C / raw 12.08C (2018 was 12.22C)

1961-90 - v1 11.27C / v2 11.26C / raw 11.27C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 46.70% / v2 - 25.84% / raw - 64.90%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 20.08% / v2 - 20.07% / raw - 20.07%

1989-1998 raw min averaged 11.64C and post AWS 2000-2009 averaged 12.02C

Moruya Heads min Excel spreadsheets

Back to station menu

Normanton

acorn 2 normanton maximum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 32.91C / v2 32.98C / CDO raw 33.41C

1964-2017 - v1 33.46C / v2 33.43C / CDO raw 33.49C

v1 warmed 0.55C / v2 warmed 0.45C / raw warmed 0.08C

Average change per decade : v1 0.09C / v2 0.08C / raw -0.02C

Normanton 2000-2017 - v1 33.61C / v2 33.60C / raw 33.59C (2018 was 33.77C)

1961-90 - v1 33.36C / v2 33.33C / raw 33.49C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 21.99% / v2 - 17.66% / raw - 75.39%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 12.57% / v2 - 10.87% / raw - 12.46%

29041 overlap with 29063 10 April 2001 to 30 July 2001 : 29041 31.30C / 29063 31.41C

ACORN catalogue: The original site was in the town (029063). Screens which had been in poor condition were replaced in May 1917 and November 1940. The only documented move in this site took place in October 1956 (45 m southwest). In its later years, there was a watered lawn and trees and a car park nearby. The current site replaced the previous site in 2001; there are only three months of overlapping data, insufficient to be used in adjustment.

Assuming the AWS was operational from 2001, 1991-2000 averaged 33.40C and post AWS 2002-2011 averaged 33.49C

Normanton max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 normanton minimum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 21.27C / v2 21.06C / CDO raw 21.06C

1964-2017 - v1 21.75C / v2 21.69C / CDO raw 21.80C

v1 warmed 0.48C / v2 warmed 0.63C / raw warmed 0.74C

Average change per decade : v1 0.07C / v2 0.08C / raw 0.09C

Normanton 2000-2017 - v1 21.77C / v2 21.76C / raw 21.80C (2018 was 21.63C)

1961-90 - v1 21.64C / v2 21.55C / raw 21.61C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 18.21% / v2 - 17.68% / raw - 80.91%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 9.77% / v2 - 9.76% / raw - 15.55%

29041 overlap with 29063 11 April 2001 to 31 July 2001 : 29041 17.87C / 29063 17.38C

Assuming the AWS was operational from 2001, 1991-2000 averaged 22.17C and post AWS 2002-2011 averaged 21.69C

Normanton min Excel spreadsheets

Back to station menu

Palmerville

acorn 2 palmerville maximum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 32.33C / v2 32.78C / CDO raw 32.69C

1964-2017 - v1 32.67C / v2 32.83C / CDO raw 32.91C

v1 warmed 0.34C / v2 warmed 0.05C / raw warmed 0.22C

Average change per decade : v1 0.09C / v2 0.03C / raw 0.08C

Palmerville 2000-2017 - v1 33.12C / v2 33.12C / raw 33.12C (2018 was 33.38C)

1961-90 - v1 32.50C / v2 32.74C / raw 32.77C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 17.11% / v2 - 21.97% / raw - 67.52%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 16.43% / v2 - 18.26% / raw - 46.85%

Palmerville 28004 has max temps back to 1896 : 1896-1901 + 1903-1905 = 32.84C

ACORN catalogue: There are no clearly documented moves at the original manual site although the screen was replaced on a number of occasions (October 1926, July 1988 and September 1994). The same observer performed observations for 63 years from 1936 to 1999, and was the area’s sole remaining resident during the later part of that period. Observations did not resume until the automatic station was commissioned. The automatic weather station was installed in mid-2000, 160 m south-east of the former site, but did not begin transmitting data until July 2001.

1991-2000 averaged 33.14C and post AWS 2002-2011 averaged 32.95C (five years missing pre and two years missing post 2001 so not very accurate)

Palmerville max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 palmerville minimum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 18.22C / v2 17.19C / CDO raw 19.05C

1964-2017 - v1 18.77C / v2 18.50C / CDO raw 19.39C

v1 warmed 0.55C / v2 warmed 1.31C / raw warmed 0.34C

Average change per decade : v1 0.14C / v2 0.26C / raw 0.01C

Albany 2000-2017 - v1 19.11C / v2 19.18C / raw 19.17C (2018 was 18.76C)

1961-90 - v1 18.50C / v2 17.97C / raw 19.45C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 18.72% / v2 - 17.99% / raw - 67.82%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 10.15% / v2 - 16.85% / raw - 44.75%

Palmerville 28004 has min temps back to 1896 : 1896-1901 + 1903-1905 = 18.54C

1991-2000 averaged 19.76C and post AWS 2002-2011 averaged 18.97C (only one year missing pre 2001 so fairly accurate)

Palmerville min Excel spreadsheets

Back to station menu

Perth

acorn 2 perth maximum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 24.38C / v2 23.91C / CDO raw 23.17C

1964-2017 - v1 24.86C / v2 24.85C / CDO raw 24.67C

v1 warmed 0.48C / v2 warmed 0.94C / raw warmed 1.50C

Average change per decade : v1 0.16C / v2 0.21C / raw 0.28C

Perth 2000-2017 - v1 25.31C / v2 25.31C / raw 25.31C (2018 was 25.05C)

1961-90 - v1 24.61C / v2 24.54C / raw 24.19C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 18.95% / v2 - 16.05% / raw - 26.66%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 9.47% / v2 - 10.15% / raw - 10.52%

Perth 9021 raw max extends back to 1897: 1897-1909 = 22.73C

9034 overlap with 9021 3 June 1944 to 29 April 1992 : 9034 23.64C / 9021 24.14C

ACORN catalogue: The airport site (009021) opened in 1944. ACORN-SAT uses Perth Regional Office until 1944 and utilises the overlap period between 1944 and 1962 to merge this into the Airport data. Regional Office data after a site move in 1963 were not used for ACORN-SAT. The airport site moved about 1.5 km to the south-southeast on 3 March 1988. An automatic weather station was installed on 20 June 1994 and became the primary instrument on 1 November 1996. The site move 1.7 km to the north on 27 October 1997; observations continued at the old site under station number 009250 until 2001.

1986-1995 raw max averaged 24.29C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 25.12C

Perth max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 perth minimum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 11.57C / v2 11.22C / CDO raw 13.02C

1964-2017 - v1 12.15C / v2 11.97C / CDO raw 12.40C

v1 warmed 0.58C / v2 warmed 0.75C / raw cooled 0.62C

Average change per decade : v1 0.14C / v2 0.18C / raw -0.03C

Perth 2000-2017 - v1 12.33C / v2 12.33C / raw 12.33C (2018 was 12.48C)

1961-90 - v1 12.00C / v2 11.70C / raw 12.42C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 18.04% / v2 - 19.34% / raw - 33.33%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 10.28% / v2 - 10.39% / raw - 11.57%

Perth 9021 raw min extends back to 1897: 1897-1909 = 12.74C

9034 overlap with 9021 3 June 1944 to 30 April 1992 : 9034 13.58C / 9021 11.95C

1986-1995 raw min averaged 12.64C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 12.22C

Perth min Excel spreadsheets

Back to station menu

Port Lincoln

acorn 2 port lincoln maximum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 20.43C / v2 20.10C / CDO raw 20.56C

1964-2017 - v1 20.94C / v2 20.77C / CDO raw 21.09C

v1 warmed 0.51C / v2 warmed 0.67C / raw warmed 0.53C

Average change per decade : v1 0.09C / v2 0.11C / raw 0.03C

Port Lincoln 2000-2017 - v1 21.45C / v2 21.45C / raw 21.44C (2018 was 22.02C)

1961-90 - v1 20.64C / v2 20.40C / raw 20.91C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 16.38% / v2 - 18.02% / raw - 74.01%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 10.15% / v2 - 9.77% / raw - 14.65%

Port Lincoln 18070 has max temps back to 1892 : 1892-1909 = 20.55C

ACORN catalogue: The original site (018070) was in the town centre. In its later years this site was quite built-up, with buildings, a fence and a concrete surface in the vicinity. There were numerous small moves in its history, with documented moves in October 1924, December 1941, July 1962, February 1975 and October 1986 (40 m east). It closed in March 2002. The current site has been operating since 1992.

Port Lincoln max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 port lincoln minimum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 10.77C / v2 10.88C / CDO raw 11.67C

1964-2017 - v1 11.26C / v2 11.41C / CDO raw 11.66C

v1 warmed 0.49C / v2 warmed 0.53C / raw cooled 0.01C

Average change per decade : v1 0.03C / v2 0.03C / raw 0.01C

Port Lincoln 2000-2017 - v1 11.42C / v2 11.42C / raw 11.41C (2018 was 11.44C)

1961-90 - v1 11.21C / v2 11.46C / raw 12.03C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 19.82% / v2 - 16.61% / raw - 75.32%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 9.18% / v2 - 9.80% / raw - 15.45%

Port Lincoln 18070 has min temps back to 1892 : 1892-1909 = 10.76C

Port Lincoln min Excel spreadsheets

Back to station menu

Port Macquarie

acorn 2 port macquarie maximum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 23.34C / v2 22.67C / CDO raw 21.95C

1964-2017 - v1 23.58C / v2 23.40C / raw 22.94C

v1 cooled 0.24C / v2 warmed 0.73C / raw warmed 0.99C

Average change per decade : v1 0.02C / v2 0.13C / raw 0.18C

Port Macquarie 2000-2017 - v1 23.92C / v2 23.87C / raw 23.87C (2018 was 24.24C)

1961-90 - v1 23.32C / v2 22.96C / raw 22.22C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 18.06% / v2 - 20.34% / raw - 66.93%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 12.31% / v2 - 11.90% / raw - 21.16%

60026 overlap with 60139 25 July 1995 to 26 October 2003 : 60026 22.71 / 60139 23.41C

ACORN catalogue: The original site (060026) was located near the Pilot Station, close to the ocean on the eastern edge of the town centre. There was a move 90 m seaward (the exact direction is unclear) in January 1939, and a move 18 m to the southwest on 4 September 1968. On 6 October 1983, the site moved about 1 km south to a location in suburban Hill Street, about 1.5 km south of the city centre and approximately 700 m inland from the ocean. This location was less exposed to the ocean than this distance suggests because it was in a local hollow, and a ridge separated it from the beach. Temperature observations there ceased in October 2003. The site number 060026 continues to be used for rainfall observations but these are in a different location to the pre-2003 temperature observations. The current site (060139) is located on the southeast side of the airport runway. It began operations in 1995 but has only been used in the ACORN- SAT dataset from January 2000 because of some issues with its early data.

1990-1999 raw averaged 22.61C and post AWS 2001-2010 averaged 23.75C

Port Macquarie max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 port macquarie minimum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 10.93C / v2 10.89C / raw 12.72C

1964-2017 - v1 12.17C / v2 12.20C / raw 13.27C

v1 warmed 1.24C / v2 warmed 1.31C / raw warmed 0.55C

Average change per decade : v1 0.18C / v2 0.18C / raw -0.01C

Port Macquarie 2000-2017 - v1 12.70C / v2 12.69C / raw 12.68C (2018 was 12.56C)

1961-90 - v1 11.70C / v2 11.73C / raw 13.46C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 19.47% / v2 - 18.81% / raw - 70.37%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 13.77% / v2 - 12.73% / raw - 23.66%

60026 overlap with 60139 26 July 1995 to 27 October 2003 : 60026 14.00C / 60139 12.60C

1990-1999 raw averaged 13.89C and post AWS 2001-2010 averaged 12.51C

Port Macquarie min Excel spreadsheets

Back to station menu

Richmond (Qld)

acorn 2 richmond maximum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 32.57C / v2 32.85C / CDO raw 32.61C

1964-2017 - v1 32.73C / v2 32.94C / CDO raw 33.02C

v1 warmed 0.16C / v2 warmed 0.09C / raw warmed 0.41C

Average change per decade : v1 0.04C / v2 0.07C / raw 0.01C

Richmond 2000-2017 - v1 33.11C / v2 33.36C / raw 33.18C (2018 was 33.79C)

1961-90 - v1 32.53C / v2 32.65C / raw 32.83C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 18.03% / v2 - 19.17% / raw - 59.58%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 13.55% / v2 - 10.38% / raw - 21.38%

Richmond 30045 has annual max temps back to 1893: 1893-1909 = 32.93C

ACORN catalogue: The only known station move was one of 30 m in September 1965. New screens were known to have been supplied in December 1928 and September 1991; the screen in use in September 1944 was reported to have had an iron roof. An automatic weather station (030161) was installed at the airport, approximately 4 km north of the town, in 1998 and may eventually replace the existing site.

Richmond max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 richmond minimum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 15.93C / v2 15.92C / CDO raw 16.38C

1964-2017 - v1 17.49C / v2 17.35C / CDO raw 17.28C

v1 warmed 1.56C / v2 warmed 1.43C / raw warmed 0.90C

Average change per decade : v1 0.21C / v2 0.21C / raw 0.18C

Richmond 2000-2017 - v1 17.74C / v2 17.75C / raw 17.74C (2018 was 18.01C)

1961-90 - v1 17.10C / v2 16.84C / raw 16.72C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 18.35% / v2 - 17.58% / raw - 64.94%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 11.26% / v2 - 15.89% / raw - 20.76%

Richmond 30045 has annual min temps back to 1893: 1893-1909 = 16.17C

Richmond min Excel spreadsheets

Back to station menu

Robe

acorn 2 robe maximum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 18.56C / v2 18.09C / CDO raw 17.90C

1964-2017 - v1 18.53C / v2 18.32C / CDO raw 18.53C

v1 cooled 0.03C / v2 warmed 0.23C / raw warmed 0.63C

Average change per decade : v1 -0.01C / v2 0.04C / raw 0.08C

Robe 2000-2017 - v1 18.60C / v2 18.59C / raw 18.60C (2018 was 18.86C)

1961-90 - v1 18.62C / v2 18.17C / raw 18.55C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 19.94% / v2 - 18.03% / raw - 58.69%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 20.28% / v2 - 12.27% / raw - 20.37%

Robe 26026 has annual max temps back to 1885: 1885-1909 = 17.89C

ACORN catalogue: There were issues with the screen door for some years prior to repairs in 1930. There was a very small move (3 m) in October 1943, and documentation also suggests a small move at some point in the decade prior to 1956 but there is no clear evidence of its nature or timing. There was a move 200 m east in November 1968 An automatic weather station (026105) was installed at Robe Airport, 5 km east-southeast of the town, in 2003. It is at an inland location quite different climatically from the town site, so is not expected to be a direct replacement for the town site.

Assuming 2003 was when AWS readings were adopted, 1993-2002 raw max averaged 18.36C and post AWS 2004-2013 averaged 18.63C

Robe max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 robe minimum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 10.83C / v2 10.71C / CDO raw 10.83C

1964-2017 - v1 11.25C / v2 11.29C / CDO raw 11.21C

v1 warmed 0.42C / v2 warmed 0.58C / raw warmed 0.38C

Average change per decade : v1 0.04C / v2 0.06C / raw 0.04C

Robe 2000-2017 - v1 11.39C / v2 11.39C / raw 11.39C (2018 was 11.23C)

1961-90 - v1 11.12C / v2 11.18C / raw 11.06C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 69.93% / v2 - 32.00% / raw - 64.92%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 19.55% / v2 - 19.50% / raw - 19.63%

Robe 26026 has annual min temps back to 1885: 1885-1909 = 10.49C

Assuming 2003 was when AWS readings were adopted, 1993-2002 raw min averaged 11.35C and post AWS 2004-2013 averaged 11.42C

Robe min Excel spreadsheets

Back to station menu

Snowtown

acorn 2 snowtown maximum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 23.14C / v2 22.71C / CDO raw 23.27C

1964-2017 - v1 23.57C / v2 23.55C / CDO raw 23.75C

v1 warmed 0.43C / v2 warmed 0.84C / raw warmed 0.48C

Average change per decade : v1 0.09C / v2 0.14C / raw 0.09C

Albany 2000-2017 - v1 24.18C / v2 24.18C / raw 24.19C (2018 was 24.94C)

1961-90 - v1 23.11C / v2 23.14C / raw 23.50C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 18.64% / v2 - 18.16% / raw - 78.10%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 19.67% / v2 - 19.68% / raw - 22.70%

Snowtown 21046 has annual max temps for 1909 = 21.72C

21046 overlap with 21133 23 July 1998 to 29 June 2001 : 21046 24.41C / 21133 23.97C

ACORN catalogue: The former site (021046), which continued until June 2001, was located in the town. Small moves within the town are documented in April 1948, July 1971 and on 4 August 1993 (15 m). The current site has been operating since 1998.

1988-1997 raw max averaged 23.65C and post AWS 1999-2008 averaged 24.15C

Snowtown max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 snowtown minimum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 8.44C / v2 8.14C / CDO raw 9.54C

1964-2017 - v1 8.67C / v2 8.73C / CDO raw 9.53C

v1 warmed 0.23C / v2 warmed 0.59C / raw cooled 0.01C

Average change per decade : v1 0.02C / v2 0.05C / raw -0.09C

Albany 2000-2017 - v1 9.01C / v2 8.99C / raw 8.99C (2018 was 8.93C)

1961-90 - v1 8.49C / v2 8.60C / raw 9.87C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 17.11% / v2 - 20.10% / raw - 83.18%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 19.80% / v2 - 19.92% / raw - 21.77%

Snowtown 21046 has annual min temps for 1909 = 8.50C

21046 overlap with 21133 24 July 1998 to 30 June 2001 : 21046 10.42C / 21133 9.03C

1988-1997 raw min averaged 9.96C and post AWS 1999-2008 averaged 8.88C

Snowtown min Excel spreadsheets

Back to station menu

Sydney

acorn 2 sydney maximum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 21.91C / v2 22.39C / CDO raw 21.68C

1964-2017 - v1 22.52C / v2 22.91C / CDO raw 22.49C

v1 warmed 0.61C / v2 warmed 0.52C / raw warmed 0.81C

Average change per decade : v1 0.08C / v2 0.04C / raw 0.15C

Sydney 2000-2017 - v1 23.05C / v2 23.19C / raw 23.05C (2018 was 23.36C)

1961-90 - v1 22.21C / v2 22.79C / raw 22.15C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 17.75% / v2 - 17.40% / raw - 26.41%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 10.18% / v2 - 10.05% / raw - 10.41%

Sydney 66062 has annual max temps back to 1859: 1859-1909 = 20.98C

ACORN catalogue: Originally the site was in the main Observatory grounds. It moved about 100 m south to its current location in 1917. The earlier site was a more exposed location on a hilltop and had lower maximum and higher minimum temperatures than the current location. An automatic weather station was installed at the current site on 8 August 1990. The area is heavily built-up and has been since at least the late 19th century. An analysis of minimum temperature trends in the ACORN- SAT data showed no evidence of an abnormal warming trend relative to non- urban sites in the region, indicating that any urban influence on the data was already fully developed by the time ACORN-SAT begins in 1910.

1986-1995 raw max averaged 20.12C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 20.14C

Assuming AWS became operational in 1990, 1980-1989 raw max averaged 22.29C and post AWS 1991-2000 averaged 22.31C

Sydney max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 sydney minimum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 13.76C / v2 14.05C / CDO raw 13.58C

1964-2017 - v1 14.47C / v2 14.54C / CDO raw 14.47C

v1 warmed 0.71C / v2 warmed 0.49C / raw warmed 0.89C

Average change per decade : v1 0.11C / v2 0.07C / raw 0.13C

Sydney 2000-2017 - v1 14.84C / v2 14.85C / raw 14.85C (2018 was 14.91C)

1961-90 - v1 14.23C / v2 14.34C / raw 14.22C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 18.97% / v2 - 17.61% / raw - 28.10%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 10.76% / v2 - 9.21% / raw - 10.78%

Sydney 66062 has annual min temps back to 1859: 1859-1909 = 13.37C

Assuming AWS became operational in 1990, 1980-1989 raw min averaged 14.47C and post AWS 1991-2000 averaged 14.36C

Sydney min Excel spreadsheets

Back to station menu

Tennant Creek

acorn 2 tennant creek maximum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 31.56C / v2 30.92C / CDO raw 32.17C

1964-2017 - v1 31.92C / v2 31.66C / CDO raw 31.92C

v1 warmed 0.36C / v2 warmed 0.74C / raw cooled 0.25C

Average change per decade : v1 0.10C / v2 0.18C / raw 0.05C

Tennant Creek 2000-2017 - v1 31.98C / v2 31.98C / raw 31.98C (2018 was 33.56C)

1961-90 - v1 31.80C / v2 31.40C / raw 31.87C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 19.71% / v2 - 17.05% / raw - 61.79%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 11.89% / v2 - 9.79% / raw - 11.89%

15087 overlap with 15135 27 July 1969 to 31 October 1970 : 15087 32.36C / 15135 32.04C

ACORN catalogue: The original site (015087) was based in the town. There was a major move (12 km south) in June 1935 and a smaller move of about 20 m in November 1963. This later site was quite close to a road. New screens were installed to replace damaged ones in May 1945 and November 1958. Observations ceased in 1970. This airport site has been operating since 1969. An automatic weather station was installed on 8 July 1990 and has been the primary instrument since 1 November 1996. There are no known substantial moves at this location.

1986-1995 raw max averaged 32.27C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 31.82C

Tennant Creek max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 tennant creek minimum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 19.51C / v2 19.13C / CDO raw 18.72C

1964-2017 - v1 19.76C / v2 19.70C / CDO raw 19.71C

v1 warmed 0.25C / v2 warmed 0.57C / raw warmed 0.99C

Average change per decade : v1 0.08C / v2 0.10C / raw 0.13C

Tennant Creek 2000-2017 - v1 19.82C / v2 19.76C / raw 19.82C (2018 was 20.48C)

1961-90 - v1 19.54C / v2 19.49C / raw 19.42C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 16.05% / v2 - 19.33% / raw - 64.64%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 11.96% / v2 - 10.83% / raw - 11.96%

15087 overlap with 15135 25 July 1969 to 31 October 1970 : 15087 18.56C / 15135 18.91C

1986-1995 raw min averaged 20.43C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 19.90C

Tennant Creek min Excel spreadsheets

Back to station menu

Tibooburra

acorn 2 tibooburra maximum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 26.59C / v2 27.13C / CDO raw 27.29C

1964-2017 - v1 27.52C / v2 27.57C / CDO raw 27.61C

v1 warmed 0.93C / v2 warmed 0.44C / raw warmed 0.32C

Average change per decade : v1 0.17C / v2 0.12C / raw 0.11C

Tibooburra 2000-2017 - v1 28.27C / v2 28.30C / raw 28.27C (2018 was 29.16C)

1961-90 - v1 26.97C / v2 27.16C / raw 27.16C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 17.21% / v2 - 17.38% / raw - 91.22%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 9.66% / v2 - 10.04% / raw - 12.08%

46037 overlap with 46126 23 September 1997 to 8 January 2015 : 46037 28.22C / 46126 28.09C

ACORN catalogue: The site has had a number of moves over time. There is evidence of a move in November 1944 and a small move in 1960. A 500 m move to the southwest occurred in August 1980, and there is evidence of a move of a few metres some time between 1981 and 1984. There were moves of a few metres in September 1994 and of 15 m to the south in July 1996, to place the screen away from areas of bluestone landscaping and concrete, although neither move has had a significant impact on the observations. Minimum temperatures at Tibooburra suffered from persistent problems (most likely instrument faults) in the 1940s and most 1941–1949 minimum temperature data have not been used. An automatic weather station (046126) has been operating at Tibooburra Airport, about 5 km to the east, since September 1997. This may eventually supersede the existing manual site.

2012-2014 raw max averaged 28.59C and post AWS 2015-2017 averaged 28.34C

Tibooburra max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 tibooburra minimum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 14.34C / v2 13.56C / CDO raw 13.42C

1964-2017 - v1 14.53C / v2 14.43C / CDO raw 14.44C

v1 warmed 0.19C / v2 warmed 0.87C / raw warmed 1.02C

Average change per decade : v1 0.01C / v2 0.09C / raw 0.10C

Tibooburra 2000-2017 - v1 14.99C / v2 14.98C / raw 14.98C (2018 was 15.59C)

1961-90 - v1 14.17C / v2 14.04C / raw 13.98C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 18.95% / v2 - 18.28% / raw - 89.82%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 11.05% / v2 - 10.47% / raw - 15.36%

46037 overlap with 46126 24 September 1997 to 9 January 2015 : 46037 14.95C / 46126 15.00C

2012-2014 raw min averaged 14.70C and post AWS 2015-2017 averaged 15.55C

Tibooburra min Excel spreadsheets

Back to station menu

Wagga Wagga

acorn 2 wagga wagga maximum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 22.25C / v2 22.19C / CDO raw 22.70C

1964-2017 - v1 22.41C / v2 22.54C / CDO raw 22.40C

v1 warmed 0.16C / v2 warmed 0.35C / raw cooled 0.30C

Average change per decade : v1 0.05C / v2 0.07C / raw -0.01C

Wagga Wagga 2000-2017 - v1 23.16C / v2 23.17C / raw 23.16C (2018 was 24.08C)

1961-90 - v1 22.02C / v2 22.18C / raw 21.97C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 17.14% / v2 - 17.75% / raw - 57.04%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 11.42% / v2 - 9.65% / raw - 11.42%

Wagga Wagga 72151 has annual max temps back to 1872 : 1872-1873 + 1880-1884 + 1886-1906 + 1908-1909 = 24.22C

72151 overlap with 72150 17 January 1942 to 31 December 1950 : 72151 22.60C / 72150 21.60C

ACORN catalogue: The original site (072151) was in the Wagga Wagga town area. It was initially at the Post Office but moved to police station grounds in July 1925. There was a further move in April 1928. The screen was initially facing east before being reoriented in October 1933. Temperatures were observed at this location until 1953. Rainfall observations continued under the same site number until 1984 but moved to a different location in the suburb of Kooringal, southeast of the town centre. The airport site (072150) started operating in 1943. A grain shed to the northeast, built in 1969 and removed in 1999, cast shadows over the site after sunrise in mid-winter. The automatic weather station was installed on 21 October 1994 and became the primary instrument on 1 November 1996.

1986-1995 raw max averaged 21.98C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 23.02C

Wagga Wagga max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 wagga wagga minimum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 8.28C / v2 7.50C / CDO raw 9.41C

1964-2017 - v1 9.01C / v2 8.78C / CDO raw 9.04C

v1 warmed 0.73C / v2 warmed 1.28C / raw cooled 0.37C

Average change per decade : v1 0.10C / v2 0.19C / raw 0.04C

Wagga Wagga 2000-2017 - v1 9.40C / v2 9.39C / raw 9.40C (2018 was 9.76C)

1961-90 - v1 8.74C / v2 8.36C / raw 8.86C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 18.03% / v2 - 17.00% / raw - 65.23%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 12.84% / v2 - 10.49% / raw - 12.83%

Wagga Wagga 72151 has annual min temps back to 1872: 1872-1876 + 1879-1884 + 1886-1900 + 1902-1909 = 8.53C

72151 overlap with 72150 18 January 1942 to 31 December 1950 : 72151 9.8C / 72150 9.40C

1986-1995 raw min averaged 9.00C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 9.08C

Wagga Wagga min Excel spreadsheets

Back to station menu

Walgett

acorn 2 walgett maximum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 27.25C / v2 26.42C / CDO raw 26.91C

1964-2017 - v1 27.25C / v2 26.96C / CDO raw 27.37C

v1 static 0.00C / v2 warmed 0.54C / raw warmed 0.46C

Average change per decade : v1 0.07C / v2 0.10C / raw 0.11C

Walgett 2000-2017 - v1 27.94C / v2 27.84C / raw 27.94C (2018 was 29.22C)

1961-90 - v1 26.83C / v2 26.39C / raw 27.10C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 16.25% / v2 - 17.56% / raw - 82.07%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 21.89% / v2 - 10.08% / raw - 30.16%

Walgett 52026 has annual max temps back to 1879: 1879-1880 + 1884 + 1886 + 1888-1902 + 1904-1906 + 1908-1909 = 26.41C

52026 overlap with 52088 1 June 1993 to 30 June 1993 : 52026 18.30C / 52088 17.78C

ACORN catalogue: The original site (052026) was located within the town area. There may have been a small move in August 1960 when the screen was replaced. There are documented moves in November 1962 and October 1971, the latter putting it near the shire offices where it remained until closing in 1993. The airport site (052088) began operations on 2 June 1993, with no useful overlap with the town site. There was a site move to the other side of the airport on 21 May 1997 when the automatic weather station was installed.

Assuming 1997 was when AWS readings were adopted, 1987-1996 raw max averaged 27.06C and post AWS 1998-2007 averaged 27.77C

Walgett max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 walgett minimum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 11.31C / v2 10.48C / CDO raw 12.29C

1964-2017 - v1 11.75C / v2 11.55C / CDO raw 12.50C

v1 warmed 0.44C / v2 warmed 1.07C / raw warmed 0.21C

Average change per decade : v1 0.05C / v2 0.13C / raw -0.04C

Walgett 2000-2017 - v1 11.97C / v2 11.97C / raw 11.97C (2018 was 12.33C)

1961-90 - v1 11.59C / v2 11.17C / raw 12.88C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 18.38% / v2 - 18.23% / raw - 82.92%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 21.87% / v2 - 22.14% / raw - 30.27%

Walgett 52026 has annual min temps back to 1879: 1879-1880 + 1884 + 1885-1906 + 1908-1909 = 12.33C

52026 overlap with 52088 1 June 1993 to 30 June 1993 : 52026 6.02C / 52088 4.95C (but 52026 19 days and 52088 30 days)

Assuming 1997 was when AWS readings were adopted, 1987-1996 raw min averaged 12.77C and post AWS 1998-2007 averaged 11.91C

Walgett min Excel spreadsheets

Back to station menu

Wandering

acorn 2 wandering maximum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 22.66C / v2 22.43C / CDO raw 22.88C

1964-2017 - v1 23.23C / v2 23.01C / CDO raw 23.44C

v1 warmed 0.67C / v2 warmed 0.58C / raw warmed 0.56C

Average change per decade : v1 0.12C / v2 0.15C / raw 0.09C

Wandering 2000-2017 - v1 23.74C / v2 23.56C / raw 23.79C (2018 was 23.58C)

1961-90 - v1 22.87C / v2 22.63C / raw 23.16C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 18.81% / v2 - 16.78% / raw - 67.21%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 17.07% / v2 - 10.07% / raw - 18.64%

Wandering 10648 raw max extends back to 1902: 1902-1909 = 22.71C

10648 overlap with 10917 14 December 1998 to 30 January 2003 : 10648 23.95C / 10917 23.67C

ACORN catalogue: The original site (010648) had moves in July 1987 (20 m, to achieve better exposure after trees had grown around the site) and in November 1988. It continued to operate until 2003. An automatic weather station (010917) was installed in 1998 about 1 km north of the original site.

1988-1997 raw max averaged 23.43C and post AWS 1999-2008 averaged 23.64C

Wandering max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 wandering minimum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 7.41C / v2 7.70C / CDO raw 8.26C

1964-2017 - v1 8.32C / v2 8.25C / CDO raw 8.75C

v1 warmed 0.91C / v2 warmed 0.55C / raw warmed 0.49C

Average change per decade : v1 0.04C / v2 0.11C / raw 0.03C

Wandering 2000-2017 - v1 8.36C / v2 8.48C / raw 8.59C (2018 was 8.74C)

1961-90 - v1 8.10C / v2 8.03C / raw 8.70C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 18.56% / v2 - 18.08% / raw - 65.44%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 18.33% / v2 - 17.22% / raw - 7.48%

Wandering 10648 raw min extends back to 1902: 1902-1909 = 7.48C

10648 overlap with 10917 15 December 1998 to 31 January 2003 : 10648 9.17C / 10917 8.43C

1988-1997 raw min averaged 9.11C and post AWS 1999-2008 averaged 8.59C

Wandering min Excel spreadsheets

Back to station menu

Wilsons Promontory

acorn 2 wilsons promontory maximum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 15.83C / v2 16.26C / CDO raw 16.02C

1964-2017 - v1 16.52C / v2 16.70C / CDO raw 16.52C

v1 warmed 0.69C / v2 warmed 0.56C / raw warmed 0.50C

Average change per decade : v1 0.13C / v2 0.08C / raw 0.11C

Wilsons Promontory 2000-2017 - v1 17.03C / v2 17.04C / raw 17.03C (2018 was 17.43C)

1961-90 - v1 16.29C / v2 16.54C / raw 16.29C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 44.37% / v2 - 17.06% / raw - 79.99%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 21.61% / v2 - 14.83% / raw - 21.64%

ACORN catalogue: This site has been located at the Wilsons Promontory lighthouse throughout its history, with no documented moves during the ACORN-SAT period. Bushfires affected the area in February 1951; the instrument enclosure was not directly affected but observations stopped for several months while staff housing was rebuilt. The screen was blown down in a June 1959 storm and had to be replaced. An automatic weather station was installed on 18 September 2000. Another bushfire in April 2005 also had no direct impact on the enclosure.

Assuming 2000 was when AWS readings were adopted, 1990-1999 raw max averaged 16.25C and post AWS 2001-2010 averaged 16.92C

Wilsons Promontory max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 wilsons promontory minimum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 11.63C / v2 11.74C / CDO raw 11.32C

1964-2017 - v1 11.92C / v2 12.12C / CDO raw 11.91C

v1 warmed 0.29C / v2 warmed 0.38C / raw warmed 0.59C

Average change per decade : v1 0.02C / v2 0.05C / raw 0.09C

Wilsons Promontory 2000-2017 - v1 12.35C / v2 12.36C / raw 12.35C (2018 was 12.66C)

1961-90 - v1 11.64C / v2 11.96C / raw 11.63C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 69.85% / v2 - 21.55% / raw - 82.84%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 23.09% / v2 - 14.42% / raw - 23.18%

Assuming 2000 was when AWS readings were adopted, 1990-1999 raw min averaged 11.73C and post AWS 2001-2010 averaged 12.26C

Wilsons Promontory min Excel spreadsheets

Back to station menu

Yamba

acorn 2 yamba maximum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 23.67C / v2 23.49C / CDO raw 22.85C

1964-2017 - v1 23.94C / v2 23.88C / CDO raw 23.43C

v1 warmed 0.27C / v2 warmed 0.39C / raw warmed 0.58C

Average change per decade : v1 0.06C / v2 0.05C / raw 0.14C

Yamba 2000-2017 - v1 24.19C / v2 24.22C / raw 23.99C (2018 was 24.45C)

1961-90 - v1 23.74C / v2 23.56C / raw 22.98C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 13.85% / v2 - 19.72% / raw - 80.16%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 10.45% / v2 - 9.00% / raw - 15.15%

ACORN catalogue: The site has been on the headland throughout its history. A site move, probably of less than 50 m, took place on 22 November 1943 to opposite side of Pilot Station building. There was another move at some point between 1975 and 1980, probably of only a few metres. The current site was established on 16 October 2007, with the screen only 1.5 m from the screen for the previous site.

1997-2006 raw max averaged 23.63C and post AWS 2008-2017 averaged 24.17C

Yamba max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 yamba minimum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 15.07C / v2 15.13C / CDO raw 15.19C

1964-2017 - v1 15.89C / v2 15.62C / CDO raw 15.61C

v1 warmed 0.82C / v2 warmed 0.49C / raw warmed 0.42C

Average change per decade : v1 0.10C / v2 0.07C / raw 0.04C

Yamba 2000-2017 - v1 16.07C / v2 15.93C / raw 15.90C (2018 was 16.04C)

1961-90 - v1 15.70C / v2 15.38C / raw 15.37C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 18.09% / v2 - 18.61% / raw - 82.81%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 8.19% / v2 - 15.26% / raw - 19.53%

1997-2006 raw min averaged 15.75C and post AWS 2008-2017 averaged 16.07C

Yamba min Excel spreadsheets

Back to station menu




Top of page
Website home


Bookmark and Share


This website produced by Scribeworks 2009/19

Home