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ACORN 2.1 influence on Queensland temperature trends

Australia New South Wales Northern Territory South Australia Tasmania Victoria Western Australia


In October 2020 the Bureau of Meteorology again rewrote Australia's temperature history with the release of ACORN 2.1, an update to its homogenised ACORN 2 dataset (Australian Climate Observations Reference Network - Surface Air Temperatures) released in late 2018 that significantly increased the rate of climate warming since 1910.

There are 26 ACORN stations in Queensland. This page analyses the daily temperatures at all 26 weather stations and averages the 15 with a start year of 1910 to ensure a uniform timescale, the most recent being Barcaldine with a start year of 1962.

The 15 long-term weather stations analysed on this page (with a start year of 1910) had a 1910-1964 average maximum of 29.40C in ACORN 2 and a 1910-1964 average maximum of 29.41C in ACORN 2.1 - a 0.01C warming of historic maxima.

The 15 long-term weather stations had a 1910-1964 average minimum of 16.24C in ACORN 2 and a 1910-1964 average minimum of 16.20C in ACORN 2.1 - a 0.04C cooling of historic minima.

Daily temperatures in ACORN 2.1 and RAW have been annualised, and below are charts showing the difference between the ACORN 2.1 homogenised dataset when compared to original raw annual temperatures. This analysis only allows the inclusion of years within which there were no months with less than 15 days of recorded temperatures, as is the ACORN protocol.

15 Queensland stations begin in 1910 and end in 2019 in ACORN 2.1 and RAW - Boulia, Bundaberg, Burketown, Cairns, Cape Moreton, Charleville, Charters Tower, Gayndah, Georgetown, Longreach, Mackay, Miles, Normanton, Palmerville and Richmond. The first charts below show maximum and minimum temperature trends at these 15 stations, with associated data.

Excel files at the bottom of each station chart and data summary can be downloaded to compare how the ACORN 2.1 algorithms influence daily, monthly and annual temperatures at all 26 sites.

acorn 2.1 queensland maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 29.41C / raw 29.66C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 29.85C / raw 29.85C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.44C / raw warmed 0.19C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.09C / raw 0.06C

Queensland 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 30.35C / raw 30.26C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 - 29.38C / raw 29.54C

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 29.49C in ACORN 2.1 and 29.77C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 30.35C in ACORN 2.1 and 30.36C in raw

Download Excel spreadsheet for 15 Queensland weather stations in ACORN 1, ACORN 2.1 and RAW

acorn 2.1 queensland minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 16.20C / raw 16.82C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 17.31C / raw 17.60C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 1.11C / raw warmed 0.78C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.17C / raw 0.11C

Queensland 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 17.76C / raw 17.82C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 - 16.83C / raw 17.28C

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 16.16C in ACORN 2.1 and 16.84C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 17.90C in ACORN 2.1 and 17.94C in raw

Download Excel spreadsheet for 15 Queensland weather stations in ACORN 1 and ACORN 2.1 and RAW

Station menu

Amberley, Barcaldine, Birdsville, Boulia, Brisbane, Bundaberg, Burketown, Cairns, Camooweal, Cape Moreton, Charleville, Charters Towers, Gayndah, Georgetown, Horn Island, Longreach, Mackay, Miles, Normanton, Palmerville, Richmond, Rockhampton, St George, Thargomindah, Townsville, Weipa

Amberley

acorn 2.1 amberley maximum temperatures

1942-1980 - ACORN 2.1 26.59C / raw 26.52C

1981-2019 - ACORN 2.1 27.20C / raw 27.18C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.61C / raw warmed 0.66C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.13C / raw 0.14C

Amberley 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 27.52C / raw 27.52C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 26.54C / raw 26.47C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.18% / raw - 26.61%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 9.96% / raw - 11.10%

The first decade, 1942-1951, averaged 26.65C in ACORN 2.1 and 26.58C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 27.51C in ACORN 2.1 and 27.51C in raw

ACORN catalogue: The site has been operating since August 1941. No significant moves are evident in documentation but the data indicate a substantial change of some kind at the site in or around 1980. An automatic weather station was installed on 3 July 1997. Manual observations continued under site number 040910 until September 1998.

Assuming 1997 was when AWS readings were adopted, 1987-1996 raw max averaged 26.98C and post AWS 1998-2007 averaged 27.47C

Amberley max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2.1 amberley minimum temperatures

1942-1980 - ACORN 2.1 11.86C / raw 13.38C

1981-2019 - ACORN 2.1 12.67C / raw 12.77C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.81C / raw cooled 0.61C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.23C / raw 0.00C

Amberley 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 12.79C / raw 12.79C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 12.22C / raw 13.30C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 19.22% / raw - 31.16%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.10% / raw - 11.76%

The first decade, 1942-1951, averaged 11.37C in ACORN 2.1 and 12.96C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 12.96C in ACORN 2.1 and 12.96C in raw

Assuming 1997 was when AWS readings were adopted, 1987-1996 raw max averaged 12.72C and post AWS 1998-2007 averaged 12.74C

Amberley min Excel spreadsheets

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Barcaldine

acorn 2.1 barcaldine maximum temperatures

1962-1990 - ACORN 2.1 29.90C / raw 30.18C

1991-2019 - ACORN 2.1 30.46C / raw 30.70C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.56C / raw warmed 0.52C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.13C / raw 0.13C

Barcaldine 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 30.58C / raw 30.73C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 19.36% / raw - 31.80%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 11.37% / raw - 15.95%

The first decade, 1962-1971, averaged 30.00C in ACORN 2.1 and 30.27C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 30.65C in ACORN 2.1 and 30.89C in raw

ACORN catalogue: Pre-1962 data at this site have not yet been digitised and do not currently form part of ACORN-SAT. A temporary small site move took place in January 1953, with another small move in October 1957. Equipment was reported to have been stored near the screen at times in the mid-1970s. There was a move in September 1985, shortly after a new screen was installed. In July 2000 the site moved 70 m south, to a more open location further from buildings.

Barcaldine max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2.1 barcaldine minimum temperatures

1962-1990 - ACORN 2.1 16.84C / raw 16.41C

1991-2019 - ACORN 2.1 17.31C / raw 17.32C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.47C / raw warmed 0.91C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.14C / raw 0.27C

Barcaldine 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 17.33C / raw 17.33C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 19.27% / raw - 35.76%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 12.41% / raw - 13.37%

The first decade, 1962-1971, averaged 16.75C in ACORN 2.1 and 16.15C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 17.44C in ACORN 2.1 and 17.44C in raw

Barcaldine min Excel spreadsheets

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Birdsville

acorn 2.1 birdsville maximum temperatures

1955-1986 - ACORN 2.1 30.35C / raw 30.29C

1987-2019 - ACORN 2.1 31.31C / raw 31.38C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.96C / raw warmed 1.09C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.28C / raw 0.33C

Birdsville 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 31.60C / raw 31.65C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 18.84% / raw - 97.96%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 13.91% / raw - 18.05%

The first decade, 1955-1964, averaged 30.16C in ACORN 2.1 and 29.86C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 31.69C in ACORN 2.1 and 31.70C in raw

ACORN catalogue: The original site (038002) was in the town area, associated first with the Australian Inland Mission and later with the police station. There is no evidence of any site move between the start of temperature observations in 1954 and 1988. A site move took place in May 1988 to the new police station; the distance of the move is unclear but appears to have been less than 100 m. Station photos from 1998 suggest that another move may have taken place at some point after 1988 but this is unconfirmed. This site continued to operate until 2005. The current airport site has been operating since June 2000. Consistently small differences between the minimum temperatures and ‘9 am’ temperatures in the 1970s suggest that the nominal 9 am observation may have been taken earlier, possibly between 7 and 8 am. This ceased in 1979, resulting in an apparent increase of about 0.5 °C in minimum temperatures, due to reduced double-counting of low minimum temperatures. Because of Birdsville’s far western location within Queensland, it generally has a later time of minimum temperature than eastern Queensland stations.

38002 overlap with 38026 29 June 2000 to 14 March 2005 : 38002 31.95C / 38026 31.55C

1995-2004 raw max averaged 31.31C and post AWS 2006-2015 averaged 31.48C

Birdsville max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2.1 birdsville minimum temperatures

1955-1986 - ACORN 2.1 15.71C / raw 15.68C

1987-2019 - ACORN 2.1 16.56C / raw 16.51C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.85C / raw warmed 0.83C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.23C / raw 0.20C

Birdsville 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 16.84C / raw 16.80C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 20.37% / raw - 89.26%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 14.76% / raw - 19.08%

The first decade, 1955-1964, averaged 15.65C in ACORN 2.1 and 15.79C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 16.90C in ACORN 2.1 and 16.90C in raw

38002 overlap with 38026 30 June 2000 to 15 March 2005 : 38002 16.65C / 38026 16.70C

1995-2004 raw min averaged 16.39C and post AWS 2006-2015 averaged 16.74C

Birdsville min Excel spreadsheets

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Boulia

acorn 2.1 boulia maximum temperatures

1910-1964 ACORN 2.1 30.65C / raw 31.64C

1965-2019 ACORN 2.1 31.78C / raw 32.00C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 1.13C / raw warmed 0.36C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.15C / raw 0.02C

Boulia 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 32.24C / raw 32.44C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 31.42C / raw 31.84C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 15.45% / raw - 48.66%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 12.16% / raw - 23.14%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 30.30C in ACORN 2.1 and 31.99C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 31.81C in ACORN 2.1 and 32.14C in raw

Boulia 52026 has annual max temps back to 1889: 1889-1891 + 1897-1901 + 1905 + 1907-1909 = 31.65C

ACORN catalogue: The site was originally in the town centre. A damaged screen was replaced in March 1917; there were periods of suspect maximum temperature data in the lead-up to this. Small moves took place in September 1965 and June 1970 (unconfirmed). The town site had a well-watered lawn surface, at least in its later years. The site moved to its current location at the airport in July 1999.

Boulia max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2.1 boulia minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 16.13C / raw 16.66C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 17.59C / raw 17.58C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 1.46C / raw warmed 0.92C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.22C / raw 0.17C

Boulia 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 18.10C / raw 18.15C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 17.08C / raw 17.12C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.98% / raw - 45.78%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 14.31% / raw - 20.19%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 16.06C in ACORN 2.1 and 16.62C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 18.23C in ACORN 2.1 and 18.33C in raw

Boulia 52026 has annual min temps back to 1889: 1889-1892 + 1900-1901 + 1905-1909 = 15.96C

Boulia min Excel spreadsheets

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Brisbane

acorn 2.1 brisbane maximum temperatures

1950-1984 - ACORN 2.1 25.05C / raw 25.48C

1985-2019 - ACORN 2.1 25.30C / raw 25.42C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.25C / raw cooled 0.06C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.09C / raw 0.00C

Brisbane 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 25.53C / raw 25.53C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 25.08C / raw 25.44C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.65% / raw - 28.09%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 9.44% / raw - 10.88%

The first decade, 1950-1959, averaged 24.95C in ACORN 2.1 and 25.49C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 25.49C in ACORN 2.1 and 25.49C in raw

ACORN catalogue: The original site (040223) was in the southwest corner of the old (Eagle Farm) airport, near the Eagle Farm railway station. It moved about 800 m north in August 1955 to a location on the western side of the old airport, near where the Gateway Motorway now is. An automatic weather station was installed at the southern end of the main runway of the new airport on 30 November 1987, about 3 km east of the previous location. The automatic weather station became the primary instrument on 1 November 1996. The site closed in February 2000. The current site (040842) was established in April 1994, 3.3 km to the northeast of the previous site (040223).

1986-1995 raw max averaged 25.31C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 25.47C

Brisbane max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2.1 brisbane minimum temperatures

1950-1984 - ACORN 2.1 15.05C / raw 15.73C

1985-2019 - ACORN 2.1 15.77C / raw 15.70C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.72C / raw cooled 0.03C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.21C / raw 0.06C

Brisbane 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 15.75C / raw 15.75C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 15.36C / raw 15.80C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 19.00% / raw - 30.66%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.57% / raw - 11.26%

The first decade, 1950-1959, averaged 14.78C in ACORN 2.1 and 15.72C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 16.06C in ACORN 2.1 and 16.06C in raw

1986-1995 raw max averaged 15.64C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 15.45C

Brisbane min Excel spreadsheets

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Bundaberg

acorn 2.1 bundaberg maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 26.94C / raw 26.57C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 27.22C / raw 26.92C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.28C / raw warmed 0.35C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.03C / raw 0.08C

Bundaberg 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 27.49C / raw 27.32C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 26.94C / raw 26.62C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 20.08% / raw - 48.14%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.32% / raw - 14.81%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 27.18C in ACORN 2.1 and 26.69C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 27.52C in ACORN 2.1 and 27.51C in raw

Bundaberg 39015 has annual max temps back to 1893: 1893-1909 = 27.19C

39015 overlap with 39128 1 June 1959 to 4 January 1971 : 39015 26.28C / 39128 25.91C

ACORN catalogue: The original site (039015) was located at the Post Office in the centre of town. A new screen was installed in June 1913. There was a small move into a new screen in June 1933, and a move of 50 m in July 1953. The site was enclosed, particularly in its later years, and there were bitumen surfaces in the vicinity from 1984 onwards. Observations began at the airport (039128) in July 1990. An automatic weather station was installed on 19 December 1997. The site moved on 1 July 2010 from the northern to the southern part of the airport, about 2 km south. There was also a site at the airport (also using the number 039128) between 1959 and 1970 but this has not been used in ACORN-SAT.

Assuming 1997 was when AWS readings were adopted, 1987-1996 raw max averaged 26.77C and post AWS 1998-2007 averaged 27.12C

Bundaberg max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2.1 bundaberg minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 14.86C / raw 15.97C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 15.87C / raw 16.80C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 1.01C / raw warmed 0.83C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.16C / raw 0.08C

Bundaberg 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 16.33C / raw 16.64C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 15.40C / raw 16.88C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.77% / raw - 52.52%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 9.73% / raw - 15.19%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 14.87C in ACORN 2.1 and 15.74C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 16.49C in ACORN 2.1 and 16.51C in raw

Bundaberg 39015 has annual min temps back to 1893: 1893-1909 = 15.96C

39015 overlap with 39128 1 June 1959 to 5 January 1971 : 39015 16.26C / 39128 15.68C

Assuming 1997 was when AWS readings were adopted, 1987-1996 raw min averaged 16.90C and post AWS 1998-2007 averaged 16.75C

Bundaberg min Excel spreadsheets

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Burketown

acorn 2.1 burketown maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 32.19C / CDO raw 32.16C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 33.00C / CDO raw 32.93C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.81C / raw warmed 0.77C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.10C / raw 0.14C

Burketown 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 33.15C / raw 33.24C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 32.82C / raw 32.94C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.48% / raw - 65.93%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.21% / raw - 21.56%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 32.34C in ACORN 2.1 and 32.00C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 33.39C in ACORN 2.1 and 33.44C in raw

Burketown 29004 has annual max temps back to 1891: 1891-1901 + 1903-1909 = 31.84C

29004 overlap with 29077 16 October 2001 to 30 June 2009 : 29004 32.29C / 29077 33.23C

ACORN catalogue: The current site (29077) is an automatic weather station at Burketown Airport, 2 km southwest of the town, over an area of mown but unwatered grass. The original site was at the Post Office (29004). It was located on a watered lawn within the town in its later years. The screen was replaced in May 1966. There were numerous missed observations during the 1970s. Documented site moves took place in August 1986 (50 m north) and September 1995 (25 m east-southeast). Temperature observations ceased at this site in July 2009, although rainfall and evaporation are still measured there. The current automatic weather station at the airport began observations in October 2001. The change in surface type from the Post Office (watered lawn) to the airport (natural grassland) is clearly shown in the maximum temperatures, which are substantially higher at the airport during the winter and spring (dry season). There is little difference during the wet season when the vegetation is normally green at both sites.

Assuming 2001 was when AWS readings were adopted, 1991-2000 raw max averaged 32.35C and post AWS 2002-2011 averaged 33.13C

Burketown max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2.1 burketown minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 19.08C / raw 19.68C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 20.26C / raw 20.68C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 1.18C / raw warmed 1.00C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.14C / raw 0.09C

Burketown 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 20.42C / raw 20.68C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 19.84C / raw 20.41C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 16.13% / raw - 71.18%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.67% / raw - 21.91%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 19.18C in ACORN 2.1 and 19.81C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 20.56C in ACORN 2.1 and 20.66C in raw

Burketown 29004 has annual min temps back to 1891: 1891-1909 = 19.73C

29004 overlap with 29077 17 October 2001 to 1 July 2009 : 29004 21.15C / 29077 20.72C

Assuming 2001 was when AWS readings were adopted, 1991-2000 raw min averaged 20.90C and post AWS 2002-2011 averaged 20.70C

Burketown min Excel spreadsheets

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Cairns

acorn 2.1 cairns maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 29.14C / raw 29.02C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 29.38C / raw 29.16C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.24C / raw warmed 0.14C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.04C / raw 0.05C

Cairns 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 29.57C / raw 29.47C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 29.19C / raw 28.91C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 18.20% / raw - 36.38%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.47% / raw - 11.97%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 29.20C in ACORN 2.1 and 29.10C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 29.62C in ACORN 2.1 and 29.62C in raw

Cairns 31010 has annual max temps back to 1890 : 1890-1899 + 1901-1904 + 1906-1909 = 28.71C

31010 overlap with 31011 22 October 1942 to 30 September 1953 : 31010 28.83C / 31011 28.76C

ACORN catalogue: The original site was at the Cairns Post Office (031010), within the town area. There is a documented move in December 1929 from a relatively enclosed site to a slightly more open one. Observations continued at the Post Office until 1953. Observations have been made at the airport (031011) since 1943. In December 1992 the site moved 1.5 km northwest (to the other side of the runway). Comparisons of the data with neighbours suggest that this move had no significant effect on temperatures. An automatic weather station was installed at this time and became the primary instrument on 1 November 1996.

1986-1995 raw max averaged 29.23C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 29.25C

Cairns max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2.1 cairns minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 19.80C / raw 20.23C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 20.78C / raw 20.87C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.98C / raw warmed 0.64C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.15C / raw 0.09C

Cairns 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 21.08C / raw 21.08C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 20.45C / raw 20.74C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 16.79% / raw - 40.13%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.32% / raw - 12.06%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 19.71C in ACORN 2.1 and 20.25C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 21.20C in ACORN 2.1 and 21.20C in raw

Cairns 31010 has annual min temps back to 1897 : 1897--1909 = 20.04C

31010 overlap with 31011 22 October 1942 to 30 September 1953 : 31010 20.09C / 31011 20.39C

1986-1995 raw min averaged 21.02C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 20.94C

Cairns min Excel spreadsheets

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Camooweal

acorn 2.1 camooweal maximum temperatures

1940-1979 - ACORN 2.1 32.54C / raw 32.71C

1980-2019 - ACORN 2.1 33.40C / raw 33.62C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.86C / raw warmed 0.91C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.18C / raw 0.15C

Camooweal 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 33.45C / raw 33.64C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 33.09C / raw 33.20C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 15.68% / raw - 72.25%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.89% / raw - 26.40%

The first decade, 1940-1949, averaged 32.43C in ACORN 2.1 and 32.64C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 33.67C in ACORN 2.1 and 33.70C in raw

ACORN catalogue: A manual site operated under the same number in the town area. There are no documented moves at this old site, although both the site condition and the standard of observations deteriorated through the 1990s. The site eventually closed altogether in September 1997, leaving a seven-month gap before observations resumed. The current site commenced in April 1998, about 200 m east of the previous location. It is known that temperature observations were made in this area as early as 1910, but no pre-1939 observations have yet been located.

1988-1997 raw max averaged 33.62C and post AWS 1999-2008 averaged 33.66C

Camooweal max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2.1 camooweal minimum temperatures

1940-1979 - ACORN 2.1 16.35C / raw 17.51C

1980-2019 - ACORN 2.1 17.84C / raw 18.16C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 1.49C / raw warmed 0.65C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.29C / raw 0.13C

Camooweal 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 17.96C / raw 17.98C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 17.09C / raw 18.00C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 20.81% / raw - 70.05%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 19.66% / raw - 26.77%

The first decade, 1940-1949, averaged 16.10C in ACORN 2.1 and 17.22C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 18.13C in ACORN 2.1 and 18.13C in raw

1988-1997 raw max averaged 18.48C and post AWS 1999-2008 averaged 17.87C

Camooweal min Excel spreadsheets

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Cape Moreton

acorn 2.1 cape moreton maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 23.53C / raw 23.19C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 23.79C / raw 23.53C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.26C / raw warmed 0.34C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.06C / raw 0.06C

Cape Moreton 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 24.27C / raw 24.21C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 23.45C / raw 23.05C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.97% / raw - 66.21%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.55% / raw - 12.40%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 23.77C in ACORN 2.1 and 23.78C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 24.33C in ACORN 2.1 and 24.33C in raw

ACORN catalogue: The location is mostly unchanged since observations began. A new screen was installed in April 1939. The only documented site move was a small one (less than 50 m) when an automatic weather station was installed on 3 August 1995. This move has had a large impact on rainfall but has had little impact on temperatures.

Assuming the AWS was operational from 1995, 1985-1994 raw max averaged 23.19C and post AWS 1996-2005 averaged 23.87C

Cape Moreton max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2.1 cape moreton minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 17.53C / raw 17.80C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 18.45C / raw 18.45C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.92C / raw warmed 0.65C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.13C / raw 0.10C

Cape Moreton 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 18.84C / raw 18.86C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 18.01C / raw 17.98C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 43.16% / raw - 71.82%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 14.88% / raw - 14.87%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 17.58C in ACORN 2.1 and 17.91C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 18.88C in ACORN 2.1 and 18.88C in raw

Assuming the AWS was operational from 1995, 1985-1994 raw min averaged 18.29C and post AWS 1996-2005 averaged 18.80C

Cape Moreton min Excel spreadsheets

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Charleville

acorn 2.1 charleville maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 27.69C / raw 28.67C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 28.54C / raw 28.48C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.85C / raw cooled 0.19C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.14C / raw 0.04C

Charleville 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 29.12C / raw 29.09C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 28.02C / raw 27.96C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 16.91% / raw - 42.90%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.71% / raw - 10.04%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 27.83C in ACORN 2.1 and 28.78C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 29.19C in ACORN 2.1 and 29.20C in raw

Charleville 44022 has annual max temps back to 1890: 1890-1909 = 27.85C

44022 overlap with 44021 7 April 1942 to 30 September 1953 : 44022 28.48C / 44021 27.40C

ACORN catalogue: The original site (044022) was in town, at the school. In September 1914 it moved to the Post Office. This site continued until 1953 but is not used in ACORN-SAT after 1948. Observations commenced at the Meteorological Office at the airport (044021) in 1943, although only data from January 1949 onwards have been used in ACORN-SAT. There was a move in or shortly before April 1961. In August 1990 an automatic weather station was installed, followed by a site move 150 m east on 12 September 1990. The automatic weather station became the primary instrument on 1 November 1996. In October 2003 the airport site was moved about 600 m west, to its current location. Observations from the previous site continued until February 2006, under number 044221. Neighbours rather than the overlapping data are used to merge the two main Charleville sites, as the data indicate substantial changes at both sites in or near 1949, although there is no documentation of what those changes might have been for either site.

1986-1995 raw max averaged 28.33C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 28.77C

Charleville max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2.1 charleville minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 11.99C / raw 13.23C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 13.33C / raw 13.88C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 1.34C / raw warmed 0.65C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.25C / raw 0.09C

Charleville 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 14.11C / raw 14.17C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 12.72C / raw 13.44C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.78% / raw - 49.91%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.27% / raw - 11.61%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 11.83C in ACORN 2.1 and 13.40C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 14.31C in ACORN 2.1 and 14.31C in raw

Charleville 44022 has annual min temps back to 1890: 1890-1909 = 13.05C

44022 overlap with 44021 9 April 1942 to 30 September 1953 : 44022 12.97C / 44021 13.25C

1986-1995 raw min averaged 13.94C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 13.93C

Charleville min Excel spreadsheets

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Charters Towers

acorn 2.1 charters towers maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 29.59C / raw 30.08C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 30.00C / raw 30.29C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.41C / raw warmed 0.21C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.11C / raw 0.06C

Charters Towers 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 30.46C / raw 30.46C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 29.62C / raw 30.11C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.52% / raw - 56.37%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 12.46% / raw - 17.44%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 29.44C in ACORN 2.1 and 29.97C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 30.55C in ACORN 2.1 and 30.55C in raw

Charters Towers 34002 has annual max temps back to 1894: 1894-1909 = 30.28C

ACORN catalogue: The original site (034002) was located in the town area. A new screen was installed in April 1939. Small moves took place in June 1947 (15 m south), December 1953 and April 1975 (10 m), the 1953 move taking place after a shed and incinerator were built nearby. The site closed in December 1992. The airport site opened in December 1992, with no overlap with the previous site. A new screen was installed in October 2000.

Charters Towers max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2.1 charters towers minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 16.23C / raw 16.91C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 17.17C / raw 17.58C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.94C / raw warmed 0.67C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.17C / raw 0.14C

Charters Towers 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 17.42C / raw 17.52C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 16.93C / raw 17.41C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 18.94% / raw - 57.82%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.49% / raw - 18.54%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 15.86C in ACORN 2.1 and 16.24C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 17.61C in ACORN 2.1 and 17.60C in raw

Charters Towers 34002 has annual min temps back to 1894: 1894-1909 = 17.01C

Charters Towers min Excel spreadsheets

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Gayndah

acorn 2.1 gayndah maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 27.72C / raw 28.05C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 28.27C / raw 28.44C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.55C / raw warmed 0.39C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.07C / raw 0.03C

Gayndah 2000-2017 - ACORN 2.1 28.81C / raw 28.92C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 27.72C / raw 28.03C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 19.12% / raw - 49.47%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 9.30% / raw - 14.77%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 28.13C in ACORN 2.1 and 28.55C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 28.83C in ACORN 2.1 and 28.83C in raw

Gayndah 39039 has annual max temps back to 1894: 1894-1909 = 28.08C

39039 overlap with 39066 28 January 2003 to 30 June 2009 : 39039 28.91C / 39066 28.67C

ACORN catalogue: The original site (039039) was on a block next to the Post Office in the main town area, about 10 m from the main street. There are no documented moves at the site but overhanging trees were a problem at times. New screens were supplied in October 1945 and June 1999. This site closed in July 2009. The current site, about 1.2 km northeast of the previous site, has been operating since January 2003.

Assuming the AWS was operational from 2003, 1993-2002 raw max averaged 28.64C and post AWS 2004-2013 averaged 28.61C

Gayndah max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2.1 gayndah minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 13.30C / raw 13.13C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 14.29C / raw 14.41C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.99C / raw warmed 1.28C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.10C / raw 0.16C

Gayndah 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 14.44C / raw 14.47C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 14.00C / raw 14.19C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 19.10% / raw - 51.53%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 9.59% / raw - 16.05%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 13.44C in ACORN 2.1 and 12.86C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 14.47C in ACORN 2.1 and 14.46C in raw

Gayndah 39039 has annual min temps back to 1894: 1894-1909 = 12.93C

39039 overlap with 39066 29 January 2003 to 1 July 2009 : 39039 14.69C / 39066 14.45C

Assuming the AWS was operational from 2003, 1993-2002 raw min averaged 14.50C and post AWS 2004-2013 averaged 14.43C

Gayndah min Excel spreadsheets

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Georgetown

acorn 2.1 georgetown maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 32.13C / raw 32.36C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 32.61C / raw 32.99C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.48C / raw warmed 0.63C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.11C / raw 0.09C

Georgetown 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 32.89C / raw 32.98C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 32.35C / raw 32.85C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 15.67% / raw - 73.02%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 9.43% / raw - 21.39%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 31.85C in ACORN 2.1 and 32.02C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 32.96C in ACORN 2.1 and 32.96C in raw

Georgetown 30018 has annual max temps back to 1909: 1909 = 32.58C

30018 overlap with 30124 1 June 2004 to 9 October 2007 : 30018 33.40C / 30124 32.44C

ACORN catalogue: The original site (030018) was in the town area. A new screen was supplied in November 1922. There are no documented moves; however, there were numerous changes in site condition over the years as the site became overgrown at times. This was a particular problem in the early 1960s and at one point vines were reported as growing through the screen; much data from this period has been flagged as suspect. These issues ceased with the appointment of a new observer in 1965. The current site began operating in May 2004. The old site continued until 2007 but deteriorated rapidly in its last years due to encroaching trees, so the overlapping data were not used in merging the two sites.

1994-2003 raw max averaged 33.48C and post AWS 2005-2014 averaged 32.70C

Georgetown max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2.1 georgetown minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 17.97C / raw 18.13C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 18.60C / raw 18.86C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.63C / raw warmed 0.73C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.11C / raw 0.09C

Georgetown 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 18.87C / raw 19.03C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 18.29C / raw 18.50C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 20.40% / raw - 81.77%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 9.94% / raw - 20.44%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 18.06C in ACORN 2.1 and 18.27C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 19.13C in ACORN 2.1 and 19.13C in raw

Georgetown 30018 has annual min temps back to 1894: 1894-1909 = 18.26C

30018 overlap with 30124 2 June 2004 to 10 October 2007 : 30018 18.41C / 30124 18.73C

1994-2003 raw min averaged 19.13C and post AWS 2005-2014 averaged 19.03C

Georgetown min Excel spreadsheets

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Horn Island

acorn 2.1 horn island maximum temperatures

1951-1984 - ACORN 2.1 29.92C / raw 29.36C

1985-2019 - ACORN 2.1 30.40C / raw 30.24C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.48C / raw warmed 0.88C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.14C / raw 0.15C

Horn Island 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 30.53C / raw 30.57C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 30.04C / raw 29.26C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.81% / raw - 25.99%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.07% / raw - 11.87%

The first decade, 1951-1960, averaged 29.86C in ACORN 2.1 and 29.82C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 30.68C in ACORN 2.1 and 30.68C in raw

27022 overlap with 27021 14 September 1992 to 28 February 1993 : 27022 30.09C / 27021 30.94C

27021 overlap with 27085 20 March 1995 to 14 January 1996 : 27021 30.22C / 27058 29.91C

ACORN catalogue: The main early site was the Thursday Island Meteorological Office (027022). This operated from 1950 until February 1993. The Meteorological Office was on top of a hill (elevation 58 m) on the site of a former fort, in a relatively exposed location. The data suggest that the Meteorological Office may also have been in the town rather than on the hilltop until about 1958, but there is no documentation of this. Observations were made in the Thursday Island township (027021) from the closure of the Meteorological Office until 1996. There were previously observations under this site number in the town prior to the opening of the Meteorological Office in 1950, but no daily data from the pre-1951 site have yet been digitised and it is not included in ACORN-SAT. The current site at Horn Island airport opened in 1995.

1985-1994 raw max averaged 29.67C and post AWS 1996-2005 averaged 30.25C

Horn Island max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2.1 horn island minimum temperatures

1951-1984 - ACORN 2.1 23.37C / raw 24.08C

1985-2019 - ACORN 2.1 24.45C / raw 24.59C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 1.08C / raw warmed 0.51C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.26C / raw 0.08C

Horn Island 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 24.71C / raw 24.71C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 23.49C / raw 24.07C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.95% / raw - 21.55%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.34% / raw - 11.81%

The first decade, 1951-1960, averaged 23.34C in ACORN 2.1 and 24.37C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 24.85C in ACORN 2.1 and 24.85C in raw

27022 overlap with 27021 16 September 1992 to 28 February 1993 : 27022 24.44C / 27021 23.83C

27021 overlap with 27085 20 March 1995 to 15 January 1996 : 27021 24.54C / 27058 24.41C

1985-1994 raw min averaged 23.86C and post AWS 1996-2005 averaged 24.40C

Horn Island min Excel spreadsheets

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Longreach

acorn 2.1 longreach maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 31.39C / raw 31.25C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 31.48C / raw 31.53C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.09C / raw warmed 0.28C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.05C / raw 0.10C

Longreach 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 31.92C / raw 31.92C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 31.11C / raw 31.21C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 14.85% / raw - 64.41%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.08% / raw - 12.30%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 31.41C in ACORN 2.1 and 30.90C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 31.89C in ACORN 2.1 and 31.89C in raw

Longreach 36030 has annual max temps back to 1897: 1897-1901 + 1904-1907 + 1909 = 31.58C

36030 overlap with 36031 1 March 1966 to 30 May 1973 : 36030 31.34C / 36031 30.99C

ACORN catalogue: The first observations were made at the Post Office (036030). There were no documented moves at this site. New screens were installed in October 1911 and November 1924, and building works were reported in the vicinity in September 1949. This site continued until 1973 but was not used in ACORN-SAT beyond 1969. The Meteorological Office (036031) has been in operation since 1966. An automatic weather station and a new screen were installed in May 1996, with manual observations continuing for a year under the site number 036167.

1987-1996 raw max averaged 31.41C and post AWS 1998-2007 averaged 31.86C

Longreach max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2.1 longreach minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 14.65C / raw 15.42C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 15.85C / raw 15.95C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 1.20C / raw warmed 0.53C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.20C / raw 0.13C

Longreach 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 16.53C / raw 16.25C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 15.19C / raw 15.70C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 19.40% / raw - 69.85%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.29% / raw - 13.13%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 14.59C in ACORN 2.1 and 15.09C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 16.58C in ACORN 2.1 and 16.40C in raw

Longreach 36030 has annual min temps back to 1897: 1897-1901 + 1906-1909 = 15.15C

36030 overlap with 36031 2 March 1966 to 27 April 1973 : 36030 16.08C / 36031 15.19C

1987-1996 raw min averaged 16.19C and post AWS 1998-2007 averaged 16.19C

Longreach min Excel spreadsheets

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Mackay

acorn 2.1 mackay maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 25.45C / raw 26.92C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 26.40C / raw 26.57C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.95C / raw cooled 0.35C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.15C / raw 0.04C

Mackay 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 26.94C / raw 26.94C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 25.92C / raw 26.43C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.65% / raw - 43.56%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 9.48% / raw - 11.51%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 25.48C in ACORN 2.1 and 26.60C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 27.01C in ACORN 2.1 and 27.01C in raw

Mackay 33046 has annual max temps back to 1908: 1908-1909 = 26.67C

33046 overlap with 33047 1 January 1908 to 30 April 1950 : 33046 26.78C / 33047 28.00C

33047 overlap with 33119 25 September 1959 to 4 June 2012 : 33047 27.60 / 33119 26.41C

ACORN catalogue: The earlier part of the Mackay dataset uses data from the Post Office (033046). This site had a temporary move due to building in late 1922, and further moves in 1939 and 1941, the latter placing it in a rather enclosed location. The Post Office site closed in 1950. Data from the Te Kowai Experimental Station (033047) located 5 km west of the town were used between 1948 and 1965. This is a small but apparently good-quality subset of the full record from this site. The Meteorological Office site (033119) commenced observations in 1959, and no known site moves have taken place. An automatic weather station was installed in October 1995, although manual observations continued until 2001 under the site number 033297. Because of its greater proximity to the coast and its hilltop location, the Meteorological Office has substantially lower maximum temperatures, and higher minimum temperatures (especially in winter) than any of the other sites that have existed historically in the Mackay area.

Assuming the AWS was operational from 1995, 1985-1994 raw max averaged 26.49C and post AWS 1996-2005 averaged 26.80C

Mackay max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2.1 mackay minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 18.02C / raw 17.69C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 18.97C / raw 19.14C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.95C / raw warmed 1.45C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.19C / raw 0.17C

Mackay 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 19.46C / raw 19.46C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 18.45C / raw 18.47C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 18.15% / raw - 51.71%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 9.99% / raw - 11.76%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 17.77C in ACORN 2.1 and 17.96C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 19.62C in ACORN 2.1 and 19.61C in raw

Mackay 33046 has annual min temps back to 1890: 1890-1909 = 17.73C

33046 overlap with 33047 1 January 1908 to 30 April 1950 : 33046 18.23C / 33047 16.45C

33047 overlap with 33119 25 September 1959 to 5 June 2012 : 33047 16.57 / 33119 19.04C

Assuming the AWS was operational from 1995, 1985-1994 raw min averaged 19.22C and post AWS 1996-2005 averaged 19.35C

Mackay min Excel spreadsheets

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Miles

acorn 2.1 miles maximum temperatures

1910-1964 ACORN 2.1 27.05C / raw 27.17C

1965-2019 ACORN 2.1 27.43C / raw 27.34C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.38C / raw warmed 0.17C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.05C / raw 0.06C

Miles 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 28.08C / raw 28.00C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 26.90C / raw 26.74C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.43% / raw - 60.80%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.84% / raw - 12.60%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 27.36C in ACORN 2.1 and 27.31C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 27.88C in ACORN 2.1 and 27.88C in raw

42023 overlap with 42112 10 July 1997 to 14 March 2005 : 42023 28.09C / 42112 27.81C

ACORN catalogue: The former site (042023) was located in the town. The screen was reported in September 1929 as having numerous missing louvres. It became somewhat overgrown from about 1990 onwards, but continued to measure temperatures until 2005. Rainfall continues to be measured at this site. The current site has been operating since July 1997, about 300 m west- northwest of the previous site.

1995-2004 raw max averaged 27.81C and post AWS 2006-2015 averaged 27.67C

Miles max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2.1 miles minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 11.34C / raw 11.94C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 12.61C / raw 12.62C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 1.27C / raw warmed 0.68C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.16C / raw 0.05C

Miles 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 12.89C / raw 12.90C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 12.25C / raw 12.27C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.73% / raw - 65.43%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 22.24% / raw - 13.75%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 11.21C in ACORN 2.1 and 12.39C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 12.86C in ACORN 2.1 and 12.86C in raw

42023 overlap with 42112 11 July 1997 to 15 March 2005 : 42023 13.02C / 42112 13.03C

1995-2004 raw min averaged 12.88C and post AWS 2006-2015 averaged 12.85C

Miles min Excel spreadsheets

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Normanton

acorn 2.1 normanton maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 32.98C / raw 33.41C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 33.46C / raw 33.50C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.48C / raw warmed 0.09C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.09C / raw -0.01C

Normanton 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 33.63C / raw 33.62C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 33.33C / raw 33.49C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.66% / raw - 75.39%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.82% / raw - 12.34%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 32.77C in ACORN 2.1 and 33.81C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 33.67C in ACORN 2.1 and 33.67C in raw

29041 overlap with 29063 10 April 2001 to 30 July 2001 : 29041 31.30C / 29063 31.41C

ACORN catalogue: The original site was in the town (029063). Screens which had been in poor condition were replaced in May 1917 and November 1940. The only documented move in this site took place in October 1956 (45 m southwest). In its later years, there was a watered lawn and trees and a car park nearby. The current site replaced the previous site in 2001; there are only three months of overlapping data, insufficient to be used in adjustment.

Assuming the AWS was operational from 2001, 1991-2000 averaged 33.40C and post AWS 2002-2011 averaged 33.49C

Normanton max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2.1 normanton minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 21.08C / raw 21.08C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 21.70C / raw 21.81C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.62C / raw warmed 0.73C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.09C / raw 0.09C

Normanton 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 21.78C / raw 21.81C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 21.55C / raw 21.61C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.68% / raw - 80.91%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 9.82% / raw - 15.37%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 21.05C in ACORN 2.1 and 20.99C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 21.91C in ACORN 2.1 and 21.91C in raw

29041 overlap with 29063 11 April 2001 to 31 July 2001 : 29041 17.87C / 29063 17.38C

Assuming the AWS was operational from 2001, 1991-2000 averaged 22.17C and post AWS 2002-2011 averaged 21.69C

Normanton min Excel spreadsheets

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Palmerville

acorn 2.1 palmerville maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 32.78C / raw 32.69C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 32.85C / raw 32.94C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.07C / raw warmed 0.25C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.04C / raw 0.09C

Palmerville 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 33.14C / raw 33.14C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 32.74C / raw 32.78C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 21.97% / raw - 67.52%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.83% / raw - 45.17%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 32.85C in ACORN 2.1 and 32.36C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 33.25C in ACORN 2.1 and 33.24C in raw

Palmerville 28004 has max temps back to 1896 : 1896-1901 + 1903-1905 = 32.84C

ACORN catalogue: There are no clearly documented moves at the original manual site although the screen was replaced on a number of occasions (October 1926, July 1988 and September 1994). The same observer performed observations for 63 years from 1936 to 1999, and was the area’s sole remaining resident during the later part of that period. Observations did not resume until the automatic station was commissioned. The automatic weather station was installed in mid-2000, 160 m south-east of the former site, but did not begin transmitting data until July 2001.

1991-2000 averaged 33.14C and post AWS 2002-2011 averaged 32.95C (five years missing pre and two years missing post 2001 so not very accurate)

Palmerville max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2.1 palmerville minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 17.21C / raw 19.07C

1964-20188 - ACORN 2.1 18.50C / raw 19.34C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 1.29C / raw warmed 0.27C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.24C / raw 0.01C

Palmerville 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 19.09C / raw 19.08C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 17.98C / raw 19.45C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.99% / raw - 67.82%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 16.51% / raw - 43.19%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 16.77C in ACORN 2.1 and 19.10C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 19.17C in ACORN 2.1 and 19.17C in raw

Palmerville 28004 has min temps back to 1896 : 1896-1901 + 1903-1905 = 18.54C

1991-2000 averaged 19.51C and post AWS 2002-2011 averaged 19.14C (five years missing pre and two years missing post 2001 so not very accurate)

Palmerville min Excel spreadsheets

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Richmond (Qld)

acorn 2.1 richmond maximum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 32.85C / raw 32.61C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 33.00C / raw 33.06C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.15C / raw warmed 0.45C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.10C / raw 0.03C

Richmond 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 33.48C / raw 33.24C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 32.65C / raw 32.83C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 19.17% / raw - 59.58%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 9.56% / raw - 20.82%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 32.65C in ACORN 2.1 and 33.19C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 33.64C in ACORN 2.1 and 33.47C in raw

Richmond 30045 has annual max temps back to 1893: 1893-1909 = 32.93C

ACORN catalogue: The only known station move was one of 30 m in September 1965. New screens were known to have been supplied in December 1928 and September 1991; the screen in use in September 1944 was reported to have had an iron roof. An automatic weather station (030161) was installed at the airport, approximately 4 km north of the town, in 1998 and may eventually replace the existing site.

Richmond max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2.1 richmond minimum temperatures

1910-1964 - ACORN 2.1 15.08C / raw 16.39C

1965-2019 - ACORN 2.1 16.64C / raw 17.30C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 1.56C / raw warmed 0.91C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.25C / raw 0.19C

Richmond 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 17.08C / raw 17.75C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 16.04C / raw 16.72C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 18.23% / raw - 64.95%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 9.70% / raw - 20.28%

The first decade, 1910-1919, averaged 14.80C in ACORN 2.1 and 15.98C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 17.30C in ACORN 2.1 and 17.91C in raw

Richmond 30045 has annual min temps back to 1893: 1893-1909 = 16.17C

Richmond min Excel spreadsheets

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Rockhampton

acorn 2.1 rockhampton maximum temperatures

1940-1979 - ACORN 2.1 28.30C / raw 28.13C

1980-2019 - ACORN 2.1 28.80C / raw 28.75C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.50C / raw warmed 0.62C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.06C / raw 0.11C

Rockhampton 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 29.06C / raw 29.06C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 28.26C / raw 28.16C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 18.40% / raw - 27.58%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.36% / raw - 13.03%

The first decade, 1940-1949, averaged 28.64C in ACORN 2.1 and 28.29C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 29.06C in ACORN 2.1 and 29.06C in raw

ACORN catalogue: The site has been operating since 1939. A site move (80 m northeast) took place on 1 April 1993; an automatic weather station was installed at this time and became the primary instrument on 1 November 1996. Prior to the opening of the airport site, observations were made at the Post Office (039082), but no daily data from this location have yet been digitised.

1986-1995 raw max averaged 28.53C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 28.98C

Rockhampton max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2.1 rockhampton minimum temperatures

1940-1979 - ACORN 2.1 15.74C / raw 16.24C

1980-2019 - ACORN 2.1 17.13C / raw 17.24C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 1.39C / raw warmed 1.00C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.31C / raw 0.23C

Rockhampton 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 17.41C / raw 17.40C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 16.27C / raw 16.71C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.05% / raw - 29.11%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 9.65% / raw - 11.68%

The first decade, 1940-1949, averaged 15.43C in ACORN 2.1 and 16.04C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 17.62C in ACORN 2.1 and 17.62C in raw

1986-1995 raw min averaged 17.17C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 17.22C

Rockhampton min Excel spreadsheets

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St George

acorn 2.1 st george maximum temperatures

1914-1966 - ACORN 2.1 27.17C / raw 27.46C

1967-2019 - ACORN 2.1 27.50C / raw 27.79C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.33C / raw warmed 0.33C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.09C / raw 0.05C

St George 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 28.24C / raw 28.24C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 26.85C / raw 27.41C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.69% / raw - 56.99%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.44% / raw - 14.72%

The first decade, 1914-1923, averaged 27.43C in ACORN 2.1 and 27.76C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 28.26C in ACORN 2.1 and 28.26C in raw

ACORN catalogue: The original site (043034) was located at the rear of a building in the town centre. There is no evidence of any site moves between 1964 and 1997. There was a car park nearby in the later years of observations, and dense tree growth nearby after 1992, but this does not appear to have resulted in any artificial temperature trends at this location after 1940 (although minimum temperatures at the airport are substantially lower). The site closed in July 1997. The airport site (043109) began operating on 10 May 1997, providing no useful overlap with the town site.

1987-1996 raw max averaged 27.81C and post AWS 1998-2007 averaged 28.01C

St George max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2.1 st george minimum temperatures

1914-1966 - ACORN 2.1 12.33C / raw 13.35C

1967-2019 - ACORN 2.1 13.16C / raw 14.08C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.83C / raw warmed 0.73C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.14C / raw 0.07C

St George 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 13.83C / raw 13.97C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 12.54C / raw 14.06C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 17.32% / raw - 62.70%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.26% / raw - 15.85%

The first decade, 1914-1923, averaged 12.70C in ACORN 2.1 and 13.36C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 14.05C in ACORN 2.1 and 14.05C in raw

1987-1996 raw min averaged 14.35C and post AWS 1998-2007 averaged 13.89C

St George min Excel spreadsheets

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Thargomindah

acorn 2.1 thargomindah maximum temperatures

1957-1987 - ACORN 2.1 28.78C / raw 28.61C

1988-2019 - ACORN 2.1 29.41C / raw 29.43C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.63C / raw warmed 0.82C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.21C / raw 0.29C

Thargomindah 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 29.76C / raw 29.76C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 28.74C / raw 28.61C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 18.86% / raw - 77.52%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 13.99% / raw - 22.81%

The first decade, 1957-1966, averaged 28.81C in ACORN 2.1 and 28.39C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 29.91C in ACORN 2.1 and 29.91C in raw

45017 overlap with 45025 27 July 1999 to 11 March 2005 : 45017 30.25C / 45025 29.55C

ACORN catalogue: The original site (045017) had been located at a number of closely-spaced sites within the Thargomindah township, moves having taken place on 14 July 1983 (75 m north) and 23 June 1994 (25 m southeast), although neither had a significant impact on the observations. Temperature measurements at the site are believed to have commenced in 1888 but data prior to 1957 are not currently digitised. The town site closed in 2005. The current site has been operating since 27 July 1999.

1990-1999 raw max averaged 28.92C and post AWS 2001-2010 averaged 29.47C

Thargomindah max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2.1 thargomindah minimum temperatures

1957-1987 - ACORN 2.1 16.01C / raw 15.06C

1988-2019 - ACORN 2.1 16.58C / raw 15.98C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.57C / raw warmed 0.92C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.18C / raw 0.31C

Thargomindah 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 16.71C / raw 16.33C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 16.12C / raw 15.16C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 15.86% / raw - 75.76%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.22% / raw - 21.84%

The first decade, 1957-1966, averaged 15.64C in ACORN 2.1 and 14.69C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 16.57C in ACORN 2.1 and 16.32C in raw

45017 overlap with 45025 27 July 1999 to 12 March 2005 : 45017 15.66C / 45025 16.16C

1990-1999 raw min averaged 15.32C and post AWS 2001-2010 averaged 16.25C

Thargomindah min Excel spreadsheets

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Townsville

acorn 2.1 townsville maximum temperatures

1941-1979 - ACORN 2.1 28.90C / raw 28.61C

1980-2019 - ACORN 2.1 29.39C / raw 29.26C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.49C / raw warmed 0.65C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.10C / raw 0.12C

Townsville 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 29.45C / raw 29.45C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 29.13C / raw 28.78C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 16.98% / raw - 25.14%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.44% / raw - 10.90%

The first decade, 1941-1950, averaged 28.74C in ACORN 2.1 and 28.58C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 29.45C in ACORN 2.1 and 29.45C in raw

ACORN catalogue: Observations have been made at Townsville Airport since 1942. There are no documented moves until one of 200 m northeast on 8 December 1994, at which time an automatic weather station was installed. Observations at the new site were made under the original number, while the old site continued until December 2000 under the station number 032178.

1985-1994 raw max averaged 29.06C and post AWS 1996-2005 averaged 29.51C

Townsville max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2.1 townsville minimum temperatures

1941-1979 - ACORN 2.1 19.55C / raw 19.45C

1980-2019 - ACORN 2.1 20.42C / raw 20.24C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.87C / raw warmed 0.79C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.21C / raw 0.17C

Townsville 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 20.45C / raw 20.23C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 20.05C / raw 19.91C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 18.45% / raw - 27.20%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 10.18% / raw - 11.79%

The first decade, 1941-1950, averaged 18.99C in ACORN 2.1 and 19.26C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 20.46C in ACORN 2.1 and 20.43C in raw

1985-1994 raw min averaged 20.33C and post AWS 1996-2005 averaged 20.14C

Townsville min Excel spreadsheets

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Weipa

acorn 2.1 weipa maximum temperatures

1959-1988 - ACORN 2.1 32.56C / raw 32.28C

1989-2019 - ACORN 2.1 32.85C / raw 32.77C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.29C / raw warmed 0.49C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.08C / raw 0.15C

Weipa 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 32.91C / raw 32.91C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 32.60C / raw 32.33C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 15.19% / raw - 60.17%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 9.84% / raw - 14.28%

The first decade, 1959-1968, averaged 32.54C in ACORN 2.1 and 32.21C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 32.95C in ACORN 2.1 and 32.95C in raw

27042 overlap with 27045 6 November 1992 to 28 February 1994 : 27042 32.50C / 27045 32.43C

ACORN catalogue: The original site (027042) was within the town area, although it is unclear from documentation where the original site was. It moved on 12 May 1972 to a location in Eastern Avenue, and continued until February 1994. The current site started making temperature observations in December 1992. An automatic weather station was in place at this location throughout and became the primary instrument on 1 November 1996. The instrument enclosure was realigned in late 2000 or early 2001, but it appears that no actual relocation took place.

1986-1995 raw max averaged 32.60C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 32.77C

Weipa max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2.1 weipa minimum temperatures

1959-1988 - ACORN 2.1 21.68C / raw 21.74C

1989-2019 - ACORN 2.1 21.97C / raw 21.94C

ACORN 2.1 warmed 0.29C / raw warmed 0.20C

Average change per decade : ACORN 2.1 0.21C / raw 0.19C

Weipa 2000-2019 - ACORN 2.1 22.06C / raw 21.99C

1961-90 - ACORN 2.1 21.75C / raw 21.82C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding ACORN 2.1 - 19.68% / raw - 56.81%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding ACORN 2.1 - 9.99% / raw - 13.31%

The first decade, 1959-1968, averaged 21.09C in ACORN 2.1 and 21.19C in raw

The final decade, 2010-2019, averaged 22.17C in ACORN 2.1 and 22.17C in raw

27042 overlap with 27045 6 November 1992 to 28 February 1994 : 27042 22.19C / 27045 21.91C

1986-1995 raw min averaged 21.87C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 21.85C

Weipa min Excel spreadsheets

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