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ACORN 2.1 influence on Australian temperature trends

New South Wales Northern Territory Queensland South Australia Tasmania Victoria Western Australia


In October 2020 the Bureau of Meteorology again rewrote Australia's temperature history with the release of ACORN 2.1 (Australian Climate Observation Reference Network), an update to its homogenised ACORN 2 dataset released in late 2018 that significantly increased the rate of climate warming since 1910.

ACORN is the Australian Climate Observation Reference Network of 112 weather stations across Australia. The rewritten ACORN 2 dataset of 2018 updated the ACORN 1 dataset released in 2011. It immediately increased Australia's per decade rate of mean temperature warming by 23% and provided examples of algorithm miscalculations such as Oodnadatta in South Australia having its current record hottest ever day in Australia on 2 January 1960 warmed from 50.7C to 51.1C.

Under ACORN 2, Carnarvon on the west coast had Australia's second hottest ever daytime temperature at 51.0C in 1953. The original RAW temperature was 47.7C on 23 January 1953, and ACORN 2.1 has retained the inaccurate 51.0C.

A notable feature of ACORN is its uneven distribution of global warming following adjustments to counter any artificial influences. Such anomalies suggest errors in methodology rather than the climate changing at a different rate in different locations over 109 years. For example:

  • From 1910-1964 to 1965-2019, maxima at Longreach warmed by 0.09C in ACORN 2.1, yet 448 kilometres west at Boulia maxima warmed by 1.13C.
  • From 1910-1964 to 1965-2019, Moree maxima cooled by 0.09C in ACORN 2.1, yet 175 kilometres west at Walgett maxima warmed by 0.65C.
  • From 1910-1964 to 1965-2019, Gabo Island maxima warmed by 0.16C in ACORN 2.1, yet 184 kilometres kilometres north at Moruya Heads maxima warmed by 0.65C.

ACORN 2.1

The ACORN 2.1 update in October 2020 provided new or reassessed adjustments at 23 of the 112 ACORN locations around Australia, with four of them (Cape Bruny, Halls Creek, Karijini North and Richmond Qld) due to site moves and the other 19 due to statistical analyses showing non-climatological anomalies such as smaller screens, changed surrounding vegetation or urban development.

According to the ACORN 2.1 FAQ, the most significant change was a 1.35C cooling of minima at Halls Creek based on a site change and parallel observations at the old and new sites. Comparison of parallel observations at Halls Creek 2071 and Halls Creek 2079 over 1,190 days from 20/9/2015 to 31/12/2018 suggests the airport was 1.28C cooler.

The example below demonstrates how the different datasets have changed daily maximum temperatures, some days by more than 5C, at Halls Creek from 8 April to 14 April 1910. These are typical of daily adjustments at many of the 112 stations within ACORN, which is touted as a world-class homogenised weather station network.

halls creek temperature adjustments

According to the BoM: Analysis has shown the newly applied adjustments in ACORN-SAT 2.1 have not altered the estimated long-term warming trend in Australia.

The table below suggests that at all 112 ACORN weather stations, ACORN 2.1 has made no difference to historic maxima but cooled historic minima by 0.01C.

acorn differences

The table below suggests that at the 104 non-urban ACORN weather stations used to calculate national averages, ACORN 2.1 has warmed historic maxima by 0.01C and cooled historic minima by 0.01C.

acorn differences

The collective averaged changes are small but the update from ACORN 2 to ACORN 2.1 was effectively a redistribution of historic maxima and minima to achieve a similar national average.

The 23 stations mostly had adjustments prior to the first day of years from 2011 to 2015, although Cape Bruny maxima were warmed by 0.53C prior to 1 January 2007.

The table below compares adjusted ACORN 2 and ACORN 2.1 temperatures from 1910 to 2006 in New South Wales, Northern Territory, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria and Western Australia, as well as a comparison of ACORN 2.1 and original RAW temperatures.

acorn 2.1 state differences

Click here for comparison tables in 1910-1919, 1910-1964 and 1910-2006.

The table below compares averaged 1910-1964 and 1965-2019 ACORN 2.1 and original RAW temperatures in all Australian states, as well as the average annual number of rainy days at the ACORN stations during those periods wherein more such days should cool maxima and warm minima and less such days should warm maxima and cool minima due to associated daytime and nighttime cloud cover.

acorn 2.1 differences and rainfall

The official explanation

A BoM explanation of ACORN and access to all homogenised daily temperatures is available here.

The bureau has released an ACORN-SAT version 2 research report which explains various of the changes to ACORN 1. For example, the report estimates the response times of electronic Automatic Weather Stations (AWS), mostly introduced during and since 1996, had an Australia-wide effect around +0.01C for maximum temperatures and from zero to -0.01C for minimum temperatures (albeit up to +0.08C for maxima in arid locations such as Alice Springs). No specific adjustment for this recording equipment change was made in versions 2 or 2.1 of ACORN.

This is similar to BoM testing which found an approximate +0.1C artificial mean temperature increase at the time of 1972 metrication, probably caused by about 60% of all Fahrenheit temperatures being rounded (x.0F) by observers since 1910 (see station rounding percentages below). This adjustment also was not included in the ACORN homogenisation on the premise that major La Ninas, record rainfall and record cloud cover in the early to mid 1970s may have caused the temperature to warm naturally (see Metrication influence on Australian temperature trends).

The BoM's ACORN 2 research report table below shows linear trends in estimated C warming per decade at all 112 Australian stations using the ACORN 1, ACORN 2 and unhomogenised Australian Water Availability Project datasets (AWAP is almost identical to RAW) from 1910 to 2016 and from 1960 to 2016. The per decade rate of 1910-2016 mean temperature warming in ACORN 2 is 23% higher than ACORN 1 and 53.7% higher than raw.

acorn 2 table

Analysis

This page analyses the daily temperatures at Australia's 58 ACORN weather stations with a start year of 1910. The other 54 excluded ACORN stations have temperature recordings starting after the year 1910, the most recent being Learmonth with a start year of 1975. Analysis of all 112 stations can be found via the state links at the top of this page.

Daily temperatures in ACORN 2.1 and RAW have been annualised, and charts on this page show the difference between the homogenised ACORN dataset when compared to original raw annual temperatures. This analysis only allows the inclusion of years within which there were no months with less than 15 days of recorded temperatures, in accordance with the ACORN protocol.

58 stations begin in 1910 and end in 2019 in ACORN 2.1 and RAW, and the national charts below show averaged maximum and minimum temperature trends at all these stations with associated data.

Comparing maximum in the averaged first half of the record (1910-1964) with the averaged second half (1965-2019) at the 58 stations analysed below, ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.54C and raw warmed 0.37C.

Comparing minimum in the averaged first half of the record (1910-1964) with the averaged second half (1965-2019) at the 58 stations analysed below, ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.77C and raw warmed 0.40C.

acorn 2.1 australia maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 24.74C / raw 24.93C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 25.28C / raw 25.30C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.54C / raw warmed 0.37C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.100C / raw 0.085C

58 Australian stations 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 25.74C / raw 25.75C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 24.93C / raw 24.98C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 18.09% / raw - 58.44%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 11.73% / raw - 16.49%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 24.78C in ACORN 2.1 and 24.97C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 25.85C in ACORN 2.1 and 25.88C in raw

Australia max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2.1 australia minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 12.82C / CDO raw 13.39C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 13.59C / CDO raw 13.79C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.77C / raw warmed 0.40C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.121C / raw 0.061C

58 Australian stations 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 13.91C / raw 13.95C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 13.26C / raw 13.60C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 19.22% / raw - 61.62%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 13.03% / raw - 17.38%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 12.84C in ACORN 2.1 and 13.47C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 14.05C in ACORN 2.1 and 14.09C in raw

Australia min Excel spreadsheets

The rounding relationship

An average 60.03% of all Fahrenheit temperatures recorded from 1910 to 1971 were x.0 rounded numbers without a decimal, with a likely but unproven cooling influence due to a greater number of observers (many farmers or post office staff rather than weather bureau employees) writing, for example, 86.7F as 86 rather than 87 because they considered it more accurate and honest.

The relationships between raw maximum temperatures and their .0F/C rounding, as well as their decadal averages, are charted and tabulated below.

australia maximum temperature rounding

australia maximum temperature decadal trend

The relationships between raw minimum temperatures and their .0F/C rounding, as well as their decadal averages, are charted and tabulated below.

australia minimum temperature rounding

australia minimum temperature decadal trend

Extremely hot or not?

Extreme daily temperatures can be defined as equal to or hotter than 37.8C, which before 1972 metrication was known as a century temperature at or above 100F. The table below compares 1910-1963 with 1964-2017 at 57 weather stations (excluding Sale from the 58 above), showing that the total and average number of days at 37.8C or more increased 7.6% in ACORN 1, increased 15.9% in ACORN 2 and decreased 3.3% in RAW.

From 1910 to 1963, ACORN 2 reduces the number of 37.8C+ days in ACORN 1 by 12.5% and reduces the number of 37.8C+ days in RAW by 19.9%. From 1964 to 2017, ACORN 2 reduces the number of 37.8C+ days in ACORN 1 by 5.8% and reduces the number of 37.8C+ days in RAW by 4.0% The averaged temperature of days at 37.8C or more didn't change in ACORN 1, increased 0.1C in ACORN 2 and increased 0.2C in RAW (download all 57 stations Excel).

australia extreme temperatures

On first appraisal, the higher average maximum for ACORN 2 in 1910-1963 might suggest that the bureau has added warmth to this first half of the daily records compared to RAW (ACORN 2 39.5C and RAW 39.4C). However, it is the reduced quantity of 37.8C+ days that affects the overall averages, as demonstrated in a simple mathematical equation:

If you take 10,000 random daily temperatures all cooler than 37.8C and add 591 days (an abbreviation of 59,182), all exactly 40.0C (i.e. 10,591 days), the overall average maximum is 30.6C.

However, if you take exactly the same 10,000 daily temperatures and add 473 days (an abbreviation of 47,378), all exactly 40.0C (i.e. 10,473 days), the overall average maximum is 30.5C.

The ACORN 2 algorithms grossly exaggerated certain days at different weather stations (e.g. Carnarvon having Australia's second hottest ever day on 23 January 1953 at 51.0C despite the RAW observation for that day being 47.7C), and this is likely to have slightly increased the average of 40C+ days only, but not the overall averages due to the large number of very hot days in RAW being reduced from 1910 to 1963.

The hottest day among the 57 stations in ACORN 2.1 was Oodnadatta at 51.1C on 2 January 1960 (vs Oodnadatta Airport at 50.7C in RAW - source), which would officially be the hottest day ever recorded in Australia. ACORN 1 lists Albany at 51.2C on 8 February 1933, which makes it Australia's hottest ever day in that dataset, but ACORN 2 (and 2.1) cools this day to 49.5C (original RAW 44.8C).

Alternatively, the Bureau of Meteorology defines a very hot day as one with a maximum of 40.0C or more.

The animated graphic below shows very hot days from 1910 to 2015 in the ACORN 1 dataset sourced to archived bureau pages within the WayBack Machine when compared to very hot days from 1910 to 2018 within the ACORN 2 dataset sourced to current readings at the BoM website.

australia very hot days

The animation above illustrates that the record high averaged number of very hot days in 1952 within the ACORN 1 dataset was reduced by 24.1% in the ACORN 2 dataset, and the ACORN 1 averaged total for 1952 still exceeds the ACORN 2 averaged total for 2018.

Random examples at individual stations:

  • At Bourke in NSW from 1910 to 2017 there were 1,909 very hot 40C+ days in RAW (average 41.7C), but in ACORN 1 there were 1,727 very hot 40C+ days (average 42.0C), and in ACORN 2 there were 1,589 very hot 40C+ days (average 41.7C). From RAW to ACORN 2 this is a 16.7% reduction.
  • At Marble Bar in WA from 1910 to 2017 there were 11,345 very hot 40C+ days in RAW (average 42.4C), but in ACORN 1 there were 10,060 very hot 40C+ days (average 42.5C), and in ACORN 2 there were 9,962 very hot 40C+ days (average 42.4C). From RAW to ACORN 2 this is a 12.2% reduction.
  • At Alice Springs in the Northern Territory from 1910 to 2017 there were 1,526 very hot 40C+ days in RAW (average 41.1C), but in ACORN 1 there were 1,421 very hot 40C+ days (average 41.1C), and in ACORN 2 there were 1,232 very hot 40C+ days (average 41.1C). From RAW to ACORN 2 this is a 19.3% reduction.
  • At Boulia in Queensland from 1910 to 2017 there were 4,889 very hot 40C+ days in RAW (average 41.6C), but in ACORN 1 there were 4,236 very hot 40C+ days (average 41.6C), and in ACORN 2 there were 3,500 very hot 40C+ days (average 41.7C). From RAW to ACORN 2 this is a 28.4% reduction.
  • At Wandering in WA from 1910 to 2017 there were 325 very hot 40C+ days in RAW (average 41.1C), but in ACORN 1 there were 266 very hot 40C+ days (average 41.1C), and in ACORN 2 there were 219 very hot 40C+ days (average 41.2C). From RAW to ACORN 2 this is a 32.6% reduction.

These very hot days adjustments are worth noting when the Bureau of Meteorology points to an increase in extreme temperatures as indicative of climate warming, with the historic reference likely to have been homogenised within ACORN 2.

Australia ACORN 1 1910-2015 and ACORN 2.1 very hot days 1910-2018 data Excel spreadsheet

Pre-1910 averages

45 of the 58 ACORN stations charted below on this page have RAW temperatures for different periods before 1910, and these are contained within data summaries below the charts.

When all pre-1910 averaged years of dailies (only years with all months including at least 15 days of observation) are collectively averaged, the maximum was 25.50C. This compares with the 1910-1963 collective average at those same 45 stations of 25.50C. There is no change to the average maximum.

When all pre-1910 averaged years of dailies are collectively averaged, the minimum was 13.08C. This compares with the 1910-1963 collective average at those same 45 stations of 13.46C. The averaged minimum increased 0.38C.

These averages comprise several hundreds years of daily temperature when totalled among the different locations but are in no way an accurate representation of pre-1910 averages across Australia, nor of themselves as there are widely differing timescales from one year to several decades before 1910, pre-Stevenson thermometer screens, etc.

If taken at face value as indicative of pre-1910 temperatures, the warming of minima might be due to the beginning of the urban heat island effect, climatic recovery from the Little Ice Age which ended in the late 1800s, increased artificial warming of the 1910-1963 timescale, or a combination of these. As climate warming is said to have begun in the 1970s, it is unlikely to be due to carbon dioxide. Pre-1910 and 1910-1963 averages for the 45 stations can be downloaded here.

The 1961-90 anomaly baseline

At the 58 1910-2019 stations analysed below, the 1961-1990 average maximum was 24.93C in ACORN 2.1 and 24.98C in RAW, and the 1961-1990 anomaly baseline in minimum was 13.26C in ACORN 2.1 and 13.60C in RAW. The cooler the 1961-1990 baseline, the greater the anomalous warming since then.

It is unlikely that either the ACORN 2.1 or raw datasets are an accurate record of true temperatures since 1910 because of undocumented and unadjusted influences such as screen and equipment changes or degradation, nearby site infrastructure, rainfall variations, urban and airport heat island warming tied to population growth, smog reduction, automatic weather station one second response times, the validity of area averaging which influences an ACORN temperature based on neighbouring stations sometimes hundreds of kilometres away, and the majority rounding of Fahrenheit temperatures before 1972.

Excel files on this page can be downloaded to compare how the ACORN 2.1 algorithms influence daily, monthly and annual temperatures at all 58 sites since 1910. If downloading an Excel, note that all daily temperatures are averaged within the second spreadsheet tables as annuals in column E but the ACORN-compliant and relevant annuals are in column AX. Note that all averaged annual temperatures and rounding estimates below are calculated by this website and are not official calculations presented by the BoM.

Station menu

Adelaide, Albany, Alice Springs, Bathurst, Boulia, Bourke, Bridgetown, Broome, Bundaberg, Burketown, Cairns, Cape Leeuwin, Cape Moreton, Cape Otway, Carnarvon, Charleville, Charters Towers, Cobar, Darwin, Deniliquin, Eddystone Point, Esperance, Gabo Island, Gayndah, Georgetown, Geraldton, Halls Creek, Inverell, Kalgoorlie, Katanning, Kerang, Launceston, Longreach, Low Head, Mackay, Marble Bar, Marree, Melbourne, Mildura, Miles, Moruya Heads, Normanton, Palmerville, Perth, Port Lincoln, Port Macquarie, Richmond (Qld), Robe, Sale, Snowtown, Sydney, Tennant Creek, Tibooburra, Wagga Wagga, Walgett, Wandering, Wilsons Promontory, Yamba

Adelaide

acorn 2 adelaide maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 21.98C / raw 21.83C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 22.39C / raw 22.25C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.41C / raw warmed 0.42C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.09C / raw 0.09C

Adelaide 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 23.02C / raw 22.99C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 21.99C / raw 21.77C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.51% / raw - 21.02%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.06% / raw - 11.98%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 22.32C in ACORN 2.1 and 22.25C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 23.18C in ACORN 2.1 and 23.18C in raw

Adelaide 23000 has annual max temps back to 1888: 1888-1909 = 21.87C

23000 overlap with 23090 1 February 1977 to 28 February 1979 : 23000 21.79C / 23090 21.92C

ACORN catalogue: Prior to 1977, the Regional Office (023000) was located at West Terrace, on the western edge of the central city and 3.2 km west of the current site, and observations were made there, continuing until early 1979. The site was on the edge of the main Adelaide parklands and appears to have been near the top of a small slope. There were site moves in 1944, November 1951 and a small move (15 m west) in 1962. Until 1948 there were two sets of observations made at Adelaide, one using a Glaisher stand and one using a Stevenson screen. The Glaisher stand observations, which generally had higher maximum temperatures (especially in summer), were the ones publicly reported at the time but the Stevenson screen observations are the ones used in the ACORN-SAT data (and in the Bureau’s database more generally). The widely-quoted record high temperature for Adelaide of 47.6 °C, set in January 1939, was measured in a Glaisher stand; the Stevenson screen value on this day was 46.1 °C. The current site was established in 1977. An automatic weather station was installed on 26 October 1992 and became the primary instrument on 1 November 1996.

1986-1995 raw max averaged 22.06C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 22.46C

Adelaide max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 adelaide minimum temperatures

1910-1964 ACORN 2.1 11.61C / CDO raw 11.94C

1965-2019 ACORN 2.1 12.27C / CDO raw 12.41C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.66C / raw warmed 0.47C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.08C / raw 0.07C

Adelaide 2000-2019 ACORN 2.1 12.57C / raw 12.57C

1961-90 ACORN 2.1 12.07C / raw 12.40C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 19.05% / raw - 23.19%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 11.13% / raw - 11.78%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 11.87C in ACORN 2.1 and 12.00C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 12.68C in ACORN 2.1 and 12.68C in raw

Adelaide 23000 has annual min temps back to 1888: 1888-1909 = 11.80C

23000 overlap with 23090 2 February 1977 to 28 February 1979 : 23000 12.76C / 23090 12.13C

1986-1995 raw min averaged 12.10C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 12.28C

Adelaide min Excel spreadsheets

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Albany

acorn 2 albany maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 19.58C / raw 19.79C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 20.12C / raw 20.33C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.54C / raw warmed 0.54C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.16C / raw 0.08C

Albany 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 20.53C / raw 20.47C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 19.87C / raw 20.25C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 19.19% / raw - 51.31%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.20% / raw - 10.95%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 19.34C in ACORN 2.1 and 19.97C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 20.91C in ACORN 2.1 and 20.82C in raw

Albany 9500 has annual max temps back to 1907: 1907-1909 = 19.91C

9741 overlap with 9999 16 May 2012 to 24 February 2014 : 9741 20.72C / 9999 20.95C

ACORN catalogue: Observations commenced at the airport site (009741) in April 1965. There were no overlapping observations at the time. However, in 2002 a site was re-established near the former town site and using its number, and the post- 2002 observations have been used to estimate suitable adjustments for the 1965 move. There has been one known move since the site has been located at the airport, 150 m to the northeast on 4 August 1992. An automatic weather station was installed at this time and became the primary instrument on 1 November 1996.

1986-1995 raw max averaged 20.14C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 20.17C

Albany max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 albany minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 10.10C / raw 11.76C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 10.65C / raw 10.56C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.55C / raw cooled 1.20C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.03C / raw -0.10C

Albany 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 10.67C / raw 10.68C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 10.61C / raw 10.72C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.71% / raw - 53.86%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 9.64% / raw - 11.99%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 10.38C in ACORN 2.1 and 11.70C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 10.69C in ACORN 2.1 and 10.71C in raw

Albany 9500 has annual min temps back to 1907: 1907-1909 = 11.12C

9741 overlap with 9999 17 May 2012 to 25 February 2014 : 9741 10.83C / 9999 10.70C

1986-1995 raw min averaged 10.50C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 10.67C

Albany min Excel spreadsheets

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Alice Springs

acorn 2 alice springs maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 28.11C / raw 28.29C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 29.31C / raw 29.07C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 1.20C / raw warmed 0.78C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.22C / raw 0.11C

Alice Springs 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 29.60C / raw 29.60C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 28.98C / raw 28.59C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 16.98% / raw - 50.52%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.06% / raw - 11.32%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 27.45C in ACORN 2.1 and 28.52C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 29.65C in ACORN 2.1 and 29.65C in raw

Alice Springs 15540 has annual max temps back to 1879: 1879-1889 + 1891 +1893-1909 = 28.85C

15540 overlap with 15590 1 November 1941 to 31 December 1953 : 15540 28.51C / 15590 28.13C

ACORN catalogue: The original site (015540) was at the Telegraph Station, 3 km north of the town. There is no known documentation of the screen type at the Telegraph Station but the observations are consistent with a Stevenson screen having been used there. The site was enclosed by a rock wall about 1 m high and painted white that would have interrupted wind flow and reflected heat. Observations moved to the Post Office on 23 January 1932. The Post Office site continued until 1953 but data after 1944 were not used in ACORN-SAT as there appear to have been changes at the Post Office site around the time that the airport site opened. Measurements have been taken at the airport (015590) since 1941. There was a site move (550 m east-northeast) in July 1974. An automatic weather station was installed on 21 March 1991 and became the primary instrument on 1 November 1996. The site moved a few metres west on 27 May 2002.

1986-1995 raw max averaged 28.95C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 29.48C

Alice Springs max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 alice springs minimum temperatures

1910-1964 ACORN 2.1 11.90C / raw 13.11C

1965-2019 ACORN 2.1 12.40C / raw 13.21C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.50C / raw warmed 0.10C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.10C / raw -0.02C

Alice Springs 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 12.93C / raw 13.21C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 11.86C / raw 13.10C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.73% / raw - 55.40%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 9.78% / raw - 11.49%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 12.13C in ACORN 2.1 and 13.32C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 13.11C in ACORN 2.1 and 13.11C in raw

Alice Springs 15540 has annual min temps back to 1879: 1879-1902 + 1904-1909 = 12.83C

15540 overlap with 15590 1 November 1941 to 31 December 1953 : 15540 12.46C / 15590 12.86C

1986-1995 raw min averaged 13.68C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 13.24C

Alice Springs min Excel spreadsheets

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Bathurst

acorn 2 bathurst maximum temperatures

1910-1964ACORN 2.1 19.79C / raw 19.50C

1965-2019ACORN 2.1 20.36C / raw 20.24C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.57C / raw warmed 0.74C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.13C / raw 0.22C

Bathurst 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 21.15C / raw 21.15C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 19.73C / raw 19.46C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 18.42% / raw - 58.19%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 14.53% / raw - 21.76%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 19.94C in ACORN 2.1 and 19.03C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 21.25C in ACORN 2.1 and 21.27C in raw

Bathurst 63005 has annual max temps back to 1909: 1909 = 18.16C

ACORN catalogue: Prior to December 1971 the screen did not strictly meet specifications, having single rather than double louvred sides. The site moved 800 m in an unknown direction in July 1950, and 30 m east in November 1978. On 16 April 1996 the site moved 200 m. Parallel observations continued at the old site for two years. The new site initially took a new number (063305) before adopting the original station number (063005) at the end of the comparison; such a sequence is an unusual practice in Australia. A site operated at Bathurst Gaol (063004) from 1858 to 1983 but has not been used in ACORN-SAT.

Bathurst max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 bathurst minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 5.80C / raw 6.90C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 6.39C / raw 6.55C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.59C / raw cooled 0.35C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.12C / raw -0.03C

Bathurst 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 6.70C / raw 6.71C

1961-90 - v1 6.30C / ACORN 2.1 6.14C / raw 6.40C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 20.75% / raw - 64.95%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 15.46% / raw - 24.04%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 5.74C in ACORN 2.1 and 7.23C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 6.89C in ACORN 2.1 and 6.89C in raw

Bathurst 63005 has annual min temps back to 1909: 1909 = 6.91C

Bathurst min Excel spreadsheets

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Boulia

acorn 2 boulia maximum temperatures

1910-1964 ACORN 2.1 30.65C / raw 31.64C

1965-2019 ACORN 2.1 31.78C / raw 32.00C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 1.13C / raw warmed 0.36C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.15C / raw 0.02C

Boulia 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 32.24C / raw 32.44C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 31.42C / raw 31.84C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 15.45% / raw - 48.66%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 12.16% / raw - 23.14%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 30.30C in ACORN 2.1 and 31.99C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 31.81C in ACORN 2.1 and 32.14C in raw

Boulia 52026 has annual max temps back to 1889: 1889-1891 + 1897-1901 + 1905 + 1907-1909 = 31.65C

ACORN catalogue: The site was originally in the town centre. A damaged screen was replaced in March 1917; there were periods of suspect maximum temperature data in the lead-up to this. Small moves took place in September 1965 and June 1970 (unconfirmed). The town site had a well-watered lawn surface, at least in its later years. The site moved to its current location at the airport in July 1999.

Boulia max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 boulia minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 16.13C / raw 16.66C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 17.59C / raw 17.58C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 1.46C / raw warmed 0.92C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.22C / raw 0.17C

Boulia 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 18.10C / raw 18.15C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 17.08C / raw 17.12C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.98% / raw - 45.78%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 14.31% / raw - 20.19%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 16.06C in ACORN 2.1 and 16.62C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 18.23C in ACORN 2.1 and 18.33C in raw

Boulia 52026 has annual min temps back to 1889: 1889-1892 + 1900-1901 + 1905-1909 = 15.96C

Boulia min Excel spreadsheets

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Bourke

acorn 2 bourke maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 27.40C / raw 27.47C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 27.87C / raw 27.60C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.47C / raw warmed 0.13C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.07C / raw 0.05C

Bourke 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 28.52C / raw 28.34C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 27.42C / raw 27.07C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.22% / raw - 85.82%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.04% / raw - 26.18%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 27.78C in ACORN 2.1 and 27.96C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 28.46C in ACORN 2.1 and 28.41C in raw

Bourke 48013 has annual max temps back to 1878: 1878-1909 = 28.62C

48013 overlap with 48239 11 November 1994 to 14 August 1996 : 48013 27.30C / 48239 27.69C

48239 overlap with 48245 15 December 1998 to 31 January 1999 : 48239 37.37C / 48245 37.23C

ACORN catalogue: Observations were originally made within the Bourke township (048013). This site had trees and buildings nearby and the lawn around the screen was regularly watered. There was a small site move within the Post Office yard in May 1937, and the screen was replaced in November 1964. A site (048239) was established on the southern side of the airport near the terminal building on 11 November 1994. Observations continued there until January 1999. The current site began operations in December 1998, 700 m north of the previous airport location but with only a minimal overlap. These data are used in ACORN-SAT from 1 January 1999.

1989-1998 raw max averaged 27.33C and post AWS 2000-2009 averaged 28.27C

Bourke max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 bourke minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 12.31C / raw 12.92C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 13.10C / raw 13.38C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.79C / raw warmed 0.46C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.17C / raw 0.10C

Bourke 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 13.24C / raw 13.56C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 12.63C / raw 13.18C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.67% / raw - 88.51%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.11% / raw - A29.76%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 12.25C in ACORN 2.1 and 12.82C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 13.95C in ACORN 2.1 and 13.79C in raw

Bourke 48013 has annual min temps back to 1879: 1879-1909 = 12.67C

48013 overlap with 48239 11 November 1994 to 15 August 1996 : 48013 13.90C / 48239 12.83C

48239 overlap with 48245 16 December 1998 to 31 January 1999 : 48239 22.20C / 48245 22.07C

1989-1998 raw min averaged 13.45C and post AWS 2000-2009 averaged 13.44C

Bourke min Excel spreadsheets

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Bridgetown

acorn 2 bridgetown maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 21.31C / raw 22.40C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 21.91C / raw 22.48C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.60C / raw warmed 0.08C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.14C / raw 0.07C

Bridgetown 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 22.39C / raw 22.87C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 - 21.53C / raw 22.22C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 18.56% / raw - 57.23%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 9.43% / raw - 17.09%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 21.20C in ACORN 2.1 and 22.10C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 22.63C in ACORN 2.1 and 22.81C in raw

Bridgetown 9510 has annual max temps back to 1907: 1907-1909 = 21.89C

9510 overlap with 9617 5 March 1998 to 30 August 2012 : 9510 22.95C / 9617 22.18C

ACORN catalogue: There was a small move (10 m) in November 1935. The screen was replaced in January 1942 and in January 1998. An automatic weather station (009617) was installed at the showgrounds, 1.2 km northwest of the current site, in December 1997 and is expected to eventually replace the current site.

2002-2011 raw max averaged 23.13C and post AWS 2013-2018 averaged 22.42C

Bridgetown max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 bridgetown minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 7.68C / raw 7.70C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 8.47C / raw 8.61C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.79C / raw warmed 0.91C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.13C / raw 0.09C

Bridgetown 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 8.55C / raw 8.78C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 - 8.39C / raw 8.39C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 18.45% / raw - 56.73%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 9.86% / raw - 17.53%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 7.48C in ACORN 2.1 and 7.88C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 8.74C in ACORN 2.1 and 8.80C in raw

Bridgetown 9510 has annual min temps back to 1907: 1907-1909 = 7.28C

9510 overlap with 9617 6 March 1998 to 31 August 2012 : 9510 8.77C / 9617 8.31C

2002-2011 raw min averaged 8.84C and post AWS 2013-2018 averaged 8.82C

Bridgetown min Excel spreadsheets

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Broome

acorn 2 broome maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 31.44C / raw 32.04C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 32.20C / raw 32.31C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.76C / raw warmed 0.27C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.16C / raw 0.11C

Broome 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 32.49C / raw 32.49C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 32.00C / raw 32.19C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.07% / raw - 40.37%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 9.53% / raw - 10.62%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 31.26C in ACORN 2.1 and 31.80C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 32.87C in ACORN 2.1 and 32.87C in raw

Broome 3002 has annual max temps back to 1897: 1897-1909 = 31.98C

3002 overlap with 3003 11 August 1939 to 31 October 1953 : 3002 32.82C / 3003 32.22C

ACORN catalogue: The Meteorological Office site (003003) has been operating since 1939, with no documented moves. Anecdotal reports indicate that the Meteorological Office may have been in the town in its early years but there are no clear indications of this, either in available documentation or in the data. An automatic weather station was installed on 21 July 1995, in a new screen about 10 m away from the original screen. Manual observations were continued in the original screen as a comparison until 2000 under the station number 003089. Some instruments were relocated in 2007, shortly before the commissioning of a new meteorological office building, but the screen appears to have been moved only slightly if at all.

Assuming the AWS was operational from 1995, 1985-1994 raw max averaged 32.32C and post AWS 1996-2005 averaged 31.99C

Broome max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 broome minimum temperatures

1910-1964 ACORN 2.1 21.35C / raw 21.25C

1965-2019 ACORN 2.1 21.73C / raw 21.30C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.38C / raw warmed 0.05C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.08C / raw 0.05C

Broome 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 21.70C / raw 21.51C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 21.64C / raw 21.14C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 20.07% / raw - 45.08%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 9.69% / raw - 11.78%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 20.91C in ACORN 2.1 and 21.24C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 21.76C in ACORN 2.1 and 21.75C in raw

Broome 3002 has annual min temps back to 1897: 1897-1909 = 21.11C

3002 overlap with 3003 11 August 1939 to 31 October 1953 : 3002 21.17C / 3003 21.03C

Assuming the AWS was operational from 1995, 1985-1994 raw min averaged 21.54C and post AWS 1996-2005 averaged 21.24C

Broome min Excel spreadsheets

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Bundaberg

acorn 2 bundaberg maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 26.94C / raw 26.57C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 27.22C / raw 26.92C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.28C / raw warmed 0.35C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.03C / raw 0.08C

Bundaberg 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 27.49C / raw 27.32C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 26.94C / raw 26.62C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 20.08% / raw - 48.14%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.32% / raw - 14.81%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 27.18C in ACORN 2.1 and 26.69C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 27.52C in ACORN 2.1 and 27.51C in raw

Bundaberg 39015 has annual max temps back to 1893: 1893-1909 = 27.19C

39015 overlap with 39128 1 June 1959 to 4 January 1971 : 39015 26.28C / 39128 25.91C

ACORN catalogue: The original site (039015) was located at the Post Office in the centre of town. A new screen was installed in June 1913. There was a small move into a new screen in June 1933, and a move of 50 m in July 1953. The site was enclosed, particularly in its later years, and there were bitumen surfaces in the vicinity from 1984 onwards. Observations began at the airport (039128) in July 1990. An automatic weather station was installed on 19 December 1997. The site moved on 1 July 2010 from the northern to the southern part of the airport, about 2 km south. There was also a site at the airport (also using the number 039128) between 1959 and 1970 but this has not been used in ACORN-SAT.

Assuming 1997 was when AWS readings were adopted, 1987-1996 raw max averaged 26.77C and post AWS 1998-2007 averaged 27.12C

Bundaberg max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 bundaberg minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 14.86C / raw 15.97C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 15.87C / raw 16.80C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 1.01C / raw warmed 0.83C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.16C / raw 0.08C

Bundaberg 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 16.33C / raw 16.64C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 15.40C / raw 16.88C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.77% / raw - 52.52%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 9.73% / raw - 15.19%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 14.87C in ACORN 2.1 and 15.74C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 16.49C in ACORN 2.1 and 16.51C in raw

Bundaberg 39015 has annual min temps back to 1893: 1893-1909 = 15.96C

39015 overlap with 39128 1 June 1959 to 5 January 1971 : 39015 16.26C / 39128 15.68C

Assuming 1997 was when AWS readings were adopted, 1987-1996 raw min averaged 16.90C and post AWS 1998-2007 averaged 16.75C

Bundaberg min Excel spreadsheets

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Burketown

acorn 2 burketown maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 32.19C / CDO raw 32.16C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 33.00C / CDO raw 32.93C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.81C / raw warmed 0.77C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.10C / raw 0.14C

Burketown 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 33.15C / raw 33.24C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 32.82C / raw 32.94C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.48% / raw - 65.93%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.21% / raw - 21.56%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 32.34C in ACORN 2.1 and 32.00C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 33.39C in ACORN 2.1 and 33.44C in raw

Burketown 29004 has annual max temps back to 1891: 1891-1901 + 1903-1909 = 31.84C

29004 overlap with 29077 16 October 2001 to 30 June 2009 : 29004 32.29C / 29077 33.23C

ACORN catalogue: The current site (29077) is an automatic weather station at Burketown Airport, 2 km southwest of the town, over an area of mown but unwatered grass. The original site was at the Post Office (29004). It was located on a watered lawn within the town in its later years. The screen was replaced in May 1966. There were numerous missed observations during the 1970s. Documented site moves took place in August 1986 (50 m north) and September 1995 (25 m east-southeast). Temperature observations ceased at this site in July 2009, although rainfall and evaporation are still measured there. The current automatic weather station at the airport began observations in October 2001. The change in surface type from the Post Office (watered lawn) to the airport (natural grassland) is clearly shown in the maximum temperatures, which are substantially higher at the airport during the winter and spring (dry season). There is little difference during the wet season when the vegetation is normally green at both sites.

Assuming 2001 was when AWS readings were adopted, 1991-2000 raw max averaged 32.35C and post AWS 2002-2011 averaged 33.13C

Burketown max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 burketown minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 19.08C / raw 19.68C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 20.26C / raw 20.68C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 1.18C / raw warmed 1.00C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.14C / raw 0.09C

Burketown 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 20.42C / raw 20.68C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 19.84C / raw 20.41C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 16.13% / raw - 71.18%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.67% / raw - 21.91%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 19.18C in ACORN 2.1 and 19.81C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 20.56C in ACORN 2.1 and 20.66C in raw

Burketown 29004 has annual min temps back to 1891: 1891-1909 = 19.73C

29004 overlap with 29077 17 October 2001 to 1 July 2009 : 29004 21.15C / 29077 20.72C

Assuming 2001 was when AWS readings were adopted, 1991-2000 raw min averaged 20.90C and post AWS 2002-2011 averaged 20.70C

Burketown min Excel spreadsheets

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Cairns

acorn 2 cairns maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 29.14C / raw 29.02C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 29.38C / raw 29.16C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.24C / raw warmed 0.14C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.04C / raw 0.05C

Cairns 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 29.57C / raw 29.47C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 29.19C / raw 28.91C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 18.20% / raw - 36.38%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.47% / raw - 11.97%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 29.20C in ACORN 2.1 and 29.10C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 29.62C in ACORN 2.1 and 29.62C in raw

Cairns 31010 has annual max temps back to 1890 : 1890-1899 + 1901-1904 + 1906-1909 = 28.71C

31010 overlap with 31011 22 October 1942 to 30 September 1953 : 31010 28.83C / 31011 28.76C

ACORN catalogue: The original site was at the Cairns Post Office (031010), within the town area. There is a documented move in December 1929 from a relatively enclosed site to a slightly more open one. Observations continued at the Post Office until 1953. Observations have been made at the airport (031011) since 1943. In December 1992 the site moved 1.5 km northwest (to the other side of the runway). Comparisons of the data with neighbours suggest that this move had no significant effect on temperatures. An automatic weather station was installed at this time and became the primary instrument on 1 November 1996.

1986-1995 raw max averaged 29.23C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 29.25C

Cairns max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 cairns minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 19.80C / raw 20.23C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 20.78C / raw 20.87C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.98C / raw warmed 0.64C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.15C / raw 0.09C

Cairns 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 21.08C / raw 21.08C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 20.45C / raw 20.74C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 16.79% / raw - 40.13%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.32% / raw - 12.06%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 19.71C in ACORN 2.1 and 20.25C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 21.20C in ACORN 2.1 and 21.20C in raw

Cairns 31010 has annual min temps back to 1897 : 1897--1909 = 20.04C

31010 overlap with 31011 22 October 1942 to 30 September 1953 : 31010 20.09C / 31011 20.39C

1986-1995 raw min averaged 21.02C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 20.94C

Cairns min Excel spreadsheets

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Cape Leeuwin

acorn 2 cape leeuwin maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 19.33C / raw 19.52C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 19.89C / raw 20.05C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.56C / raw warmed 0.53C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.12C / raw 0.08C

Cape Leeuwin 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 20.22C / raw 20.22C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 19.66C / raw 19.89C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 19.18% / raw - 62.38%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.19% / raw - 26.36%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 19.36C in ACORN 2.1 and 19.71C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 20.52C in ACORN 2.1 and 20.52C in raw

Cape Leeuwin 9518 has annual max temps back to 1907: 1907-1909 = 19.97C

ACORN catalogue: The site moved 250 m in October 1978. An automatic weather station was installed on 3 February 1993. It moved again to the west-northwest on 14 April 1999; the distance of the move appears to be small but increased the exposure of the site.

Assuming the AWS was operational from 1993, 1983-1992 raw max averaged 20.17C and post AWS 1994-2003 averaged 20.13C

Cape Leeuwin max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 cape leeuwin minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 13.70C / raw 13.99C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 14.44C / raw 14.29C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.74C / raw warmed 0.30C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.10C / raw 0.07C

Cape Leeuwin 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 14.67C / raw 14.67C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 14.17C / raw 13.99C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.19% / raw - 68.12%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 18.82% / raw - 27.73%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 13.78C in ACORN 2.1 and 14.10C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 14.82C in ACORN 2.1 and 14.83C in raw

Cape Leeuwin 9518 has annual min temps back to 1907: 1907-1909 = 13.90C

Assuming the AWS was operational from 1993, 1983-1992 raw min averaged 14.23C and post AWS 1994-2003 averaged 14.59C

Cape Leeuwin min Excel spreadsheets

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Cape Moreton

acorn 2 cape moreton maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 23.53C / raw 23.19C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 23.79C / raw 23.53C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.26C / raw warmed 0.34C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.06C / raw 0.06C

Cape Moreton 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 24.27C / raw 24.21C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 23.45C / raw 23.05C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.97% / raw - 66.21%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.55% / raw - 12.40%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 23.77C in ACORN 2.1 and 23.78C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 24.33C in ACORN 2.1 and 24.33C in raw

ACORN catalogue: The location is mostly unchanged since observations began. A new screen was installed in April 1939. The only documented site move was a small one (less than 50 m) when an automatic weather station was installed on 3 August 1995. This move has had a large impact on rainfall but has had little impact on temperatures.

Assuming the AWS was operational from 1995, 1985-1994 raw max averaged 23.19C and post AWS 1996-2005 averaged 23.87C

Cape Moreton max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 cape moreton minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 17.53C / raw 17.80C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 18.45C / raw 18.45C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.92C / raw warmed 0.65C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.13C / raw 0.10C

Cape Moreton 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 18.84C / raw 18.86C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 18.01C / raw 17.98C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 43.16% / raw - 71.82%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 14.88% / raw - 14.87%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 17.58C in ACORN 2.1 and 17.91C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 18.88C in ACORN 2.1 and 18.88C in raw

Assuming the AWS was operational from 1995, 1985-1994 raw min averaged 18.29C and post AWS 1996-2005 averaged 18.80C

Cape Moreton min Excel spreadsheets

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Cape Otway

acorn 2 cape otway maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 16.62C / raw 16.47C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 17.15C / raw 17.06C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.53C / raw warmed 0.59C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.08C / raw 0.09C

Cape Otway 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 17.47C / raw 17.30C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 16.99C / raw 16.91C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 19.51% / raw - 78.91%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 8.56% / raw - 33.15%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 16.79C in ACORN 2.1 and 16.65C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 17.59C in ACORN 2.1 and 17.56C in raw

Cape Otway 90015 has annual max temps back to 1865 with randomly missing days: 1865-1909 = 18.67C

ACORN catalogue: This site has been in the grounds of the Cape Otway lighthouse throughout its history. The screen was reported as being in poor condition, and replaced, in July 1954. There was a small site move in September 1966. The first automatic weather station was installed on 15 April 1994, but this proved unreliable and it was replaced in March 1995.

1985-1994 raw max averaged 17.05C and post AWS 1996-2005 averaged 16.91C

Cape Otway max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 cape otway minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 10.39C / raw 10.51C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 11.09C / raw 11.01C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.70C / raw warmed 0.50C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.12C / raw 0.08C

Cape Otway 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 11.38C / raw 11.37C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 10.78C / raw 10.69C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 23.93% / raw - 80.41%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 29.23% / raw - 32.77%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 10.37C in ACORN 2.1 and 10.80C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 11.55C in ACORN 2.1 and 11.55C in raw

Cape Otway 90015 has annual min temps back to 1865 with randomly missing days: 1865-1909 = 10.21C

1985-1994 raw min averaged 10.76C and post AWS 1996-2005 averaged 11.15C

Cape Otway min Excel spreadsheets

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Carnarvon

acorn 2 carnarvon maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 27.52C / raw 26.70C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 27.98C / raw 27.55C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.46C / raw warmed 0.85C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.08C / raw 0.17C

Carnarvon 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 28.27C / raw 27.97C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 27.72C / raw 27.20C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.21% / raw - 37.42%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 9.52% / raw - 11.57%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 27.62C in ACORN 2.1 and 26.76C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 28.47C in ACORN 2.1 and 28.42C in raw

Carnarvon 6062 has annual max temps back to 1907: 1907-1909 = 26.78C

6062 overlap with 6011 10 January 1945 to 31 August 1950 : 6062 26.94C / 6011 27.17C

ACORN catalogue: The Meteorological Office site (006011) opened in 1945. The site moved about 800 m southeast at an unclear date; the data are consistent with it taking place around 1974. An automatic weather station was installed on 22 October 1990 and became the primary instrument on 1 November 1996. There are indications of a possible site move around 1996–1997 but no evidence of any impact on the data.

1986-1995 raw max averaged 27.42C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 27.52C

Carnarvon max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 carnarvon minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 16.23C / raw 17.14C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 17.10C / raw 17.23C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.87C / raw warmed 0.09C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.18C / raw 0.04C

Carnarvon 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 17.25C / raw 17.25C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 16.90C / raw 17.17C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.04% / raw - 44.28%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 9.55% / raw - 11.72%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 15.71C in ACORN 2.1 and 17.13C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 17.55C in ACORN 2.1 and 17.55C in raw

Carnarvon 6062 has annual min temps back to 1907: 1907-1909 = 16.41C

6062 overlap with 6011 10 January 1945 to 31 August 1950 : 6062 17.46C / 6011 17.37C

1986-1995 raw min averaged 17.22C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 17.14C

Carnarvon min Excel spreadsheets

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Charleville

acorn 2 charleville maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 27.69C / raw 28.67C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 28.54C / raw 28.48C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.85C / raw cooled 0.19C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.14C / raw 0.04C

Charleville 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 29.12C / raw 29.09C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 28.02C / raw 27.96C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 16.91% / raw - 42.90%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.71% / raw - 10.04%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 27.83C in ACORN 2.1 and 28.78C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 29.19C in ACORN 2.1 and 29.20C in raw

Charleville 44022 has annual max temps back to 1890: 1890-1909 = 27.85C

44022 overlap with 44021 7 April 1942 to 30 September 1953 : 44022 28.48C / 44021 27.40C

ACORN catalogue: The original site (044022) was in town, at the school. In September 1914 it moved to the Post Office. This site continued until 1953 but is not used in ACORN-SAT after 1948. Observations commenced at the Meteorological Office at the airport (044021) in 1943, although only data from January 1949 onwards have been used in ACORN-SAT. There was a move in or shortly before April 1961. In August 1990 an automatic weather station was installed, followed by a site move 150 m east on 12 September 1990. The automatic weather station became the primary instrument on 1 November 1996. In October 2003 the airport site was moved about 600 m west, to its current location. Observations from the previous site continued until February 2006, under number 044221. Neighbours rather than the overlapping data are used to merge the two main Charleville sites, as the data indicate substantial changes at both sites in or near 1949, although there is no documentation of what those changes might have been for either site.

1986-1995 raw max averaged 28.33C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 28.77C

Charleville max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 charleville minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 11.99C / raw 13.23C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 13.33C / raw 13.88C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 1.34C / raw warmed 0.65C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.25C / raw 0.09C

Charleville 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 14.11C / raw 14.17C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 12.72C / raw 13.44C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.78% / raw - 49.91%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.27% / raw - 11.61%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 11.83C in ACORN 2.1 and 13.40C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 14.31C in ACORN 2.1 and 14.31C in raw

Charleville 44022 has annual min temps back to 1890: 1890-1909 = 13.05C

44022 overlap with 44021 9 April 1942 to 30 September 1953 : 44022 12.97C / 44021 13.25C

1986-1995 raw min averaged 13.94C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 13.93C

Charleville min Excel spreadsheets

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Charters Towers

acorn 2 charters towers maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 29.59C / raw 30.08C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 30.00C / raw 30.29C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.41C / raw warmed 0.21C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.11C / raw 0.06C

Charters Towers 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 30.46C / raw 30.46C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 29.62C / raw 30.11C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.52% / raw - 56.37%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 12.46% / raw - 17.44%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 29.44C in ACORN 2.1 and 29.97C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 30.55C in ACORN 2.1 and 30.55C in raw

Charters Towers 34002 has annual max temps back to 1894: 1894-1909 = 30.28C

ACORN catalogue: The original site (034002) was located in the town area. A new screen was installed in April 1939. Small moves took place in June 1947 (15 m south), December 1953 and April 1975 (10 m), the 1953 move taking place after a shed and incinerator were built nearby. The site closed in December 1992. The airport site opened in December 1992, with no overlap with the previous site. A new screen was installed in October 2000.

Charters Towers max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 charters towers minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 16.23C / raw 16.91C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 17.17C / raw 17.58C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.94C / raw warmed 0.67C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.17C / raw 0.14C

Charters Towers 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 17.42C / raw 17.52C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 16.93C / raw 17.41C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 18.94% / raw - 57.82%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.49% / raw - 18.54%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 15.86C in ACORN 2.1 and 16.24C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 17.61C in ACORN 2.1 and 17.60C in raw

Charters Towers 34002 has annual min temps back to 1894: 1894-1909 = 17.01C

Charters Towers min Excel spreadsheets

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Cobar

acorn 2 cobar maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 24.75C / raw 25.66C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 25.59C / raw 25.49C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.84C / raw cooled 0.17C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.14C / raw 0.08C

Cobar 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 26.26C / raw 26.25C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 25.05C / raw 25.17C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 19.49% / raw - 85.44%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 9.98% / raw - 11.43%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 24.92C in ACORN 2.1 and 25.48C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 26.31C in ACORN 2.1 and 26.31C in raw

Cobar 48030 has annual max temps back to 1897: 1897-1909 = 25.22C

48030 overlap with 48027 21 May 1962 to 31 December 1965 : 48030 26.06C / 48027 24.49C

ACORN catalogue: The original site (048030) was at the Post Office in town, 1.7 km southeast of the current site. There are no clearly documented moves but there is evidence that the Post Office re-opened after a period of closure in 1924, and the data are consistent with a site move at around that time. The Meteorological Office site has been operating since 21 May 1962. An automatic weather station was installed on 1 May 1997. The site moved from the south to the north side of the office on 15 November 2000 (exact distance unclear, but appears to be about 100 m). A new Meteorological Office building was opened in 2005 but the instruments appear to have remained in the same place. There is a separate site (048237) at the airport which is not used in ACORN- SAT.

Assuming the AWS was operational from 1997, 1987-1996 raw min averaged 24.96C and post AWS 1998-2007 averaged 26.03C

Cobar max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 cobar minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 12.70C / raw 11.95C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 13.23C / raw 12.87C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.53C / raw warmed 0.92C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.04C / raw 0.05C

Cobar 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 13.56C / raw 13.24C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 12.93C / raw 12.55C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 18.53% / raw - 85.88%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 9.87% / raw - 11.00%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 13.03C in ACORN 2.1 and 12.84C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 13.42C in ACORN 2.1 and 13.31C in raw

Cobar 48030 has annual min temps back to 1897: 1897-1909 = 12.33C (also some slightly corrupted 1882-1890 = 11.53C)

48030 overlap with 48027 21 May 1962 to 31 December 1965 : 48030 11.57C / 48027 12.14C

Assuming the AWS was operational from 1997, 1987-1996 raw min averaged 12.74C and post AWS 1998-2007 averaged 13.14C

Cobar min Excel spreadsheets

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Darwin

acorn 2 darwin maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 31.04C / raw 32.10C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 32.12C / raw 32.22C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 1.08C / raw warmed 0.12C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.18C / raw 0.03C

Darwin 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 32.47C / raw 32.47C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 31.74C / raw 32.02C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 18.07% / raw - 32.61%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 9.72% / raw - 11.32%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 30.83C in ACORN 2.1 and 32.38C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 32.63C in ACORN 2.1 and 32.63C in raw

Darwin 14016 has annual max temps back to 1885: 1885-1909 = 32.97C

14016 overlap with 14015 1 February 1941 to 31 January 1942 : 14016 31.42C / 14015 30.85C

ACORN catalogue: Earlier observations were made at the Post Office (014016), in the central city area. This is on a peninsula in Darwin Harbour which means that the prevailing dry-season southeasterlies have a trajectory over Darwin Harbour (whereas at the airport they are over land). The site deteriorated progressively from the mid-1930s, becoming overshadowed by trees, especially after 1937. The site (along with the remainder of the Post Office) was destroyed in the Japanese air raids of February 1942 and never rebuilt. The airport site (014015) has been operating since February 1941. An automatic weather station was installed on 1 October 1990 and became the primary instrument on 1 November 1996. The site moved about 900 m east (along the southern edge of the airport) on 7 August 2001, with observations at the original site continuing under the station number 014040 until June 2007.

1986-1995 raw max averaged 32.11C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 32.24C

Darwin max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 darwin minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 22.69C / raw 23.39C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 23.18C / raw 23.28C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.49C / raw cooled 0.11C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.07C / raw -0.03C

Darwin 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 23.18C / raw 23.18C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 23.07C / raw 23.29C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 16.47% / raw - 33.85%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 9.24% / raw - 11.93%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 22.59C in ACORN 2.1 and 23.62C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 23.27C in ACORN 2.1 and 23.27C in raw

Darwin 14016 has annual min temps back to 1885: 1885-1909 = 23.56C

14016 overlap with 14015 1 February 1941 to 31 January 1942 : 14016 24.20C / 14015 22.67C

1986-1995 raw min averaged 23.60C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 23.13C

Darwin min Excel spreadsheets

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Deniliquin

acorn 2 deniliquin maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 22.48C / raw 22.79C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 23.14C / raw 23.18C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.66C / raw warmed 0.39C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.13C / raw 0.10C

Deniliquin 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 23.79C / raw 23.81C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 22.72C / raw 22.80C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 18.89% / raw - 72.73%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 21.03% / raw - 10.32%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 22.58C in ACORN 2.1 and 22.95C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 23.90C in ACORN 2.1 and 23.90C in raw

Deniliquin 74128 has annual max temps back to 1859: 1859-1861 + 1863 + 1868 + 1870-1909 = 24.81C

74128 overlap with 74258 3 June 1997 to 29 June 2003 : 74128 23.42C / 74258 23.30C

ACORN catalogue: The original site (074128) was located in the town area, with the site becoming built up from about 1950 onwards. The site moved 1 km northwest in September 1971, then moved to the airport (3.7 km south) in September 1984. Temperature observations continued at this location until 2003. The site number continues to be used for rainfall observations but these are made at a different location. The current site is about 500 m south of the last position of the previous site. It has been operating since May 1997.

1992-2001 raw max averaged 22.88C and post AWS 2003-2012 averaged 23.51C

Deniliquin max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 deniliquin minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 8.72C / raw 10.07C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 9.23C / raw 9.65C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.51C / raw cooled 0.42C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.08C / raw -0.04C

Deniliquin 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 9.58C / raw 9.66C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 8.99C / raw 9.75C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 16.70% / raw - 79.64%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 21.51% / raw - 13.04%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 8.84C in ACORN 2.1 and 10.12C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 9.68C in ACORN 2.1 and 9.68C in raw

Deniliquin 74128 has annual min temps back to 1859: 1868 + 1875-1905 + 11907-1909 = 8.41C

74128 overlap with 74258 4 June 1997 to 30 June 2003 : 74128 9.74C / 74258 9.28C

1992-2001 raw min averaged 9.60C and post AWS 2003-2012 averaged 9.50C

Deniliquin min Excel spreadsheets

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Eddystone Point

acorn 2 eddystone point maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 17.28C / raw 16.65C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 17.91C / raw 17.34C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.63C / raw warmed 0.69C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.07C / raw 0.13C

Eddystone Point 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 18.22C / raw 18.21C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 17.67C / raw 16.76C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.77% / raw - 67.46%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 15.73% / raw - 29.61%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 17.72C in ACORN 2.1 and 17.09C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 18.39C in ACORN 2.1 and 18.39C in raw

ACORN catalogue: There is little documentation on the site prior to the 1990s, but it is believed that there were no significant site moves between 1908 and 1996. An automatic weather station was installed in late 1996, with an associated site move about 70 m southeast. Parallel observations were carried out with the former site (using the station number 092115), but some observations from the new site were incorrectly recorded against the comparison number, making it impracticable to use the parallel observations to assess the impact of the move.

Assuming the AWS was operational from 1996, 1986-1995 raw max averaged 17.09C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 17.88C

Eddystone Point max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 eddystone point minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 9.94C / raw 9.78C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 10.54C / raw 10.53C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.60C / raw warmed 0.75C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.08C / raw 0.10C

Eddystone Point 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 10.72C / raw 10.72C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 10.38C / raw 10.41C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 16.66% / raw - 67.62%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 23.74% / raw - 32.18%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 9.96C in ACORN 2.1 and 9.80C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 10.79C in ACORN 2.1 and 10.79C in raw

Assuming the AWS was operational from 1996, 1986-1995 raw min averaged 10.37C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 10.60C

Eddystone Point min Excel spreadsheets

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Esperance

acorn 2 esperance maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 21.03C / raw 21.19C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 21.63C / raw 21.88C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.60C / raw warmed 0.69C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.12C / raw 0.14C

Esperance 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 22.06C / raw 22.06C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 21.34C / raw 21.75C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 18.93% / raw - 50.10%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.46% / raw - 11.22%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 21.18C in ACORN 2.1 and 20.92C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 22.35C in ACORN 2.1 and 22.35C in raw

Esperance 9541 has annual max temps back to 1907: 1907-1909 = 20.57C

There is no 9541 overlap with 9789

ACORN catalogue: The Meteorological Office site (009789) opened in 1969, with no useful overlap with the previous site. It has not moved. An automatic weather station was installed in April 1996 and became the primary instrument on 1 November 1996. There are indications that vegetation was removed near the site in late 1998 or 1999.

1986-1995 raw max averaged 21.74C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 21.80C

Esperance max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 esperance minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 10.97C / raw 11.44C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 12.03C / raw 12.08C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 1.06C / raw warmed 0.64C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.15C / raw 0.10C

Esperance 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 12.31C / raw 12.32C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 11.79C / raw 11.90C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 19.28% / raw - 55.16%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.31% / raw - 13.05%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 11.00C in ACORN 2.1 and 11.52C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 12.52C in ACORN 2.1 and 12.52C in raw

Esperance 9541 has annual max temps back to 1907: 1907-1909 = 10.73C

There is no 9541 overlap with 9789

1986-1995 raw min averaged 11.94C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 12.08C

Esperance max Excel spreadsheets

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Gabo Island

acorn 2 gabo island maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 18.24C / raw 17.37C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 18.40C / raw 18.19C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.16C / raw warmed 0.82C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.01C / raw 0.17C

Gabo Island 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 18.80C / raw 18.80C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 18.24C / raw 17.75C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 18.79% / raw - 84.29%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 15.52% / raw - 17.51%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 18.81C in ACORN 2.1 and 17.23C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 18.90C in ACORN 2.1 and 18.90C in raw

ACORN catalogue: The site has been in the general vicinity of the island’s lighthouse throughout its history. New screens were installed in September 1927 and July 1961. On 13 March 1981 the site was moved away from the lighthouse buildings. The automatic weather station was installed in August 2000 but only used for wind observations until August 2007.

1997-2006 raw max averaged 18.59C and post AWS 2008-2017 averaged 18.84C

Gabo Island max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 gabo island minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 11.65C / raw 12.26C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 12.35C / raw 12.51C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.70C / raw warmed 0.25C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.08C / raw 0.03C

Gabo Island 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 12.68C / raw 12.67C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 12.11C / raw 12.50C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 22.66% / raw - 84.52%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.75% / raw - 21.08%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 11.95C in ACORN 2.1 and 12.48C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 12.77C in ACORN 2.1 and 12.77C in raw

1997-2006 raw min averaged 12.59C and post AWS 2008-2017 averaged 12.73C

Gabo Island min Excel spreadsheets

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Gayndah

acorn 2 gayndah maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 27.72C / raw 28.05C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 28.27C / raw 28.44C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.55C / raw warmed 0.39C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.07C / raw 0.03C

Gayndah 2000-2017 - ACORN 2.1 28.81C / raw 28.92C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 27.72C / raw 28.03C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 19.12% / raw - 49.47%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 9.30% / raw - 14.77%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 28.13C in ACORN 2.1 and 28.55C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 28.83C in ACORN 2.1 and 28.83C in raw

Gayndah 39039 has annual max temps back to 1894: 1894-1909 = 28.08C

39039 overlap with 39066 28 January 2003 to 30 June 2009 : 39039 28.91C / 39066 28.67C

ACORN catalogue: The original site (039039) was on a block next to the Post Office in the main town area, about 10 m from the main street. There are no documented moves at the site but overhanging trees were a problem at times. New screens were supplied in October 1945 and June 1999. This site closed in July 2009. The current site, about 1.2 km northeast of the previous site, has been operating since January 2003.

Assuming the AWS was operational from 2003, 1993-2002 raw max averaged 28.64C and post AWS 2004-2013 averaged 28.61C

Gayndah max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 gayndah minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 13.30C / raw 13.13C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 14.29C / raw 14.41C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.99C / raw warmed 1.28C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.10C / raw 0.16C

Gayndah 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 14.44C / raw 14.47C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 14.00C / raw 14.19C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 19.10% / raw - 51.53%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 9.59% / raw - 16.05%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 13.44C in ACORN 2.1 and 12.86C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 14.47C in ACORN 2.1 and 14.46C in raw

Gayndah 39039 has annual min temps back to 1894: 1894-1909 = 12.93C

39039 overlap with 39066 29 January 2003 to 1 July 2009 : 39039 14.69C / 39066 14.45C

Assuming the AWS was operational from 2003, 1993-2002 raw min averaged 14.50C and post AWS 2004-2013 averaged 14.43C

Gayndah min Excel spreadsheets

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Georgetown

acorn 2 georgetown maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 32.13C / raw 32.36C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 32.61C / raw 32.99C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.48C / raw warmed 0.63C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.11C / raw 0.09C

Georgetown 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 32.89C / raw 32.98C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 32.35C / raw 32.85C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 15.67% / raw - 73.02%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 9.43% / raw - 21.39%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 31.85C in ACORN 2.1 and 32.02C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 32.96C in ACORN 2.1 and 32.96C in raw

Georgetown 30018 has annual max temps back to 1909: 1909 = 32.58C

30018 overlap with 30124 1 June 2004 to 9 October 2007 : 30018 33.40C / 30124 32.44C

ACORN catalogue: The original site (030018) was in the town area. A new screen was supplied in November 1922. There are no documented moves; however, there were numerous changes in site condition over the years as the site became overgrown at times. This was a particular problem in the early 1960s and at one point vines were reported as growing through the screen; much data from this period has been flagged as suspect. These issues ceased with the appointment of a new observer in 1965. The current site began operating in May 2004. The old site continued until 2007 but deteriorated rapidly in its last years due to encroaching trees, so the overlapping data were not used in merging the two sites.

1994-2003 raw max averaged 33.48C and post AWS 2005-2014 averaged 32.70C

Georgetown max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 georgetown minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 17.97C / raw 18.13C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 18.60C / raw 18.86C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.63C / raw warmed 0.73C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.11C / raw 0.09C

Georgetown 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 18.87C / raw 19.03C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 18.29C / raw 18.50C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 20.40% / raw - 81.77%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 9.94% / raw - 20.44%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 18.06C in ACORN 2.1 and 18.27C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 19.13C in ACORN 2.1 and 19.13C in raw

Georgetown 30018 has annual min temps back to 1894: 1894-1909 = 18.26C

30018 overlap with 30124 2 June 2004 to 10 October 2007 : 30018 18.41C / 30124 18.73C

1994-2003 raw min averaged 19.13C and post AWS 2005-2014 averaged 19.03C

Georgetown min Excel spreadsheets

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Geraldton

acorn 2 geraldton maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 25.11C / raw 25.10C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 25.89C / raw 26.15C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.78C / raw warmed 1.05C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.19C / raw 0.22C

Geraldton 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 26.59C / raw 26.57C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 25.36C / raw 25.89C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 18.30% / raw - 35.65%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 9.55% / raw - 11.43%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 25.08C in ACORN 2.1 and 24.73C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 27.00C in ACORN 2.1 and 26.95C in raw

Geraldton 8050 has annual max temps back to 1907: 1907-1909 = 24.87C

8050 overlap with 8051 24 August 1941 to 31 October 1953 : 8050 24.85C / 8051 25.54C

8051 overlap with 8315 20 July 2011 to 19 June 2014 : 8051 27.13C / 8315 27.37C

ACORN catalogue: The original site (008050) was in the town area near the coast, with a small move in 1927. Observations at this location continued until 1953 but it was not used in ACORN-SAT after 1942. Rainfall observations continue to be made under this site number, but at a different location to that used for the pre-1942 temperature observation. Observations from the airport site commenced in 1941. An automatic weather station was installed at the site on 20 June 1990 and became the primary instrument on 1 November 1996. A new site (008315) opened approximately 1 km to the south in July 2011 and is expected to become the main Geraldton site after completion of a comparison period.

1986-1995 raw max averaged 25.77C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 26.13C

Geraldton max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 geraldton minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 13.03C / raw 14.33C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 13.59C / raw 13.65C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.56C / raw cooled 0.68C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.11C / raw -0.10C

Geraldton 2000-2019 - Geraldton 2000-2017 ACORN 2.1 13.74C / raw 13.74C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 13.45C / raw 13.59C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 18.31% / raw - 39.13%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.09% / raw - 12.24%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 12.72C in ACORN 2.1 and 14.75C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 13.78C in ACORN 2.1 and 13.74C in raw

Geraldton 8050 has annual min temps back to 1907: 1907-1909 = 14.27C

8050 overlap with 8051 23 August 1941 to 31 October 1953 : 8050 14.42C / 8051 13.45C

8051 overlap with 8315 21 July 2011 to 20 June 2014 : 8051 14.07C / 8315 14.17C

1986-1995 raw min averaged 13.57C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 13.74C

Geraldton min Excel spreadsheets

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Halls Creek

acorn 2 halls creek maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 32.35C / raw 33.56C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 33.15C / raw 33.59C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.80C / raw warmed 0.03C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.18C / raw 0.01C

Halls Creek 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 33.48C / raw 33.70C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 32.82C / raw 33.55C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 16.41% / raw - 44.26%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.62% / raw - 11.57%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 31.95C in ACORN 2.1 and 33.67C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 33.77C in ACORN 2.1 and 33.81C in raw

Halls Creek 2011 has annual max temps back to 1898: 1898-1900 + 1902-1908 = 33.37C

2011 overlap with 2012 19 January 1946 to 31 May 1952 : 2011 34.17C / 2012 34.06C

ACORN catalogue: The first site (002011) was located in the old Halls Creek township (the town itself was moved in the 1950s). Observations continued at this location until 1952. Observations resumed briefly in the late 1960s and early 1970s but these were not used in ACORN-SAT. The original Meteorological Office site opened in 1944, 11 km west- northwest of the previous site. Maximum and minimum temperatures were archived only from November 1949 onwards. In about 1967, there was a site move of about 650 m west-northwest. The current site is an automatic weather station installed in a new screen about 10 m from the old screen on 25 August 1996. Parallel manual observations continued in the old screen until 2001 under the site number 002071.

Assuming the AWS was operational from 1996, 1986-1995 raw max averaged 33.84C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 33.49C

Halls Creek max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 halls creek minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 18.96C / raw 18.31C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 18.84C / raw 20.13C

ACORN 2.1 cooled 0.12C / raw warmed 1.82C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.04C / raw 0.24C

Halls Creek 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 18.80C / raw 20.05C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 18.74C / raw 19.99C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 19.52% / raw - 48.53%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 9.26% / raw - 11.89%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 18.46C in ACORN 2.1 and 17.65C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 18.83C in ACORN 2.1 and 20.01C in raw

Halls Creek 2011 has annual min temps back to 1899: 1899-1900 + 1903-1909 = 17.68C

2011 overlap with 2012 19 January 1946 to 31 May 1952 : 2011 18.61C / 2012 19.62C

Assuming the AWS was operational from 1996, 1986-1995 raw min averaged 20.78C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 20.12C

Halls Creek min Excel spreadsheets

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Inverell

acorn 2 inverell maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 23.19C / raw 23.79C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 23.81C / raw 24.01C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.62C / raw warmed 0.22C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.14C / raw 0.10C

Inverell 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 24.39C / raw 24.39C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 23.36C / raw 23.84C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 19.83% / raw - 80.74%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 11.22% / raw - 12.72%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 23.21C in ACORN 2.1 and 23.60C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 24.59C in ACORN 2.1 and 24.59C in raw

Inverell 56017 has annual max temps back to 1875: 1875-1876 + 1879-1884 + 1886-1909 = 22.87C

56017 overlap with 56242 1 March 1995 to 25 November 1997 : 56017 23.07C / 56242 22.94C

ACORN catalogue: The original site (056017) was within the Post Office grounds. Louvres on the screen were repaired in July 1940. Site diagrams indicate that a new building was built just to the south at some point between 1944 and 1950; data and comments on file suggest 1949. There was a move of a few metres (into a more enclosed location) within the Post Office grounds on 7 July 1961. On 20 September 1967 it moved about 100 m southwest to a more open location near the library on the northeast bank of the river. The current site (056242) has been operating at its present location since 1 March 1995. The Inverell town is located in a valley which is well-suited for cold air drainage. Another site (056018) operates at a research farm on a ridge approximately 2 km west of the town. That site has minimum temperatures which are consistently warmer than the town, especially in winter when typical differences are 3–4°C.

Inverell max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 inverell minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 5.99C / raw 7.47C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 7.32C / raw 7.76C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 1.33C / raw warmed 0.29C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.23C / raw 0.08C

Inverell 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 7.71C / raw 7.74C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 6.90C / raw 7.79C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.50% / raw - 80.83%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 12.30% / raw - 17.68%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 5.97C in ACORN 2.1 and 7.47C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 8.22C in ACORN 2.1 and 8.24C in raw

Inverell 56017 has annual max temps back to 1875: 1875-1876 + 1880 + 1882-1884 + 1886-1909 = 7.71C

56017 overlap with 56242 1 March 1995 to 26 November 1997 : 56017 7.06C / 56242 6.24C

Inverell min Excel spreadsheets

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Kalgoorlie

acorn 2 kalgoorlie maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 24.58C / raw 25.54C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 25.08C / raw 25.44C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.50C / raw cooled 0.10C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.15C / raw 0.00C

Kalgoorlie 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 25.59C / raw 25.83C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 24.81C / raw 25.23C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - ACORN 2.1 - 17.86% / raw - 38.39%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.22% / raw - 11.65%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 24.39C in ACORN 2.1 and 25.91C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 25.91C in ACORN 2.1 and 25.91C in raw

Kalgoorlie 12039 max extends back to 1907: 1907-1909 = 24.91C

12039 overlap with 12038 1 Jan 1943 to 13 Oct 1953 : 12039 25.14C 12038 24.96C

ACORN catalogue: Observations were made at the Post Office (012039), about 4 km north- northeast of the current site until 1953. This site moved approximately 90 m in December 1936. The Meteorological Office site (012038) has been operating since 1939. An automatic weather station was installed on 12 August 1992 and became the primary instrument on 1 November 1996. The office moved 300 m to the south on 7 September 1993; it is unclear whether the instruments also moved although the data suggest that any move had no significant impact on observations.

1986-1995 raw max averaged 25.06C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 25.52C

Kalgoorlie max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 kalgoorlie minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 11.54C / raw 11.96C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 12.31C / raw 11.93C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.77C / raw cooled 0.03C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.12C / raw 0.04C

Kalgoorlie 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 12.36C / raw 12.34C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 12.23C / raw 11.66C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 18.45% / raw - 38.38%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 9.80% / raw - 11.35%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 11.32C in ACORN 2.1 and 12.15C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 12.53C in ACORN 2.1 and 12.53C in raw

Kalgoorlie 12039 min extends back to 1907: 1907-1909 = 11.30C

12039 overlap with 12038 1 Jan 1943 to 13 Oct 1953 : 12039 12.09C 12038 11.14C

1986-1995 raw min averaged 11.75C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 12.04C

Kalgoorlie min Excel spreadsheets

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Katanning

acorn 2 katanning maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 21.55C / raw 21.98C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 22.10C / raw 22.32C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.55C / raw warmed 0.34C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.09C / raw 0.08C

Katanning 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 22.51C / raw 22.66C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 21.75C / raw 22.07C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 19.16% / raw - 59.04%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 28.03% / raw - 20.45%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 21.80C in ACORN 2.1 and 21.97C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 22.70C in ACORN 2.1 and 22.76C in raw

Katanning 10579 raw max extends back to 1907: 1907-1909 = 22.08C

10579 and 10916 overlap 8 Jan 1999 to 30 Aug 2012 : 10579 22.58C 10916 22.33C

ACORN catalogue: There are documented site moves in July 1987 (100 m north), January 1952 (200 m) and December 1942 (10 m north). A new screen was installed on 11 February 1980. An automatic weather station (010916) has been operating since December 1998 about 5 km east of the town, and is expected to eventually replace the existing site.

2002-2011 raw max averaged 22.67C and post AWS 2013-2018 averaged 22.52C

Katanning max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 katanning minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 8.42C / raw 9.37C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 9.42C / raw 9.49C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 1.00C / raw warmed 0.12C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.16C / raw 0.02C

Katanning 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 9.53C / raw 9.47C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 9.26C / raw 9.53C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 18.86% / raw - 61.80%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 27.66% / raw - 27.87%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 8.13C in ACORN 2.1 and 9.44C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 9.72C in ACORN 2.1 and 9.69C in raw

Katanning 10579 raw min extends back to 1907: 1907-1909 = 8.72C

10579 and 10916 overlap 9 Jan 1999 to 31 Aug 2012 : 10579 9.32C 10916 9.45C

2002-2011 raw min averaged 9.31C and post AWS 2013-2018 averaged 9.76C

Katanning min Excel spreadsheets

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Kerang

acorn 2 kerang maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 22.45C / raw 22.82C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 23.09C / raw 23.10C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.64C / raw warmed 0.28C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.15C / raw 0.12C

Kerang 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 23.81C / raw 23.82C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 22.61C / raw 22.64C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 18.30% / raw - 57.86%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 16.46% / raw - 16.65%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 22.49C in ACORN 2.1 and 22.73C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 23.95C in ACORN 2.1 and 23.95C in raw

ACORN catalogue: The site has been within the township since it was established. It moved in August 1932, June 1956 and June 1957; the latter placed it in a yard within a built-up area which was cluttered from time to time. The screen was noted as being incorrectly oriented in November 1945 and again in February 1968. The site moved 1 km north to its current location on 18 January 2000.

Kerang max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 kerang minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 8.57C / raw 9.11C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 9.48C / raw 9.76C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.91C / raw warmed 0.65C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.16C / raw 0.08C

Kerang 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 9.85C / raw 9.84C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 9.26C / raw 9.70C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.35% / raw - 53.92%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 12.98% / raw - 17.05%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 8.50C in ACORN 2.1 and 9.35C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 10.13C in ACORN 2.1 and 10.12C in raw

Kerang min Excel spreadsheets

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Launceston

acorn 2 launceston maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 17.33C / raw 17.88C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 17.84C / raw 17.32C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.51C / raw cooled 0.56C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.09C / raw -0.02C

Launceston 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 18.14C / raw 17.85C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 17.63C / raw 16.99C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.82% / raw - 34.68%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 9.72% / raw - 11.98%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 17.32C in ACORN 2.1 and 18.43C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 18.19C in ACORN 2.1 and 18.19C in raw

Launceston 91049 has annual max temps back to 1901: 1901-1902 + 1904-1909 17.78C

91049 overlap with 91104 1 April 1939 to 30 December 1959 : 91049 18.18C / 91104 16.61C

91104 overlaps with 91311 29 July 2004 to 16 June 2009 : 91104 17.59C / 91311 18.27C

ACORN catalogue: The original site (091049) was at several locations around the centre of Launceston. There was a site move in December 1929 and further site moves on 29 March 1941, 29 September 1942 and 26 February 1948. Temperature observations continued at this location until 1959 but they were not used in ACORN-SAT after 1947. The first airport site (091104) was close to the terminal building and operated from 1939. It moved at some point in 1968–1969 to a location on the western side of the runway and north of the terminal. An automatic weather station was installed at this location on 19 May 1992 and became the primary instrument on 1 November 1996. The site continued until June 2009. The current site (091311) began operating at its current location 1.4 km southeast of the previous site on 12 July 2004. The airport is 160 m higher in elevation than the town, and is also further from the ocean. This results in markedly lower temperatures than those in the town, especially overnight.

1986-1995 raw max averaged 17.05C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 17.43C

Launceston max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 launceston minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 5.13C / raw 7.00C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 5.99C / raw 6.26C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.86C / raw cooled 0.74C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.11C / raw -0.13C

Launceston 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 6.28C / raw 6.28C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 5.73C / raw 6.32C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 19.29% / raw - 40.79%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.16% / raw - 12.88%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 5.24C in ACORN 2.1 and 7.56C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 6.31C in ACORN 2.1 and 6.30C in raw

Launceston 91049 has annual min temps back to 1898: 1898 + 1902 + 1906-1909 6.20C

91049 overlap with 91104 1 April 1939 to 31 December 1959 : 91049 6.68C / 91104 5.95C

91104 overlaps with 91311 30 July 2004 to 17 June 2009 : 91104 6.39C / 91311 6.28C

1986-1995 raw min averaged 6.34C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 6.09C

Launceston min Excel spreadsheets

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Longreach

acorn 2 longreach maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 31.39C / raw 31.25C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 31.48C / raw 31.53C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.09C / raw warmed 0.28C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.05C / raw 0.10C

Longreach 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 31.92C / raw 31.92C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 31.11C / raw 31.21C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 14.85% / raw - 64.41%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.08% / raw - 12.30%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 31.41C in ACORN 2.1 and 30.90C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 31.89C in ACORN 2.1 and 31.89C in raw

Longreach 36030 has annual max temps back to 1897: 1897-1901 + 1904-1907 + 1909 = 31.58C

36030 overlap with 36031 1 March 1966 to 30 May 1973 : 36030 31.34C / 36031 30.99C

ACORN catalogue: The first observations were made at the Post Office (036030). There were no documented moves at this site. New screens were installed in October 1911 and November 1924, and building works were reported in the vicinity in September 1949. This site continued until 1973 but was not used in ACORN-SAT beyond 1969. The Meteorological Office (036031) has been in operation since 1966. An automatic weather station and a new screen were installed in May 1996, with manual observations continuing for a year under the site number 036167.

1987-1996 raw max averaged 31.41C and post AWS 1998-2007 averaged 31.86C

Longreach max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 longreach minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 14.65C / raw 15.42C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 15.85C / raw 15.95C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 1.20C / raw warmed 0.53C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.20C / raw 0.13C

Longreach 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 16.53C / raw 16.25C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 15.19C / raw 15.70C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 19.40% / raw - 69.85%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.29% / raw - 13.13%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 14.59C in ACORN 2.1 and 15.09C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 16.58C in ACORN 2.1 and 16.40C in raw

Longreach 36030 has annual min temps back to 1897: 1897-1901 + 1906-1909 = 15.15C

36030 overlap with 36031 2 March 1966 to 27 April 1973 : 36030 16.08C / 36031 15.19C

1987-1996 raw min averaged 16.19C and post AWS 1998-2007 averaged 16.19C

Longreach min Excel spreadsheets

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Low Head

acorn 2 low head maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 15.80C / raw 15.74C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 16.37C / raw 16.86C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.57C / raw warmed 1.08C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.09C / raw 0.10C

Low Head 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 16.67C / raw 16.68C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 16.18C / raw 16.90C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 19.67% / raw - 65.03%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.18% / raw - 24.86%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 15.94C in ACORN 2.1 and 15.82C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 16.80C in ACORN 2.1 and 16.80C in raw

Low Head 91057 has annual max temps back to 1895: 1895-1899 + 1901-1909 = 15.61C

91057 overlap with 91293 8 January 1998 to 5 December 2001 : 91057 17.58C / 91293 16.65C

ACORN catalogue: The original site (091057) was in the grounds of the Low Head lighthouse, which is on a small hill south of the headland. Prior to June 1937 the screen did not strictly meet Stevenson screen specifications, and was painted brown for a time around 1933, a period when the standard of observations was poor for a few years. Comparison of documentation from 1933 and 1940 indicate either a site move or new buildings during that time, with the latter being more likely. The site moved by 8 m in April 1949. At some point between 1968 and 1986 a gravel driveway was built in close proximity to the screen (the data suggest this occurred in about 1970). The site moved by 25 m on 15 August 1988. The automatic weather station (091293) began operating on 8 January 1998 at a site 200 m north of the previous location.

Assuming the AWS was operational from 1998, 1988-1997 raw max averaged 17.12C and post AWS 1999-2008 averaged 16.59C

Low Head max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 low head minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 9.91C / raw 9.50C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 10.28C / raw 10.04C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.37C / raw warmed 0.54C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.07C / raw 0.11C

Low Head 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 10.60C / raw 10.60C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 10.11C / raw 9.71C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 15.95% / raw - 63.08%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.10% / raw - 28.49%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 10.02C in ACORN 2.1 and 9.62C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 10.72C in ACORN 2.1 and 10.72C in raw

Low Head 91057 has annual min temps back to 1895: 1895-1899 + 1901-1909 = 8.58C

91057 overlap with 91293 9 January 1998 to 12 December 2001 : 91057 10.07C / 91293 10.61C

Assuming the AWS was operational from 1998, 1988-1997 raw min averaged 9.85C and post AWS 1999-2008 averaged 10.46C

Low Head min Excel spreadsheets

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Mackay

acorn 2 mackay maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 25.45C / raw 26.92C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 26.40C / raw 26.57C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.95C / raw cooled 0.35C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.15C / raw 0.04C

Mackay 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 26.94C / raw 26.94C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 25.92C / raw 26.43C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.65% / raw - 43.56%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 9.48% / raw - 11.51%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 25.48C in ACORN 2.1 and 26.60C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 27.01C in ACORN 2.1 and 27.01C in raw

Mackay 33046 has annual max temps back to 1908: 1908-1909 = 26.67C

33046 overlap with 33047 1 January 1908 to 30 April 1950 : 33046 26.78C / 33047 28.00C

33047 overlap with 33119 25 September 1959 to 4 June 2012 : 33047 27.60 / 33119 26.41C

ACORN catalogue: The earlier part of the Mackay dataset uses data from the Post Office (033046). This site had a temporary move due to building in late 1922, and further moves in 1939 and 1941, the latter placing it in a rather enclosed location. The Post Office site closed in 1950. Data from the Te Kowai Experimental Station (033047) located 5 km west of the town were used between 1948 and 1965. This is a small but apparently good-quality subset of the full record from this site. The Meteorological Office site (033119) commenced observations in 1959, and no known site moves have taken place. An automatic weather station was installed in October 1995, although manual observations continued until 2001 under the site number 033297. Because of its greater proximity to the coast and its hilltop location, the Meteorological Office has substantially lower maximum temperatures, and higher minimum temperatures (especially in winter) than any of the other sites that have existed historically in the Mackay area.

Assuming the AWS was operational from 1995, 1985-1994 raw max averaged 26.49C and post AWS 1996-2005 averaged 26.80C

Mackay max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 mackay minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 18.02C / raw 17.69C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 18.97C / raw 19.14C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.95C / raw warmed 1.45C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.19C / raw 0.17C

Mackay 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 19.46C / raw 19.46C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 18.45C / raw 18.47C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 18.15% / raw - 51.71%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 9.99% / raw - 11.76%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 17.77C in ACORN 2.1 and 17.96C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 19.62C in ACORN 2.1 and 19.61C in raw

Mackay 33046 has annual min temps back to 1890: 1890-1909 = 17.73C

33046 overlap with 33047 1 January 1908 to 30 April 1950 : 33046 18.23C / 33047 16.45C

33047 overlap with 33119 25 September 1959 to 5 June 2012 : 33047 16.57 / 33119 19.04C

Assuming the AWS was operational from 1995, 1985-1994 raw min averaged 19.22C and post AWS 1996-2005 averaged 19.35C

Mackay min Excel spreadsheets

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Marble Bar

acorn 2 marble bar maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 35.17C / raw 35.46C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 35.49C / raw 35.25C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.32C / raw cooled 0.21C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.09C / raw 0.03C

Marble Bar 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 35.79C / raw 35.55C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 35.37C / raw 35.03C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 18.44% / raw - 64.14%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.13% / raw - 16.54%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 35.17C in ACORN 2.1 and 35.69C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 36.09C in ACORN 2.1 and 35.96C in raw

Marble Bar 4020 raw max extends back to 1903: 1903-1909 = 35.18C

4020 overlap with 4106 26 September 2000 to 22 August 2006 : 4020 35.21C / 4106 34.98C

ACORN catalogue: The station has been located in or near the settlement of Marble Bar throughout its history. There is documentation from November 1944 of a proposed move but no firm documentation that it was carried out, although the data suggest that it was. The minimum thermometer was reported to have been reading low in January 1965 and was replaced. The site moved in May 1967 (small), on 1 August 1984 (500 m east), on 19 July 1988 (1 km east) and on 2 October 1997 (300 m southwest). The automatic weather station opened in September 2000, with instruments in the same screen as the former manual site (004020). The manual site continued until 2006 but was only used in ACORN-SAT until the end of 2002 because of deteriorating data quality after that.

Assuming the AWS was operational from 2000, 1990-1999 raw max averaged 35.50C and post AWS 2001-2010 averaged 35.40C

Marble Bar max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 marble bar minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 19.15C / raw 19.72C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 19.68C / raw 20.35C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.53C / raw warmed 0.63C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.11C / raw 0.04C

Marble Bar 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 20.05C / raw 20.40C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 19.16C / raw 20.02C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 19.03% / raw - 73.98%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.19% / raw - 16.71%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 19.31C in ACORN 2.1 and 20.02C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 20.41C in ACORN 2.1 and 20.41C in raw

Marble Bar 4020 raw min extends back to 1902: 1902 + 1904-1909 = 19.39C

4020 overlap with 4106 27 September 2000 to 23 August 2006 : 4020 20.14C / 4106 19.90C

Assuming the AWS was operational from 2000, 1990-1999 raw min averaged 20.95C and post AWS 2001-2010 averaged 20.38C

Marble Bar min Excel spreadsheets

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Marree

acorn 2 marree maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 27.49C / raw 27.50C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 28.47C / raw 29.12C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.98C / raw warmed 1.62C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.18C / raw 0.20C

Marree 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 29.24C / raw 29.43C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 27.91C / raw 28.85C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 16.85% / raw - 64.94%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.65% / raw - 9.58%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 27.48C in ACORN 2.1 and 27.36C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 29.33C in ACORN 2.1 and 29.34C in raw

Marree 17024 has annual max temps back to 1908: 1908-1909 = 26.26C

17126 overlap with 17031 24 July 1998 to 8 January 2015 : 17126 28.95C / 17031 29.72C

ACORN catalogue: The first observations were made at Farina (017024), about 50 km to the south. Little documentation is available about the Farina site. The Marree site opened in 1939. There were issues with the enclosed nature of the site in the late 1980s and early 1990s, as well as with reports of metal sheets and motor vehicles near the screen. This improved in April 1993 when a shed to the west was demolished, a tree was removed and gravel was removed from around the screen area. An automatic weather station (017126) has been operating since July 1998 at Marree Airport, about 1 km southeast of the town. This is expected to eventually replace the current site.

Assuming the AWS was operational from 1998, 1988-1997 raw max averaged 28.96C and post AWS 1999-2008 averaged 29.54C

Marree max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 marree minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 13.05C / raw 12.52C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 13.67C / raw 13.61C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.62C / raw warmed 1.09C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.08C / raw 0.16C

Marree 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 14.01C / raw 14.02C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 13.35C / raw 13.18C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.01% / raw - 68.58%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 9.55% / raw - 9.16%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 13.18C in ACORN 2.1 and 12.29C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 13.91C in ACORN 2.1 and 13.92C in raw

Marree 17024 has annual min temps back to 1908: 1908-1909 = 11.19C

17126 overlap with 17031 24 July 1998 to 9 January 2015 : 17126 13.90C / 17031 14.15C

Assuming the AWS was operational from 1998, 1988-1997 raw min averaged 13.69C and post AWS 1999-2008 averaged 14.07C

Marree min Excel spreadsheets

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Melbourne

acorn 2 melbourne maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 19.12C / raw 19.74C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 19.83C / raw 20.34C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.71C / raw warmed 0.60C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.13C / raw 0.13C

Melbourne 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 20.37C / raw 20.96C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 19.53C / raw 19.96C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 16.99% / raw - 23.20%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.81% / raw - 11.12%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 19.24C in ACORN 2.1 and 19.61C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 20.51C in ACORN 2.1 and 20.90C in raw

Melbourne 86071 has annual max temps back to 1856: 1856-1909 = 19.56C

86071 overlap with 86338 1 June 2013 to 5 January 2015 : 86071 20.84C / 86338 20.09C

ACORN catalogue: The site has been in its current location, on the northeastern edge of the junction of Victoria and La Trobe streets, since January 1908. There were strong rises in minimum temperature through the late 1950s and 1960s, possibly associated with increasing levels of road traffic (the lack of further increases after 1970 may indicate that by then the traffic was at saturation level from the viewpoint of its effect on the observations). An automatic weather station has been in place since August 1986 and became the primary instrument on 1 November 1996. A large apartment building was built across the street to the south of the site in 1996–1997, which coincides with a discernible rise in minimum temperatures. Earlier observations were made at the old Melbourne Observatory (in the Domain south of the Yarra River) from 1863 to 1907, and in a number of locations in the vicinity of Flagstaff Hill prior to 1863.

1986-1995 raw max averaged 20.00C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 20.83C

Melbourne max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 melbourne minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 10.32C / raw 9.96C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 11.32C / raw 11.37C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 1.00C / raw warmed 1.41C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.16C / raw 0.17C

Melbourne 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 11.59C / raw 11.86C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 11.15C / raw 10.99C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 18.86% / raw - 26.58%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.23% / raw - 11.48%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 10.15C in ACORN 2.1 and 10.20C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 11.76C in ACORN 2.1 and 11.94C in raw

Melbourne 86071 has annual min temps back to 1856: 1856-1909 = 9.57C

86071 overlap with 86338 2 June 2013 to 6 January 2015 : 86071 11.79C / 86338 11.48C

1986-1995 raw min averaged 11.19C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 11.66C

Melbourne min Excel spreadsheets

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Mildura

acorn 2 mildura maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 24.36C / raw 24.00C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 24.55C / raw 24.09C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.19C / raw warmed 0.09C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.08C / raw 0.09C

Mildura 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 25.07C / raw 24.87C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 24.30C / raw 23.67C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 16.45% / raw - 65.19%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.02% / raw - 11.86%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 24.37C in ACORN 2.1 and 24.26C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 25.18C in ACORN 2.1 and 25.11C in raw

Mildura 76077 has annual max temps back to 1890: 1890-1892 + 1895-1898 + 1900-1906 + 1909 = 25.35C

76077 overlap with 76031 26 August 1948 to 30 December 1949 : 76077 23.75C / 76031 23.34C

ACORN catalogue: The original site (076077) was within the Mildura town area. It moved in August 1927. After this move the screen was oriented northeast, but it was realigned to face south in July 1933. There was a small site move in March 1943. Temperature observations continued until 1949. Observations have been made at the airport site (076031) since 1946. Site moves took place on 11 August 1992 (from the aerodrome apron to the Meteorological Office) and in July 1989 (only a small move). The automatic weather station was installed on 1 October 1989, and became the primary instrument on 1 November 1996. There was rapid development of irrigated agriculture in the Mildura region in the period between the two World Wars, and this appears to be associated with an anomalous cooling trend in maximum temperature at Mildura over this period (amounting to 0.3–0.4°C over 30 years). The non-ACORN-SAT site of Griffith, which has a similar history of irrigation development, shows a similar trend.

1986-1995 raw max averaged 23.67C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 24.33C

Mildura max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 mildura minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 9.86C / raw 10.48C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 10.22C / raw 10.43C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.36C / raw cooled 0.05C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.09C / raw 0.05C

Mildura 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 10.63C / raw 10.63C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 9.97C / raw 10.39C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.70% / raw - 67.99%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.09% / raw - 12.99%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 9.91C in ACORN 2.1 and 10.26C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 10.79C in ACORN 2.1 and 10.80C in raw

Mildura 76077 has annual min temps back to 1890: 1890 + 1892-1909 = 9.97C

76077 overlap with 76031 26 August 1948 to 31 December 1949 : 76077 9.94C / 76031 9.55C

1986-1995 raw min averaged 10.23C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 10.30C

Mildura min Excel spreadsheets

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Miles

acorn 2 miles maximum temperatures

1910-1964 ACORN 2.1 27.05C / raw 27.17C

1965-2019 ACORN 2.1 27.43C / raw 27.34C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.38C / raw warmed 0.17C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.05C / raw 0.06C

Miles 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 28.08C / raw 28.00C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 26.90C / raw 26.74C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.43% / raw - 60.80%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.84% / raw - 12.60%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 27.36C in ACORN 2.1 and 27.31C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 27.88C in ACORN 2.1 and 27.88C in raw

42023 overlap with 42112 10 July 1997 to 14 March 2005 : 42023 28.09C / 42112 27.81C

ACORN catalogue: The former site (042023) was located in the town. The screen was reported in September 1929 as having numerous missing louvres. It became somewhat overgrown from about 1990 onwards, but continued to measure temperatures until 2005. Rainfall continues to be measured at this site. The current site has been operating since July 1997, about 300 m west- northwest of the previous site.

1995-2004 raw max averaged 27.81C and post AWS 2006-2015 averaged 27.67C

Miles max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 miles minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 11.34C / raw 11.94C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 12.61C / raw 12.62C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 1.27C / raw warmed 0.68C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.16C / raw 0.05C

Miles 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 12.89C / raw 12.90C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 12.25C / raw 12.27C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.73% / raw - 65.43%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 22.24% / raw - 13.75%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 11.21C in ACORN 2.1 and 12.39C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 12.86C in ACORN 2.1 and 12.86C in raw

42023 overlap with 42112 11 July 1997 to 15 March 2005 : 42023 13.02C / 42112 13.03C

1995-2004 raw min averaged 12.88C and post AWS 2006-2015 averaged 12.85C

Miles min Excel spreadsheets

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Moruya Heads

acorn 2 moruya heads maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 19.98C / raw 19.78C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 20.44C / raw 20.42C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.46C / raw warmed 0.64C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.07C / raw 0.08C

Moruya Heads 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 20.80C / raw 20.81C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 20.25C / raw 20.13C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 22.80% / raw - 64.52%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 22.13% / raw - 22.14%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 20.14C in ACORN 2.1 and 20.02C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 20.82C in ACORN 2.1 and 20.82C in raw

ACORN catalogue: The site has been in the Pilot Station grounds since at least the start of ACORN-SAT in 1910. The only documented move was ’a few feet‘ south, in October 1966. An automatic weather station was installed at Moruya Airport (069148) in 1999. While the airport site (which is on flat ground on the other side of the Moruya River) is less than 2 km inland, under certain conditions the temperature differences between Moruya Airport and Moruya Heads can be dramatic due to the role the coastal ridge can play in blocking marine air from penetrating further inland. Minimum temperature differences of 5 °C or more between the sites on cold nights in the cooler months are a regular occurrence. Due to these large climatic differences it is unlikely the airport site will supersede the current Moruya Heads site in the foreseeable future.

1989-1998 raw max averaged 20.12C and post AWS 2000-2009 averaged 20.79C

Moruya Heads max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 moruya heads minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 10.69C / raw 11.19C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 11.65C / raw 11.65C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.94C / raw warmed 0.46C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.16C / raw 0.10C

Moruya Heads 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 12.09C / raw 12.09C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 11.26C / raw 11.27C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 25.85% / raw - 64.90%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 19.66% / raw - 19.66%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 10.59C in ACORN 2.1 and 11.21C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 12.18C in ACORN 2.1 and 12.18C in raw

1989-1998 raw min averaged 11.64C and post AWS 2000-2009 averaged 12.02C

Moruya Heads min Excel spreadsheets

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Normanton

acorn 2 normanton maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 32.98C / raw 33.41C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 33.46C / raw 33.50C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.48C / raw warmed 0.09C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.09C / raw -0.01C

Normanton 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 33.63C / raw 33.62C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 33.33C / raw 33.49C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.66% / raw - 75.39%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.82% / raw - 12.34%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 32.77C in ACORN 2.1 and 33.81C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 33.67C in ACORN 2.1 and 33.67C in raw

29041 overlap with 29063 10 April 2001 to 30 July 2001 : 29041 31.30C / 29063 31.41C

ACORN catalogue: The original site was in the town (029063). Screens which had been in poor condition were replaced in May 1917 and November 1940. The only documented move in this site took place in October 1956 (45 m southwest). In its later years, there was a watered lawn and trees and a car park nearby. The current site replaced the previous site in 2001; there are only three months of overlapping data, insufficient to be used in adjustment.

Assuming the AWS was operational from 2001, 1991-2000 averaged 33.40C and post AWS 2002-2011 averaged 33.49C

Normanton max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 normanton minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 21.08C / raw 21.08C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 21.70C / raw 21.81C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.62C / raw warmed 0.73C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.09C / raw 0.09C

Normanton 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 21.78C / raw 21.81C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 21.55C / raw 21.61C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.68% / raw - 80.91%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 9.82% / raw - 15.37%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 21.05C in ACORN 2.1 and 20.99C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 21.91C in ACORN 2.1 and 21.91C in raw

29041 overlap with 29063 11 April 2001 to 31 July 2001 : 29041 17.87C / 29063 17.38C

Assuming the AWS was operational from 2001, 1991-2000 averaged 22.17C and post AWS 2002-2011 averaged 21.69C

Normanton min Excel spreadsheets

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Palmerville

acorn 2 palmerville maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 32.78C / raw 32.69C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 32.85C / raw 32.94C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.07C / raw warmed 0.25C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.04C / raw 0.09C

Palmerville 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 33.14C / raw 33.14C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 32.74C / raw 32.78C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 21.97% / raw - 67.52%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.83% / raw - 45.17%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 32.85C in ACORN 2.1 and 32.36C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 33.25C in ACORN 2.1 and 33.24C in raw

Palmerville 28004 has max temps back to 1896 : 1896-1901 + 1903-1905 = 32.84C

ACORN catalogue: There are no clearly documented moves at the original manual site although the screen was replaced on a number of occasions (October 1926, July 1988 and September 1994). The same observer performed observations for 63 years from 1936 to 1999, and was the area’s sole remaining resident during the later part of that period. Observations did not resume until the automatic station was commissioned. The automatic weather station was installed in mid-2000, 160 m south-east of the former site, but did not begin transmitting data until July 2001.

1991-2000 averaged 33.14C and post AWS 2002-2011 averaged 32.95C (five years missing pre and two years missing post 2001 so not very accurate)

Palmerville max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 palmerville minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 17.21C / raw 19.07C

1964-20188 - ACORN 2.1 18.50C / raw 19.34C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 1.29C / raw warmed 0.27C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.24C / raw 0.01C

Palmerville 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 19.09C / raw 19.08C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 17.98C / raw 19.45C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.99% / raw - 67.82%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 16.51% / raw - 43.19%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 16.77C in ACORN 2.1 and 19.10C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 19.17C in ACORN 2.1 and 19.17C in raw

Palmerville 28004 has min temps back to 1896 : 1896-1901 + 1903-1905 = 18.54C

1991-2000 averaged 19.51C and post AWS 2002-2011 averaged 19.14C (five years missing pre and two years missing post 2001 so not very accurate)

Palmerville min Excel spreadsheets

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Perth

acorn 2 perth maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 23.91C / raw 23.18C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 24.90C / raw 24.73C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.99C / raw warmed 1.55C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.22C / raw 0.29C

Perth 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 25.34C / raw 25.34C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 24.54C / raw 24.19C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 16.05% / raw - 26.66%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.12% / raw - 10.48%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 23.45C in ACORN 2.1 and 22.75C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 25.61C in ACORN 2.1 and 25.61C in raw

Perth 9021 raw max extends back to 1897: 1897-1909 = 22.73C

9034 overlap with 9021 3 June 1944 to 29 April 1992 : 9034 23.64C / 9021 24.14C

ACORN catalogue: The airport site (009021) opened in 1944. ACORN-SAT uses Perth Regional Office until 1944 and utilises the overlap period between 1944 and 1962 to merge this into the Airport data. Regional Office data after a site move in 1963 were not used for ACORN-SAT. The airport site moved about 1.5 km to the south-southeast on 3 March 1988. An automatic weather station was installed on 20 June 1994 and became the primary instrument on 1 November 1996. The site move 1.7 km to the north on 27 October 1997; observations continued at the old site under station number 009250 until 2001.

1986-1995 raw max averaged 24.29C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 25.11C

Perth max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 perth minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 11.23C / raw 13.01C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 11.99C / raw 12.40C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.76C / raw cooled 0.61C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.18C / raw -0.03C

Perth 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 12.34C / raw 12.33C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 11.70C / raw 12.42C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 19.35% / raw - 33.33%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.39% / raw - 11.52%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 10.83C in ACORN 2.1 and 12.96C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 12.64C in ACORN 2.1 and 12.64C in raw

Perth 9021 raw min extends back to 1897: 1897-1909 = 12.74C

9034 overlap with 9021 3 June 1944 to 30 April 1992 : 9034 13.58C / 9021 11.95C

1986-1995 raw min averaged 12.64C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 12.22C

Perth min Excel spreadsheets

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Port Lincoln

acorn 2 port lincoln maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 20.09C / raw 20.55C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 20.84C / raw 21.15C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.75C / raw warmed 0.60C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.12C / raw 0.04C

Port Lincoln 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 21.51C / raw 21.51C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 20.40C / raw 20.91C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 18.02% / raw - 74.01%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 9.80% / raw - 14.47%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 20.48C in ACORN 2.1 and 21.28C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 21.71C in ACORN 2.1 and 21.71C in raw

Port Lincoln 18070 has max temps back to 1892 : 1892-1909 = 20.55C

ACORN catalogue: The original site (018070) was in the town centre. In its later years this site was quite built-up, with buildings, a fence and a concrete surface in the vicinity. There were numerous small moves in its history, with documented moves in October 1924, December 1941, July 1962, February 1975 and October 1986 (40 m east). It closed in March 2002. The current site has been operating since 1992.

Port Lincoln max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 port lincoln minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 10.88C / raw 11.66C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 11.42C / raw 11.65C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.54C / raw cooled 0.01C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.02C / raw 0.00C

Port Lincoln 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 11.39C / raw 11.39C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 11.46C / raw 12.03C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 16.62% / raw - 75.32%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 9.83% / raw - 15.23%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 11.17C in ACORN 2.1 and 11.34C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 11.36C in ACORN 2.1 and 11.36C in raw

Port Lincoln 18070 has min temps back to 1892 : 1892-1909 = 10.76C

Port Lincoln min Excel spreadsheets

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Port Macquarie

acorn 2 port macquarie maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 22.68C / raw 21.95C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 23.46C / raw 23.03C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.78C / raw warmed 1.08C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.15C / raw 0.21C

Port Macquarie 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 23.96C / raw 23.96C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 22.96C / raw 22.22C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 20.34% / raw - 66.93%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 11.75% / raw - 22.53%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 22.69C in ACORN 2.1 and 22.12C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 24.18C in ACORN 2.1 and 24.18C in raw

60026 overlap with 60139 25 July 1995 to 26 October 2003 : 60026 22.71 / 60139 23.41C

ACORN catalogue: The original site (060026) was located near the Pilot Station, close to the ocean on the eastern edge of the town centre. There was a move 90 m seaward (the exact direction is unclear) in January 1939, and a move 18 m to the southwest on 4 September 1968. On 6 October 1983, the site moved about 1 km south to a location in suburban Hill Street, about 1.5 km south of the city centre and approximately 700 m inland from the ocean. This location was less exposed to the ocean than this distance suggests because it was in a local hollow, and a ridge separated it from the beach. Temperature observations there ceased in October 2003. The site number 060026 continues to be used for rainfall observations but these are in a different location to the pre-2003 temperature observations. The current site (060139) is located on the southeast side of the airport runway. It began operations in 1995 but has only been used in the ACORN- SAT dataset from January 2000 because of some issues with its early data.

1990-1999 raw averaged 22.78C and post AWS 2001-2010 averaged 23.77C

Port Macquarie max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 port macquarie minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 10.88C / raw 12.72C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 12.24C / raw 13.25C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 1.36C / raw warmed 0.53C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.18C / raw -0.02C

Port Macquarie 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 12.66C / raw 12.66C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 11.73C / raw 13.45C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 18.95% / raw - 70.38%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 12.56% / raw - 23.02%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 11.13C in ACORN 2.1 and 13.04C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 12.89C in ACORN 2.1 and 12.89C in raw

60026 overlap with 60139 26 July 1995 to 27 October 2003 : 60026 14.00C / 60139 12.60C

1990-1999 raw averaged 13.89C and post AWS 2001-2010 averaged 12.51C

Port Macquarie min Excel spreadsheets

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Richmond (Qld)

acorn 2 richmond maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 32.85C / raw 32.61C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 33.00C / raw 33.06C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.15C / raw warmed 0.45C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.10C / raw 0.03C

Richmond 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 33.48C / raw 33.24C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 32.65C / raw 32.83C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 19.17% / raw - 59.58%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 9.56% / raw - 20.82%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 32.65C in ACORN 2.1 and 33.19C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 33.64C in ACORN 2.1 and 33.47C in raw

Richmond 30045 has annual max temps back to 1893: 1893-1909 = 32.93C

ACORN catalogue: The only known station move was one of 30 m in September 1965. New screens were known to have been supplied in December 1928 and September 1991; the screen in use in September 1944 was reported to have had an iron roof. An automatic weather station (030161) was installed at the airport, approximately 4 km north of the town, in 1998 and may eventually replace the existing site.

Richmond max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 richmond minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 15.08C / raw 16.39C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 16.64C / raw 17.30C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 1.56C / raw warmed 0.91C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.25C / raw 0.19C

Richmond 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 17.08C / raw 17.75C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 16.04C / raw 16.72C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 18.23% / raw - 64.95%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 9.70% / raw - 20.28%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 14.80C in ACORN 2.1 and 15.98C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 17.30C in ACORN 2.1 and 17.91C in raw

Richmond 30045 has annual min temps back to 1893: 1893-1909 = 16.17C

Richmond min Excel spreadsheets

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Robe

acorn 2 robe maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 18.08C / raw 17.89C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 18.35C / raw 18.55C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.27C / raw warmed 0.66C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.04C / raw 0.08C

Robe 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 18.61C / raw 18.62C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 18.17C / raw 18.55C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 18.03% / raw - 58.69%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 12.14% / raw - 19.90%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 18.28C in ACORN 2.1 and 17.90C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 18.68C in ACORN 2.1 and 18.68C in raw

Robe 26026 has annual max temps back to 1885: 1885-1909 = 17.89C

ACORN catalogue: There were issues with the screen door for some years prior to repairs in 1930. There was a very small move (3 m) in October 1943, and documentation also suggests a small move at some point in the decade prior to 1956 but there is no clear evidence of its nature or timing. There was a move 200 m east in November 1968 An automatic weather station (026105) was installed at Robe Airport, 5 km east-southeast of the town, in 2003. It is at an inland location quite different climatically from the town site, so is not expected to be a direct replacement for the town site.

Assuming 2003 was when AWS readings were adopted, 1993-2002 raw max averaged 18.36C and post AWS 2004-2013 averaged 18.62C

Robe max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 robe minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 10.71C / raw 10.83C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 11.30C / raw 11.22C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.59C / raw warmed 0.39C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.05C / raw 0.04C

Robe 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 11.37C / raw 11.36C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 11.18C / raw 11.06C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 32.00% / raw - 64.92%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 19.01% / raw - 19.14%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 10.88C in ACORN 2.1 and 11.01C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 11.38C in ACORN 2.1 and 11.37C in raw

Robe 26026 has annual min temps back to 1885: 1885-1909 = 10.49C

Assuming 2003 was when AWS readings were adopted, 1993-2002 raw min averaged 11.35C and post AWS 2004-2013 averaged 11.42C

Robe min Excel spreadsheets

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Sale

acorn 2 sale maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 19.42C / raw 19.65C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 19.88C / raw 19.90C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.46C / raw warmed 0.25C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.08C / raw 0.04C

Sale 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 20.37C / raw 20.36C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 19.55C / raw 19.59C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.11% / raw - 49.86%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 9.35% / raw - 11.20%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 19.61C in ACORN 2.1 and 20.02C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 20.46C in ACORN 2.1 and 20.45C in raw

Sale 85133 has annual max temps back to 1892: 1892-1909 = 20.69C

ACORN catalogue: This site (85072) is an automatic weather station, on flat open ground on the southern edge of the East Sale RAAF base, about 8 km east of the town. A concrete path leads to the screen area but otherwise the ground surface is short unwatered grass, with a small shed about 25 m to the southeast and a bitumen road 20 m to the south. The automatic weather station has been operating in its present location since 11 June 1996. The previous site was 900 m north of the current site. It continued making observations as a comparison until 2005 under the station number 85298. There is no clear documentation of any moves at the RAAF base site prior to 1996. Prior to the opening of the Meteorological Office at the RAAF base in 1945, observations were made in the Sale township (85133). There was no overlap between the two sites. The town site was somewhat warmer than the airport site for both maximum and minimum temperature.

1986-1995 raw max averaged 19.56C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 20.17C

Sale max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 sale minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 7.44C / raw 8.29C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 8.08C / raw 8.24C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.64C / raw cooled 0.05C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.13C / raw 0.00C

Sale 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 8.38C / raw 8.37C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 7.90C / raw 8.20C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.78% / raw - 51.70%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.22% / raw - 11.87%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 7.39C in ACORN 2.1 and 8.66C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 8.65C in ACORN 2.1 and 8.66C in raw

Sale 85133 has annual min temps back to 1892: 1892-1909 = 8.44C

1986-1995 raw min averaged 8.53C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 7.94C

Sale min Excel spreadsheets

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Snowtown

acorn 2 snowtown maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 22.70C / raw 23.25C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 23.64C / raw 23.83C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.94C / raw warmed 0.58C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.15C / raw 0.10C

Snowtown 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 24.26C / raw 24.27C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 23.14C / raw 23.50C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 18.16% / raw - 78.10%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 19.22% / raw - 22.12%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 22.79C in ACORN 2.1 and 23.36C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 24.34C in ACORN 2.1 and 24.34C in raw

Snowtown 21046 has annual max temps for 1909 = 21.72C

21046 overlap with 21133 23 July 1998 to 29 June 2001 : 21046 24.41C / 21133 23.97C

ACORN catalogue: The former site (021046), which continued until June 2001, was located in the town. Small moves within the town are documented in April 1948, July 1971 and on 4 August 1993 (15 m). The current site has been operating since 1998.

1988-1997 raw max averaged 23.65C and post AWS 1999-2008 averaged 24.15C

Snowtown max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 snowtown minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 8.12C / raw 9.53C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 8.76C / raw 9.52C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.64C / raw cooled 0.01C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.05C / raw -0.09C

Snowtown 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 8.98C / raw 8.98C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 8.60C / raw 9.87C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 20.45% / raw - 83.24%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 19.42% / raw - 21.20%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 8.55C in ACORN 2.1 and 9.92C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 9.05C in ACORN 2.1 and 9.05C in raw

Snowtown 21046 has annual min temps for 1909 = 8.50C

21046 overlap with 21133 24 July 1998 to 30 June 2001 : 21046 10.42C / 21133 9.03C

1988-1997 raw min averaged 9.96C and post AWS 1999-2008 averaged 8.87C

Snowtown min Excel spreadsheets

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Sydney

acorn 2 sydney maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 22.41C / raw 21.69C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 22.94C / raw 22.53C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.53C / raw warmed 0.84C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.06C / raw 0.17C

Sydney 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 23.24C / raw 23.12C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 22.79C / raw 22.15C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.40% / raw - 26.41%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 9.99% / raw - 10.34%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 22.76C in ACORN 2.1 and 21.60C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 23.36C in ACORN 2.1 and 23.32C in raw

Sydney 66062 has annual max temps back to 1859: 1859-1909 = 20.98C

ACORN catalogue: Originally the site was in the main Observatory grounds. It moved about 100 m south to its current location in 1917. The earlier site was a more exposed location on a hilltop and had lower maximum and higher minimum temperatures than the current location. An automatic weather station was installed at the current site on 8 August 1990. The area is heavily built-up and has been since at least the late 19th century. An analysis of minimum temperature trends in the ACORN- SAT data showed no evidence of an abnormal warming trend relative to non- urban sites in the region, indicating that any urban influence on the data was already fully developed by the time ACORN-SAT begins in 1910.

1986-1995 raw max averaged 20.12C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 20.14C

Assuming AWS became operational in 1990, 1980-1989 raw max averaged 22.29C and post AWS 1991-2000 averaged 22.31C

Sydney max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 sydney minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 14.05C / raw 13.58C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 14.57C / raw 14.50C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.52C / raw warmed 0.92C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.08C / raw 0.14C

Sydney 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 14.86C / raw 14.86C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 14.34C / raw 14.22C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.61% / raw - 28.10%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 9.26% / raw - 10.77%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 14.22C in ACORN 2.1 and 13.64C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 15.01C in ACORN 2.1 and 15.01C in raw

Sydney 66062 has annual min temps back to 1859: 1859-1909 = 13.37C

Assuming AWS became operational in 1990, 1980-1989 raw min averaged 14.47C and post AWS 1991-2000 averaged 14.36C

Sydney min Excel spreadsheets

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Tennant Creek

acorn 2 tennant creek maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 31.01C / raw 32.18C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 31.79C / raw 31.98C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.78C / raw cooled 0.20C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.19C / raw 0.07C

Tennant Creek 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 32.20C / raw 32.16C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 31.46C / raw 31.87C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 19.33% / raw - 61.79%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 9.12% / raw - 11.84%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 30.60C in ACORN 2.1 and 31.73C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 32.41C in ACORN 2.1 and 32.40C in raw

15087 overlap with 15135 27 July 1969 to 31 October 1970 : 15087 32.36C / 15135 32.04C

ACORN catalogue: The original site (015087) was based in the town. There was a major move (12 km south) in June 1935 and a smaller move of about 20 m in November 1963. This later site was quite close to a road. New screens were installed to replace damaged ones in May 1945 and November 1958. Observations ceased in 1970. This airport site has been operating since 1969. An automatic weather station was installed on 8 July 1990 and has been the primary instrument since 1 November 1996. There are no known substantial moves at this location.

1986-1995 raw max averaged 32.27C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 31.81C

Tennant Creek max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 tennant creek minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 19.44C / raw 18.74C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 19.96C / raw 19.75C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.52C / raw warmed 1.01C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.09C / raw 0.14C

Tennant Creek 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 20.03C / raw 19.92C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 19.76C / raw 19.42C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.61% / raw - 64.64%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 9.63% / raw - 11.87%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 19.08C in ACORN 2.1 and 18.52C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 20.01C in ACORN 2.1 and 19.96C in raw

15087 overlap with 15135 25 July 1969 to 31 October 1970 : 15087 18.56C / 15135 18.91C

1986-1995 raw min averaged 20.43C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 19.90C

Tennant Creek min Excel spreadsheets

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Tibooburra

acorn 2 tibooburra maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 27.13C / raw 27.28C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 27.65C / raw 27.68C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.52C / raw warmed 0.40C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.13C / raw 0.12C

Tibooburra 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 28.40C / raw 28.37C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 27.16C / raw 27.16C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.38% / raw - 91.22%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 9.97% / raw - 11.92%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 27.01C in ACORN 2.1 and 27.10C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 28.34C in ACORN 2.1 and 28.33C in raw

46037 overlap with 46126 23 September 1997 to 8 January 2015 : 46037 28.22C / 46126 28.09C

ACORN catalogue: The site has had a number of moves over time. There is evidence of a move in November 1944 and a small move in 1960. A 500 m move to the southwest occurred in August 1980, and there is evidence of a move of a few metres some time between 1981 and 1984. There were moves of a few metres in September 1994 and of 15 m to the south in July 1996, to place the screen away from areas of bluestone landscaping and concrete, although neither move has had a significant impact on the observations. Minimum temperatures at Tibooburra suffered from persistent problems (most likely instrument faults) in the 1940s and most 1941–1949 minimum temperature data have not been used. An automatic weather station (046126) has been operating at Tibooburra Airport, about 5 km to the east, since September 1997. This may eventually supersede the existing manual site.

Tibooburra max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 tibooburra minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 13.56C / raw 13.57C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 14.48C / raw 14.48C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.92C / raw warmed 0.91C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.09C / raw 0.11C

Tibooburra 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 15.02C / raw 15.02C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 14.04C / raw 13.98C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 18.32% / raw - 89.83%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.42% / raw - 15.10%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 14.11C in ACORN 2.1 and 13.96C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 15.03C in ACORN 2.1 and 15.00C in raw

46037 overlap with 46126 24 September 1997 to 9 January 2015 : 46037 14.95C / 46126 15.00C

Tibooburra min Excel spreadsheets

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Wagga Wagga

acorn 2 wagga wagga maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 22.17C / raw 22.67C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 22.62C / raw 22.49C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.45C / raw cooled 0.18C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.08C / raw -0.01C

Wagga Wagga 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 23.26C / raw 23.25C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 22.18C / raw 21.97C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.75% / raw - 57.04%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 9.65% / raw - 11.35%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 22.45C in ACORN 2.1 and 23.21C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 23.20C in ACORN 2.1 and 23.20C in raw

Wagga Wagga 72151 has annual max temps back to 1872 : 1872-1873 + 1880-1884 + 1886-1906 + 1908-1909 = 24.22C

72151 overlap with 72150 17 January 1942 to 31 December 1950 : 72151 22.60C / 72150 21.60C

ACORN catalogue: The original site (072151) was in the Wagga Wagga town area. It was initially at the Post Office but moved to police station grounds in July 1925. There was a further move in April 1928. The screen was initially facing east before being reoriented in October 1933. Temperatures were observed at this location until 1953. Rainfall observations continued under the same site number until 1984 but moved to a different location in the suburb of Kooringal, southeast of the town centre. The airport site (072150) started operating in 1943. A grain shed to the northeast, built in 1969 and removed in 1999, cast shadows over the site after sunrise in mid-winter. The automatic weather station was installed on 21 October 1994 and became the primary instrument on 1 November 1996.

1986-1995 raw max averaged 21.98C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 23.02C

Wagga Wagga max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 wagga wagga minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 7.50C / raw 9.40C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 8.84C / raw 9.08C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 1.34C / raw cooled 0.32C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.20C / raw 0.04C

Wagga Wagga 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 9.43C / raw 9.45C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 8.36C / raw 8.86C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.37% / raw - 65.47%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.48% / raw - 12.71%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 7.71C in ACORN 2.1 and 9.24C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 9.66C in ACORN 2.1 and 9.67C in raw

Wagga Wagga 72151 has annual min temps back to 1872: 1872-1876 + 1879-1884 + 1886-1900 + 1902-1909 = 8.53C

72151 overlap with 72150 18 January 1942 to 31 December 1950 : 72151 9.8C / 72150 9.40C

1986-1995 raw min averaged 8.99C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 9.08C

Wagga Wagga min Excel spreadsheets

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Walgett

acorn 2 walgett maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 26.42C / raw 26.91C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 27.07C / raw 27.46C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.65C / raw warmed 0.55C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.14C / raw 0.14C

Walgett 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 28.00C / raw 28.08C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 26.39C / raw 27.10C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.56% / raw - 82.07%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.12% / raw - 29.33%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 26.81C in ACORN 2.1 and 26.72C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 28.17C in ACORN 2.1 and 28.17C in raw

Walgett 52026 has annual max temps back to 1879: 1879-1880 + 1884 + 1886 + 1888-1902 + 1904-1906 + 1908-1909 = 26.41C

52026 overlap with 52088 1 June 1993 to 30 June 1993 : 52026 18.30C / 52088 17.78C

ACORN catalogue: The original site (052026) was located within the town area. There may have been a small move in August 1960 when the screen was replaced. There are documented moves in November 1962 and October 1971, the latter putting it near the shire offices where it remained until closing in 1993. The airport site (052088) began operations on 2 June 1993, with no useful overlap with the town site. There was a site move to the other side of the airport on 21 May 1997 when the automatic weather station was installed.

Assuming 1997 was when AWS readings were adopted, 1987-1996 raw max averaged 27.06C and post AWS 1998-2007 averaged 27.77C

Walgett max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 walgett minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 10.46C / raw 12.29C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 11.62C / raw 12.51C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 1.16C / raw warmed 0.22C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.15C / raw -0.02C

Walgett 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 12.04C / raw 12.04C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 11.17C / raw 12.88C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 18.52% / raw - 82.97%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 21.52% / raw - 29.29%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 10.73C in ACORN 2.1 and 12.43C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 12.22C in ACORN 2.1 and 12.22C in raw

Walgett 52026 has annual min temps back to 1879: 1879-1880 + 1884 + 1885-1906 + 1908-1909 = 12.33C

52026 overlap with 52088 1 June 1993 to 30 June 1993 : 52026 6.02C / 52088 4.95C (but 52026 19 days and 52088 30 days)

Assuming 1997 was when AWS readings were adopted, 1987-1996 raw min averaged 12.77C and post AWS 1998-2007 averaged 11.91C

Walgett min Excel spreadsheets

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Wandering

acorn 2 wandering maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 22.42C / raw 22.87C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 23.07C / raw 23.49C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.65C / raw warmed 0.62C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.16C / raw 0.10C

Wandering 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 23.63C / raw 23.83C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 22.63C / raw 23.16C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 16.78% / raw - 67.21%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.09% / raw - 18.30%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 22.35C in ACORN 2.1 and 22.98C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 23.99C in ACORN 2.1 and 24.01C in raw

Wandering 10648 raw max extends back to 1902: 1902-1909 = 22.71C

10648 overlap with 10917 14 December 1998 to 30 January 2003 : 10648 23.95C / 10917 23.67C

ACORN catalogue: The original site (010648) had moves in July 1987 (20 m, to achieve better exposure after trees had grown around the site) and in November 1988. It continued to operate until 2003. An automatic weather station (010917) was installed in 1998 about 1 km north of the original site.

1988-1997 raw max averaged 23.43C and post AWS 1999-2008 averaged 23.64C

Wandering max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 wandering minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 7.69C / raw 8.27C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 8.28C / raw 8.75C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.59C / raw warmed 0.48C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.11C / raw 0.04C

Wandering 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 8.48C / raw 8.58C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 8.03C / raw 8.70C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 18.53% / raw - 65.81%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 16.84% / raw - 14.94%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 7.62C in ACORN 2.1 and 8.35C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 8.72C in ACORN 2.1 and 8.72C in raw

Wandering 10648 raw min extends back to 1902: 1902-1909 = 7.48C

10648 overlap with 10917 15 December 1998 to 31 January 2003 : 10648 9.17C / 10917 8.43C

1988-1997 raw min averaged 9.11C and post AWS 1999-2008 averaged 8.59C

Wandering min Excel spreadsheets

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Wilsons Promontory

acorn 2 wilsons promontory maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 16.25C / raw 16.01C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 16.74C / raw 16.57C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.49C / raw warmed 0.56C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.09C / raw 0.11C

Wilsons Promontory 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 17.09C / raw 17.08C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 16.54C / raw 16.29C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.06% / raw - 79.99%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 14.67% / raw - 21.19%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 16.39C in ACORN 2.1 and 16.14C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 17.27C in ACORN 2.1 and 17.27C in raw

ACORN catalogue: This site has been located at the Wilsons Promontory lighthouse throughout its history, with no documented moves during the ACORN-SAT period. Bushfires affected the area in February 1951; the instrument enclosure was not directly affected but observations stopped for several months while staff housing was rebuilt. The screen was blown down in a June 1959 storm and had to be replaced. An automatic weather station was installed on 18 September 2000. Another bushfire in April 2005 also had no direct impact on the enclosure.

Assuming 2000 was when AWS readings were adopted, 1990-1999 raw max averaged 16.25C and post AWS 2001-2010 averaged 16.92C

Wilsons Promontory max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 wilsons promontory minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 11.72C / raw 11.30C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 12.15C / raw 11.95C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.43C / raw warmed 0.65C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.06C / raw 0.09C

Wilsons Promontory 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 12.37C / raw 12.36C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 11.96C / raw 11.63C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 21.55% / raw - 82.84%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 14.28% / raw - 22.67%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 11.90C in ACORN 2.1 and 11.59C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 12.48C in ACORN 2.1 and 12.48C in raw

Assuming 2000 was when AWS readings were adopted, 1990-1999 raw min averaged 11.73C and post AWS 2001-2010 averaged 12.25C

Wilsons Promontory min Excel spreadsheets

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Yamba

acorn 2 yamba maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 23.50C / raw 22.86C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 23.91C / raw 23.48C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.41C / raw warmed 0.62C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.06C / raw 0.15C

Yamba 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 24.27C / raw 24.06C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 23.56C / raw 22.98C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 19.72% / raw - 80.16%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 8.96% / raw - 14.85%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 23.69C in ACORN 2.1 and 22.79C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 24.34C in ACORN 2.1 and 24.34C in raw

ACORN catalogue: The site has been on the headland throughout its history. A site move, probably of less than 50 m, took place on 22 November 1943 to opposite side of Pilot Station building. There was another move at some point between 1975 and 1980, probably of only a few metres. The current site was established on 16 October 2007, with the screen only 1.5 m from the screen for the previous site.

1997-2006 raw max averaged 23.63C and post AWS 2008-2017 averaged 24.18C

Yamba max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 yamba minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 15.13C / raw 15.19C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 15.65C / raw 15.64C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.52C / raw warmed 0.45C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.07C / raw 0.04C

Yamba 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 15.97C / raw 15.94C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 15.38C / raw 15.37C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 18.61% / raw - 82.81%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 15.01% / raw - 19.10%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 15.42C in ACORN 2.1 and 15.72C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 16.15C in ACORN 2.1 and 16.15C in raw

1997-2006 raw min averaged 15.75C and post AWS 2008-2017 averaged 16.07C

Yamba min Excel spreadsheets

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