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ACORN 2 influence on Queensland temperature trends

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In late 2018 the Australian Bureau of Meteorology provided access to the ACORN 2 daily temperatures (Australian Climate Observations Reference Network - Surface Air Temperatures), which is the bureau's dataset of homogenised or adjusted raw temperatures at 112 Australian weather stations dating back to 1910.

It is assumed that ACORN 2 will replace the ACORN 1 dataset (introduced in 2012) as the historic reference used for comparison of modern temperatures. These are usually presented to the public as temperature anomalies compared to a 1961-90 baseline at each weather station.

There are 26 ACORN stations in Queensland. This page analyses the daily temperatures at all 26 weather stations but averages the 15 with a start year of 1910 to ensure a uniform timescale.

Daily temperatures in ACORN 1, ACORN 2 and RAW have been annualised, and below are charts showing the difference between the two homogenised datasets when compared to their original raw annual temperatures. This analysis only allows the inclusion of years within which there were no months with less than 15 days of recorded temperatures, as is the ACORN protocol.

15 Queensland stations begin in 1910 and end in 2017 in ACORN 1, ACORN 2 and RAW - Boulia, Bundaberg, Burketown, Cairns, Cape Moreton, Charleville, Charters Tower, Gayndah, Georgetown, Longreach, Mackay, Miles, Normanton, Palmerville and Richmond. The first charts below show maximum and minimum temperature trends at these 15 stations with associated data that, although not the same as all 26 ACORN stations across Queensland, suggest the new ACORN 2 dataset has cooled the states's ACORN 1 maximum by 0.04C and warmed its minimum by 0.29C comparing 1910-1963 with 1964-2017 (first and second halves).

Excel files at the bottom of each station chart and data summary can be downloaded to compare how the ACORN 2 algorithms influence daily, monthly and annual temperatures at all 26 sites.

acorn 2 queensland maximum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 29.40C / v2 29.40C / raw 29.66C

1964-2017 - v1 29.83C / v2 29.79C / raw 29.81C

v1 warmed 0.43C / v2 warmed 0.39C / raw warmed 0.15C

Average change per decade : v1 0.08C / v2 0.07C / raw 0.04C

Queensland 2000-2017 - v1 30.23C / v2 30.27C / raw 30.17C

1961-90 - v1 29.46C / v2 - 29.37C / raw 29.54C

Download Excel spreadsheet for 15 Queensland weather stations in ACORN 1, ACORN 2 and RAW

acorn 2 queensland minimum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 16.73C / v2 16.23C / raw 16.81C

1964-2017 - v1 17.52C / v2 17.31C / raw 17.58C

v1 warmed 0.79C / v2 warmed 1.08C / raw warmed 0.77C

Average change per decade : v1 0.12C / v2 0.17C / raw 0.11C

Queensland 2000-2017 - v1 17.81C / v2 17.79C / raw 17.81C

1961-90 - v1 17.19C / v2 - 16.84C / raw 17.28C

Download Excel spreadsheet for 15 Queensland weather stations in ACORN 1 and ACORN 2 and RAW

Station menu

Amberley, Barcaldine, Birdsville, Boulia, Brisbane, Bundaberg, Burketown, Cairns, Camooweal, Cape Moreton, Charleville, Charters Towers, Gayndah, Georgetown, Horn Island, Longreach, Mackay, Miles, Normanton, Palmerville, Richmond, Rockhampton, St George, Thargomindah, Townsville, Weipa

Amberley

acorn 2 amberley maximum temperatures

1942-1979 - v1 26.50C / v2 26.56C / CDO raw 26.50C

1980-2017 - v1 27.11C / v2 27.14C / CDO raw 27.11C

v1 warmed 0.61C / v2 warmed 0.58C / raw warmed 0.61C

Average change per decade : v1 0.09C / v2 0.08C / raw 0.09C

Amberley 2000-2017 - v1 27.40C / v2 27.40C / raw 27.40C (2018 was 28.01C)

1961-90 - v1 26.47C / v2 26.54C / raw 26.47C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 26.61% / v2 - 17.18% / raw - 26.61%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 11.23% / v2 - 10.04% / raw - 11.23%

ACORN catalogue: The site has been operating since August 1941. No significant moves are evident in documentation but the data indicate a substantial change of some kind at the site in or around 1980. An automatic weather station was installed on 3 July 1997. Manual observations continued under site number 040910 until September 1998.

Assuming 1997 was when AWS readings were adopted, 1987-1996 raw max averaged 26.98C and post AWS 1998-2007 averaged 27.47C

Amberley max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 amberley minimum temperatures

1942-1979 - v1 11.57C / v2 11.83C / CDO raw 13.37C

1980-2017 - v1 12.59C / v2 12.66C / CDO raw 12.79C

v1 warmed 1.02C / v2 warmed 0.83C / raw cooled 0.58C

Average change per decade : v1 0.28C / v2 0.24C / raw 0.00C

Amberley 2000-2017 - v1 12.79C / v2 12.79C / raw 12.79C (2018 was 12.35C)

1961-90 - v1 12.02C / v2 12.22C / raw 13.29C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 16.49% / v2 - 18.94% / raw - 31.08%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 10.56% / v2 - 10.12% / raw - 11.86%

Assuming 1997 was when AWS readings were adopted, 1987-1996 raw max averaged 12.72C and post AWS 1998-2007 averaged 12.74C

Amberley min Excel spreadsheets

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Barcaldine

acorn 2 barcaldine maximum temperatures

1962-1989 - v1 30.20C / v2 29.92C / CDO raw 30.20C

1990-2017 - v1 30.56C / v2 30.42C / CDO raw 30.58C

v1 warmed 0.36C / v2 warmed 0.50C / raw warmed 0.38C

Average change per decade : v1 0.07C / v2 0.13C / raw 0.07C

Barcaldine 2000-2017 - v1 30.61C / v2 30.59C / raw 30.61C (2018 was 31.86C)

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 31.80% / v2 - 19.36% / raw - 31.80%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 15.50% / v2 - 10.66% / raw - 15.50%

ACORN catalogue: Pre-1962 data at this site have not yet been digitised and do not currently form part of ACORN-SAT. A temporary small site move took place in January 1953, with another small move in October 1957. Equipment was reported to have been stored near the screen at times in the mid-1970s. There was a move in September 1985, shortly after a new screen was installed. In July 2000 the site moved 70 m south, to a more open location further from buildings.

Barcaldine max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 barcaldine minimum temperatures

1962-1989 - v1 16.41C / v2 16.85C / CDO raw 16.41C

1990-2017 - v1 17.25C / v2 17.26C / CDO raw 17.25C

v1 warmed 0.84C / v2 warmed 0.41C / raw warmed 0.84C

Average change per decade : v1 0.24C / v2 0.12C / raw 0.24C

Barcaldine 2000-2017 - v1 17.27C / v2 17.28C / raw 17.27C (2018 was 17.63C)

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 35.77% / v2 - 19.25% / raw - 35.76%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 13.02% / v2 - 11.97% / raw - 12.99%

Barcaldine min Excel spreadsheets

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Birdsville

acorn 2 birdsville maximum temperatures

1955-1985 - v1 30.28C / v2 30.34C / CDO raw 30.28C

1986-2017 - v1 31.23C / v2 31.22C / CDO raw 31.29C

v1 warmed 0.95C / v2 warmed 0.88C / raw warmed 1.01C

Average change per decade : v1 0.14C / v2 0.23C / raw 0.20C

Birdsville 2000-2017 - v1 31.52C / v2 31.52C / raw 31.58C (2018 was 32.43C)

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 97.96% / v2 - 18.84% / raw - 97.96%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 20.68% / v2 - 14.07% / raw - 18.40%

ACORN catalogue: The original site (038002) was in the town area, associated first with the Australian Inland Mission and later with the police station. There is no evidence of any site move between the start of temperature observations in 1954 and 1988. A site move took place in May 1988 to the new police station; the distance of the move is unclear but appears to have been less than 100 m. Station photos from 1998 suggest that another move may have taken place at some point after 1988 but this is unconfirmed. This site continued to operate until 2005. The current airport site has been operating since June 2000. Consistently small differences between the minimum temperatures and ‘9 am’ temperatures in the 1970s suggest that the nominal 9 am observation may have been taken earlier, possibly between 7 and 8 am. This ceased in 1979, resulting in an apparent increase of about 0.5 °C in minimum temperatures, due to reduced double-counting of low minimum temperatures. Because of Birdsville’s far western location within Queensland, it generally has a later time of minimum temperature than eastern Queensland stations.

38002 overlap with 38026 29 June 2000 to 14 March 2005 : 38002 31.95C / 38026 31.55C

1995-2004 raw max averaged 31.31C and post AWS 2006-2015 averaged 31.48C

Birdsville max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 birdsville minimum temperatures

1955-1985 - v1 16.03C / v2 15.73C / CDO raw 15.69C

1986-2017 - v1 16.50C / v2 16.50C / CDO raw 16.45C

v1 warmed 0.47C / v2 warmed 0.77C / raw warmed 0.76C

Average change per decade : v1 0.31C / v2 0.26C / raw 0.31C

Birdsville 2000-2017 - v1 16.84C / v2 16.84C / raw 16.80C (2018 was 17.05C)

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 17.16% / v2 - 20.37% / raw - 89.26%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 21.62% / v2 - 15.05% / raw - 19.57%

38002 overlap with 38026 30 June 2000 to 15 March 2005 : 38002 16.65C / 38026 16.70C

1995-2004 raw min averaged 16.39C and post AWS 2006-2015 averaged 16.74C

Birdsville min Excel spreadsheets

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Boulia

acorn 2 boulia maximum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 31.66C / v2 30.69C / CDO raw 31.63C

1964-2017 - v1 32.22C / v2 31.74C / CDO raw 31.97C

v1 warmed 0.56C / v2 warmed 1.05C / raw warmed 0.34C

Average change per decade : v1 0.06C / v2 0.13C / raw 0.01C

Boulia 2000-2017 - v1 32.38C / v2 32.15C / raw 32.38C (2018 was 33.26C)

1961-90 - v1 32.10C / v2 31.44C / raw 31.84C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 21.20% / v2 - 21.34% / raw - 48.66%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 13.01% / v2 - 11.44% / raw - 23.52%

Boulia 52026 has annual max temps back to 1889: 1889-1891 + 1897-1901 + 1905 + 1907-1909 = 31.65C

ACORN catalogue: The site was originally in the town centre. A damaged screen was replaced in March 1917; there were periods of suspect maximum temperature data in the lead-up to this. Small moves took place in September 1965 and June 1970 (unconfirmed). The town site had a well-watered lawn surface, at least in its later years. The site moved to its current location at the airport in July 1999.

Boulia max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 boulia minimum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 16.56C / v2 16.11C / CDO raw 16.65C

1964-2017 - v1 17.59C / v2 17.54C / CDO raw 17.55C

v1 warmed 1.03C / v2 warmed 1.43C / raw warmed 0.90C

Average change per decade : v1 0.16C / v2 0.20C / raw 0.16C

Boulia 2000-2017 - v1 18.11C / v2 18.05C / raw 18.10C (2018 was 18.56C)

1961-90 - v1 17.18C / v2 17.07C / raw 17.12C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 21.73% / v2 - 20.61% / raw - 45.77%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 14.57% / v2 - 14.49% / raw - 20.53%

Boulia 52026 has annual min temps back to 1889: 1889-1892 + 1900-1901 + 1905-1909 = 15.96C

Boulia min Excel spreadsheets

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Brisbane

acorn 2 brisbane maximum temperatures

1950-1983 - v1 25.14C / v2 25.06C / CDO raw 25.49C

1984-2017 - v1 25.30C / v2 25.25C / CDO raw 25.38C

v1 warmed 0.16C / v2 warmed 0.19C / raw cooled 0.11C

Average change per decade : v1 0.04C / v2 0.08C / raw -0.02C

Brisbane 2000-2017 - v1 25.49C / v2 25.49C / raw 25.49C (2018 was 25.70C)

1961-90 - v1 25.13C / v2 25.08C / raw 25.44C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 15.47% / v2 - 17.65% / raw - 28.09%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 10.74% / v2 - 9.34% / raw - 10.86%

ACORN catalogue: The original site (040223) was in the southwest corner of the old (Eagle Farm) airport, near the Eagle Farm railway station. It moved about 800 m north in August 1955 to a location on the western side of the old airport, near where the Gateway Motorway now is. An automatic weather station was installed at the southern end of the main runway of the new airport on 30 November 1987, about 3 km east of the previous location. The automatic weather station became the primary instrument on 1 November 1996. The site closed in February 2000. The current site (040842) was established in April 1994, 3.3 km to the northeast of the previous site (040223).

1986-1995 raw max averaged 25.31C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 25.47C

Brisbane max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 brisbane minimum temperatures

1950-1983 - v1 15.10C / v2 15.05C / CDO raw 15.73C

1984-2017 - v1 15.73C / v2 15.73C / CDO raw 15.68C

v1 warmed 0.63C / v2 warmed 0.68C / raw cooled 0.05C

Average change per decade : v1 0.16C / v2 0.20C / raw 0.04C

Brisbane 2000-2017 - v1 15.71C / v2 15.71C / raw 15.71C (2018 was 15.85C)

1961-90 - v1 15.32C / v2 15.36C / raw 15.80C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 18.19% / v2 - 18.99% / raw - 30.66%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 9.39% / v2 - 10.48% / raw - 11.20%

1986-1995 raw max averaged 15.64C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 15.45C

Brisbane min Excel spreadsheets

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Bundaberg

acorn 2 bundaberg maximum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 26.49C / v2 26.94C / CDO raw 26.57C

1964-2017 - v1 26.73C / v2 27.18C / CDO raw 26.87C

v1 warmed 0.24C / v2 warmed 0.24C / raw warmed 0.30C

Average change per decade : v1 0.07C / v2 0.02C / raw 0.06C

Bundaberg 2000-2017 - v1 27.23C / v2 27.41C / raw 27.22C (2018 was 27.80C)

1961-90 - v1 26.37C / v2 26.95C / raw 26.62C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 18.91% / v2 - 20.57% / raw - 48.14%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 10.97% / v2 - 10.32% / raw - 15.01%

Bundaberg 39015 has annual max temps back to 1893: 1893-1909 = 27.19C

39015 overlap with 39128 1 June 1959 to 4 January 1971 : 39015 26.28C / 39128 25.91C

ACORN catalogue: The original site (039015) was located at the Post Office in the centre of town. A new screen was installed in June 1913. There was a small move into a new screen in June 1933, and a move of 50 m in July 1953. The site was enclosed, particularly in its later years, and there were bitumen surfaces in the vicinity from 1984 onwards. Observations began at the airport (039128) in July 1990. An automatic weather station was installed on 19 December 1997. The site moved on 1 July 2010 from the northern to the southern part of the airport, about 2 km south. There was also a site at the airport (also using the number 039128) between 1959 and 1970 but this has not been used in ACORN-SAT.

Assuming 1997 was when AWS readings were adopted, 1987-1996 raw max averaged 26.78C and post AWS 1998-2007 averaged 27.12C

Bundaberg max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 bundaberg minimum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 15.65C / v2 14.85C / CDO raw 15.96C

1964-2017 - v1 16.60C / v2 15.84C / CDO raw 16.81C

v1 warmed 0.95C / v2 warmed 0.99C / raw warmed 0.85C

Average change per decade : v1 0.09C / v2 0.16C / raw 0.09C

Bundaberg 2000-2017 - v1 16.66C / v2 16.31C / raw 16.66C (2018 was 16.22C)

1961-90 - v1 16.42C / v2 15.40C / raw 16.87C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 19.43% / v2 - 18.80% / raw - 52.52%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 11.68% / v2 - 9.71% / raw - 15.41%

Bundaberg 39015 has annual min temps back to 1893: 1893-1909 = 15.96C

39015 overlap with 39128 1 June 1959 to 5 January 1971 : 39015 16.26C / 39128 15.68C

Assuming 1997 was when AWS readings were adopted, 1987-1996 raw min averaged 16.90C and post AWS 1998-2007 averaged 16.75C

Bundaberg min Excel spreadsheets

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Burketown

acorn 2 burketown maximum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 32.12C / v2 32.17C / CDO raw 32.14C

1964-2017 - v1 33.18C / v2 32.95C / CDO raw 32.89C

v1 warmed 1.06C / v2 warmed 0.78C / raw warmed 0.75C

Average change per decade : v1 0.13C / v2 0.09C / raw 0.13C

Burketown 2000-2017 - v1 33.23C / v2 33.04C / raw 33.15C (2018 was 33.90C)

1961-90 - v1 33.21C / v2 32.86C / raw 32.94C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 16.85% / v2 - 26.56% / raw - 65.93%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 12.26% / v2 - 9.72% / raw - 22.08%

Burketown 29004 has annual max temps back to 1891: 1891-1901 + 1903-1909 = 31.84C

29004 overlap with 29077 16 October 2001 to 30 June 2009 : 29004 32.29C / 29077 33.23C

ACORN catalogue: The original site was at the Post Office (029004). It was located on a watered lawn within the town in its later years. The screen was replaced in May 1966. There were numerous missed observations during the 1970s. Documented site moves took place in August 1986 (50 m north) and September 1995 (25 m east-southeast). The site closed in July 2009. The current automatic weather station at the airport began observations in October 2001. The change in surface type from the Post Office (watered lawn) to the airport (natural grassland) is clearly shown in the maximum temperatures, which are substantially higher at the airport during the winter and spring (dry season). There is little difference during the wet season when the vegetation is normally green at both sites.

Assuming 2001 was when AWS readings were adopted, 1991-2000 raw max averaged 32.35C and post AWS 2002-2011 averaged 33.13C

Burketown max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 burketown minimum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 19.73C / v2 19.31C / CDO raw 19.68C

1964-2017 - v1 20.74C / v2 20.42C / CDO raw 20.69C

v1 warmed 1.01C / v2 warmed 1.11C / raw warmed 1.01C

Average change per decade : v1 0.09C / v2 0.12C / raw 0.09C

Burketown 2000-2017 - v1 20.69C / v2 20.53C / raw 20.69C (2018 was 20.33C)

1961-90 - v1 20.57C / v2 20.12C / raw 20.41C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 71.15% / v2 - 25.95% / raw - 71.18%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 22.26% / v2 - 10.19% / raw - 22.47%

Burketown 29004 has annual min temps back to 1891: 1891-1909 = 19.73C

29004 overlap with 29077 17 October 2001 to 1 July 2009 : 29004 21.15C / 29077 20.72C

Assuming 2001 was when AWS readings were adopted, 1991-2000 raw min averaged 20.90C and post AWS 2002-2011 averaged 20.70C

Burketown min Excel spreadsheets

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Cairns

acorn 2 cairns maximum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 28.63C / v2 29.13C / CDO raw 29.02C

1964-2017 - v1 29.14C / v2 29.37C / CDO raw 29.14C

v1 warmed 0.51C / v2 warmed 0.24C / raw warmed 0.12C

Average change per decade : v1 0.13C / v2 0.04C / raw 0.05C

Cairns 2000-2017 - v1 29.44C / v2 29.55C / raw 29.44C (2018 was 29.91C)

1961-90 - v1 28.91C / v2 29.19C / raw 28.91C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 23.31% / v2 - 18.61% / raw - 36.38%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 11.96% / v2 - 10.40% / raw - 11.96%

Cairns 31010 has annual max temps back to 1890 : 1890-1899 + 1901-1904 + 1906-1909 = 28.71C

31010 overlap with 31011 22 October 1942 to 30 September 1953 : 31010 28.83C / 31011 28.76C

ACORN catalogue: The original site was at the Cairns Post Office (031010), within the town area. There is a documented move in December 1929 from a relatively enclosed site to a slightly more open one. Observations continued at the Post Office until 1953. Observations have been made at the airport (031011) since 1943. In December 1992 the site moved 1.5 km northwest (to the other side of the runway). Comparisons of the data with neighbours suggest that this move had no significant effect on temperatures. An automatic weather station was installed at this time and became the primary instrument on 1 November 1996.

1986-1995 raw max averaged 29.23C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 29.25C

Cairns max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 cairns minimum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 19.70C / v2 19.79C / CDO raw 20.21C

1964-2017 - v1 20.71C / v2 20.78C / CDO raw 20.88C

v1 warmed 1.01C / v2 warmed 0.99C / raw warmed 0.67C

Average change per decade : v1 0.19C / v2 0.15C / raw 0.10C

Cairns 2000-2017 - v1 21.10C / v2 20.10C / raw 21.10C (2018 was 20.87C)

1961-90 - v1 20.36C / v2 20.45C / raw 20.74C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 19.91% / v2 - 17.01% / raw - 40.13%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 9.50% / v2 - 10.38% / raw - 12.20%

Cairns 31010 has annual min temps back to 1897 : 1897--1909 = 20.04C

31010 overlap with 31011 22 October 1942 to 30 September 1953 : 31010 20.09C / 31011 20.39C

1986-1995 raw min averaged 21.02C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 20.94C

Cairns min Excel spreadsheets

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Camooweal

acorn 2 camooweal maximum temperatures

1940-1978 - v1 33.09C / v2 32.51C / CDO raw 32.71C

1979-2017 - v1 33.72C / v2 33.34C / CDO raw 33.55C

v1 warmed 0.63C / v2 warmed 0.83C / raw warmed 0.84C

Average change per decade : v1 0.08C / v2 0.15C / raw 0.13C

Camooweal 2000-2017 - v1 33.54C / v2 33.35C / raw 33.54C (2018 was 34.58C)

1961-90 - v1 33.65C / v2 33.00C / raw 33.20C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 20.55% / v2 - 18.39% / raw - 72.25%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 20.10% / v2 - 10.24% / raw - 27.11%

ACORN catalogue: A manual site operated under the same number in the town area. There are no documented moves at this old site, although both the site condition and the standard of observations deteriorated through the 1990s. The site eventually closed altogether in September 1997, leaving a seven-month gap before observations resumed. The current site commenced in April 1998, about 200 m east of the previous location. It is known that temperature observations were made in this area as early as 1910, but no pre-1939 observations have yet been located.

1988-1997 raw max averaged 33.62C and post AWS 1999-2008 averaged 33.66C

Camooweal max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 camooweal minimum temperatures

1940-1978 - v1 17.22C / v2 16.32C / CDO raw 17.50C

1979-2017 - v1 17.81C / v2 17.78C / CDO raw 18.13C

v1 warmed 0.59C / v2 warmed 1.46C / raw warmed 0.63C

Average change per decade : v1 0.17C / v2 0.29C / raw 0.12C

Camooweal 2000-2017 - v1 17.91C / v2 17.91C / raw 17.93C (2018 was 18.34C)

1961-90 - v1 17.55C / v2 17.02C / raw 18.00C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 18.14% / v2 - 20.73% / raw - 70.05%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 19.94% / v2 - 19.69% / raw - 27.44%

1988-1997 raw max averaged 18.47C and post AWS 1999-2008 averaged 17.87C

Camooweal min Excel spreadsheets

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Cape Moreton

acorn 2 cape moreton maximum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 23.74C / v2 23.52C / CDO raw 23.19C

1964-2017 - v1 23.93C / v2 23.76C / CDO raw 23.50C

v1 warmed 0.19C / v2 warmed 0.24C / raw warmed 0.31C

Average change per decade : v1 0.05C / v2 0.05C / raw 0.05C

Cape Moreton 2000-2017 - v1 24.22C / v2 24.23C / raw 24.18C (2018 was 24.19C)

1961-90 - v1 23.73C / v2 23.45C / raw 23.05C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 17.55% / v2 - 19.06% / raw - 66.60%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 10.80% / v2 - 10.48% / raw - 12.42%

ACORN catalogue: The location is mostly unchanged since observations began. A new screen was installed in April 1939. The only documented site move was a small one (less than 50 m) when an automatic weather station was installed on 3 August 1995. This move has had a large impact on rainfall but has had little impact on temperatures.

Assuming the AWS was operational from 1995, 1985-1994 raw max averaged 23.19C and post AWS 1996-2005 averaged 23.87C

Cape Moreton max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 cape moreton minimum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 17.52C / v2 17.53C / CDO raw 17.80C

1964-2017 - v1 18.41C / v2 18.42C / CDO raw 18.43C

v1 warmed 0.89C / v2 warmed 0.89C / raw warmed 0.63C

Average change per decade : v1 0.13C / v2 0.13C / raw 0.09C

Cape Moreton 2000-2017 - v1 18.83C / v2 18.83C / raw 18.85C (2018 was 18.73C)

1961-90 - v1 18.01C / v2 18.01C / raw 17.98C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 45.82% / v2 - 44.42% / raw - 72.35%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 15.16% / v2 - 15.14% / raw - 15.13%

Assuming the AWS was operational from 1995, 1985-1994 raw min averaged 18.30C and post AWS 1996-2005 averaged 18.80C

Cape Moreton min Excel spreadsheets

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Charleville

acorn 2 charleville maximum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 27.76C / v2 27.68C / CDO raw 28.68C

1964-2017 - v1 28.59C / v2 28.47C / CDO raw 28.41C

v1 warmed 0.83C / v2 warmed 0.79C / raw cooled 0.27C

Average change per decade : v1 0.10C / v2 0.11C / raw 0.01C

Charleville 2000-2017 - v1 29.01C / v2 28.9C / raw 28.95C (2018 was 30.35C)

1961-90 - v1 28.18C / v2 28.02C / raw 27.96C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 16.82% / v2 - 16.91% / raw - 42.90%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 9.95% / v2 - 10.71% / raw - 10.01%

Charleville 44022 has annual max temps back to 1890: 1890-1909 = 27.85C

44022 overlap with 44021 7 April 1942 to 30 September 1953 : 44022 28.48C / 44021 27.40C

ACORN catalogue: The original site (044022) was in town, at the school. In September 1914 it moved to the Post Office. This site continued until 1953 but is not used in ACORN-SAT after 1948. Observations commenced at the Meteorological Office at the airport (044021) in 1943, although only data from January 1949 onwards have been used in ACORN-SAT. There was a move in or shortly before April 1961. In August 1990 an automatic weather station was installed, followed by a site move 150 m east on 12 September 1990. The automatic weather station became the primary instrument on 1 November 1996. In October 2003 the airport site was moved about 600 m west, to its current location. Observations from the previous site continued until February 2006, under number 044221. Neighbours rather than the overlapping data are used to merge the two main Charleville sites, as the data indicate substantial changes at both sites in or near 1949, although there is no documentation of what those changes might have been for either site.

1986-1995 raw max averaged 28.34C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 28.77C

Charleville max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 charleville minimum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 12.80C / v2 11.98C / CDO raw 13.25C

1964-2017 - v1 13.61C / v2 13.25C / CDO raw 13.81C

v1 warmed 0.81C / v2 warmed 1.27C / raw warmed 0.56C

Average change per decade : v1 0.13C / v2 0.23C / raw 0.07C

Charleville 2000-2017 - v1 14.05C / v2 14.02C / raw 14.09C (2018 was 14.88C)

1961-90 - v1 13.28C / v2 12.72C / raw 13.44C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 19.86% / v2 - 17.69% / raw - 49.76%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 10.07% / v2 - 10.25% / raw - 11.65%

Charleville 44022 has annual min temps back to 1890: 1890-1909 = 13.05C

44022 overlap with 44021 9 April 1942 to 30 September 1953 : 44022 12.97C / 44021 13.25C

1986-1995 raw min averaged 13.94C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 13.85C

Charleville min Excel spreadsheets

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Charters Towers

acorn 2 charters towers maximum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 29.48C / v2 29.58C / CDO raw 30.08C

1964-2017 - v1 30.07C / v2 29.96C / CDO raw 30.26C

v1 warmed 0.59C / v2 warmed 0.38C / raw warmed 0.18C

Average change per decade : v1 0.15C / v2 0.10C / raw 0.04C

Charters Towers 2000-2017 - v1 30.39C / v2 30.40C / raw 30.40C (2018 was 31.18C)

1961-90 - v1 29.85C / v2 29.61C / raw 30.11C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 18.17% / v2 - 17.52% / raw - 56.37%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 11.29% / v2 - 12.35% / raw - 17.56%

Charters Towers 34002 has annual max temps back to 1894: 1894-1909 = 30.28C

ACORN catalogue: The original site (034002) was located in the town area. A new screen was installed in April 1939. Small moves took place in June 1947 (15 m south), December 1953 and April 1975 (10 m), the 1953 move taking place after a shed and incinerator were built nearby. The site closed in December 1992. The airport site opened in December 1992, with no overlap with the previous site. A new screen was installed in October 2000.

Charters Towers max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 charters towers minimum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 16.94C / v2 16.20C / CDO raw 16.90C

1964-2017 - v1 17.40C / v2 17.17C / CDO raw 17.60C

v1 warmed 0.46C / v2 warmed 0.97C / raw warmed 0.70C

Average change per decade : v1 0.08C / v2 0.18C / raw 0.14C

Charters Towers 2000-2017 - v1 17.55C / v2 17.44C / raw 17.55C (2018 was 17.30C)

1961-90 - v1 17.12C / v2 16.93C / raw 17.41C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 17.85% / v2 - 18.94% / raw - 57.82%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 13.42% / v2 - 10.28% / raw - 18.69%

Charters Towers 34002 has annual min temps back to 1894: 1894-1909 = 17.01C

Charters Towers min Excel spreadsheets

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Gayndah

acorn 2 gayndah maximum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 27.71C / v2 27.73C / CDO raw 28.05C

1964-2017 - v1 28.25C / v2 28.20C / CDO raw 28.39C

v1 warmed 0.54C / v2 warmed 0.47C / raw warmed 0.34C

Average change per decade : v1 0.05C / v2 0.05C / raw 0.01C

Gayndah 2000-2017 - v1 28.75C / v2 28.72C / raw 28.84C (2018 was 28.96C)

1961-90 - v1 27.78C / v2 27.72C / raw 28.03C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 20.27% / v2 - 19.12% / raw - 49.47%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 13.27% / v2 - 9.24% / raw - 14.97%

Gayndah 39039 has annual max temps back to 1894: 1894-1909 = 28.08C

39039 overlap with 39066 28 January 2003 to 30 June 2009 : 39039 28.91C / 39066 28.67C

ACORN catalogue: The original site (039039) was on a block next to the Post Office in the main town area, about 10 m from the main street. There are no documented moves at the site but overhanging trees were a problem at times. New screens were supplied in October 1945 and June 1999. This site closed in July 2009. The current site, about 1.2 km northeast of the previous site, has been operating since January 2003.

Assuming the AWS was operational from 2003, 1993-2002 raw max averaged 28.64C and post AWS 2004-2013 averaged 28.61C

Gayndah max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 gayndah minimum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 13.95C / v2 13.29C / CDO raw 13.12C

1964-2017 - v1 14.43C / v2 14.28C / CDO raw 14.40C

v1 warmed 0.48C / v2 warmed 0.99C / raw warmed 1.28C

Average change per decade : v1 0.05C / v2 0.10C / raw 0.16C

Gayndah 2000-2017 - v1 14.57C / v2 14.46C / raw 14.50C (2018 was 13.80C)

1961-90 - v1 14.24C / v2 14.00C / raw 14.19C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 19.13% / v2 - 18.91% / raw - 51.39%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 10.36% / v2 - 9.69% / raw - 16.43%

Gayndah 39039 has annual min temps back to 1894: 1894-1909 = 12.93C

39039 overlap with 39066 29 January 2003 to 1 July 2009 : 39039 14.69C / 39066 14.45C

Assuming the AWS was operational from 2003, 1993-2002 raw min averaged 14.50C and post AWS 2004-2013 averaged 14.44C

Gayndah min Excel spreadsheets

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Georgetown

acorn 2 georgetown maximum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 32.59C / v2 32.11C / CDO raw 32.33C

1964-2017 - v1 32.77C / v2 32.61C / CDO raw 33.01C

v1 warmed 0.18C / v2 warmed 0.50C / raw warmed 0.68C

Average change per decade : v1 0.06C / v2 0.10C / raw 0.09C

Georgetown 2000-2017 - v1 32.81C / v2 32.87C / raw 32.97C (2018 was 32.89C)

1961-90 - v1 32.78C / v2 32.35C / raw 32.85C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 18.16% / v2 - 15.67% / raw - 73.02%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 9.23% / v2 - 9.39% / raw - 21.88%

Georgetown 30018 has annual max temps back to 1909: 1909 = 32.58C

30018 overlap with 30124 1 June 2004 to 9 October 2007 : 30018 33.40C / 30124 32.44C

ACORN catalogue: The original site (030018) was in the town area. A new screen was supplied in November 1922. There are no documented moves; however, there were numerous changes in site condition over the years as the site became overgrown at times. This was a particular problem in the early 1960s and at one point vines were reported as growing through the screen; much data from this period has been flagged as suspect. These issues ceased with the appointment of a new observer in 1965. The current site began operating in May 2004. The old site continued until 2007 but deteriorated rapidly in its last years due to encroaching trees, so the overlapping data were not used in merging the two sites.

1994-2003 raw max averaged 33.48C and post AWS 2005-2014 averaged 32.70C

Georgetown max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 georgetown minimum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 18.09C / v2 17.97C / CDO raw 18.16C

1964-2017 - v1 18.60C / v2 18.60C / CDO raw 18.84C

v1 warmed 0.51C / v2 warmed 0.63C / raw warmed 0.68C

Average change per decade : v1 0.15C / v2 0.10C / raw 0.09C

Albany 2000-2017 - v1 18.85C / v2 18.89C / raw 19.07C (2018 was 18.53C)

1961-90 - v1 18.28C / v2 18.29C / raw 18.50C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 18.33% / v2 - 20.40% / raw - 81.77%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 9.58% / v2 - 9.98% / raw - 20.95%

Georgetown 30018 has annual min temps back to 1894: 1894-1909 = 18.26C

30018 overlap with 30124 2 June 2004 to 10 October 2007 : 30018 18.41C / 30124 18.73C

1994-2003 raw min averaged 19.13C and post AWS 2005-2014 averaged 19.03C

Georgetown min Excel spreadsheets

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Horn Island

acorn 2 horn island maximum temperatures

1951-1983 - v1 30.04C / v2 29.92C / CDO raw 29.36C

1984-2017 - v1 30.46C / v2 30.37C / CDO raw 30.19C

v1 warmed 0.42C / v2 warmed 0.45C / raw warmed 0.83C

Average change per decade : v1 0.11C / v2 0.14C / raw 0.15C

Horn Island 2000-2017 - v1 30.53C / v2 30.53C / raw 30.57C (2018 was 30.65C)

1961-90 - v1 30.15C / v2 30.04C / raw 29.26C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 16.97% / v2 - 17.81% / raw - 25.99%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 10.41% / v2 - 10.09% / raw - 11.97%

27022 overlap with 27021 14 September 1992 to 28 February 1993 : 27022 30.09C / 27021 30.94C

27021 overlap with 27085 20 March 1995 to 14 January 1996 : 27021 30.22C / 27058 29.91C

ACORN catalogue: The main early site was the Thursday Island Meteorological Office (027022). This operated from 1950 until February 1993. The Meteorological Office was on top of a hill (elevation 58 m) on the site of a former fort, in a relatively exposed location. The data suggest that the Meteorological Office may also have been in the town rather than on the hilltop until about 1958, but there is no documentation of this. Observations were made in the Thursday Island township (027021) from the closure of the Meteorological Office until 1996. There were previously observations under this site number in the town prior to the opening of the Meteorological Office in 1950, but no daily data from the pre-1951 site have yet been digitised and it is not included in ACORN-SAT. The current site at Horn Island airport opened in 1995.

27058 is an Automatic Weather Station that started in 1995 : 1985-1994 raw max averaged 29.66C and post AWS 1996-2005 averaged 30.25C

Horn Island max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 horn island minimum temperatures

1951-1983 - v1 24.34C / v2 23.36C / CDO raw 24.09C

1984-2017 - v1 24.77C / v2 24.40C / CDO raw 24.56C

v1 warmed 0.43C / v2 warmed 1.04C / raw warmed 0.47C

Average change per decade : v1 0.08C / v2 0.27C / raw 0.09C

Horn Island 2000-2017 - v1 24.83C / v2 24.71C / raw 24.71C (2018 was 24.81C)

1961-90 - v1 24.42C / v2 23.49C / raw 24.07C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 18.73% / v2 - 17.95% / raw - 21.55%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 10.14% / v2 - 10.39% / raw - 11.92%

27022 overlap with 27021 16 September 1992 to 28 February 1993 : 27022 24.44C / 27021 23.83C

27021 overlap with 27085 20 March 1995 to 15 January 1996 : 27021 24.54C / 27058 24.41C

27058 is an Automatic Weather Station that started in 1995 : 1985-1994 raw min averaged 24.40C and post AWS 1996-2005 averaged 24.40C

Horn Island min Excel spreadsheets

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Longreach

acorn 2 longreach maximum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 31.27C / v2 31.37C / CDO raw 31.24C

1964-2017 - v1 31.81C / v2 31.44C / CDO raw 31.51C

v1 warmed 0.54C / v2 warmed 0.07C / raw warmed 0.27C

Average change per decade : v1 0.09C / v2 0.04C / raw 0.09C

Longreach 2000-2017 - v1 31.89C / v2 31.44C / raw 31.51C (2018 was 33.30C)

1961-90 - v1 31.68C / v2 31.09C / raw 31.21C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 17.64% / v2 - 16.44% / raw - 64.41%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 9.32% / v2 - 9.92% / raw - 12.31%

Longreach 36030 has annual max temps back to 1897: 1897-1901 + 1904-1907 + 1909 = 31.58C

36030 overlap with 36031 1 March 1966 to 30 May 1973 : 36030 31.34C / 36031 30.99C

ACORN catalogue: The first observations were made at the Post Office (036030). There were no documented moves at this site. New screens were installed in October 1911 and November 1924, and building works were reported in the vicinity in September 1949. This site continued until 1973 but was not used in ACORN-SAT beyond 1969. The Meteorological Office (036031) has been in operation since 1966. An automatic weather station and a new screen were installed in May 1996, with manual observations continuing for a year under the site number 036167.

1987-1996 raw max averaged 31.41C and post AWS 1998-2007 averaged 31.86C

Longreach max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 longreach minimum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 15.10C / v2 14.23C / CDO raw 15.40C

1964-2017 - v1 16.11C / v2 15.47C / CDO raw 15.94C

v1 warmed 1.01C / v2 warmed 1.24C / raw warmed 0.54C

Average change per decade : v1 0.14C / v2 0.21C / raw 0.12C

Longreach 2000-2017 - v1 16.27C / v2 16.22C / raw 17.35C (2018 was 33.30C)

1961-90 - v1 15.88C / v2 14.80C / raw 15.70C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 16.23% / v2 - 19.48% / raw - 69.84%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 9.96% / v2 - 10.38% / raw - 13.32%

Longreach 36030 has annual min temps back to 1897: 1897-1901 + 1906-1909 = 15.15C

36030 overlap with 36031 2 March 1966 to 27 April 1973 : 36030 16.08C / 36031 15.19C

1987-1996 raw min averaged 16.20C and post AWS 1998-2007 averaged 16.19C

Longreach min Excel spreadsheets

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Mackay

acorn 2 mackay maximum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 25.83C / v2 25.44C / CDO raw 26.90C

1964-2017 - v1 26.48C / v2 26.36C / CDO raw 26.55C

v1 warmed 0.65C / v2 warmed 0.92C / raw cooled 0.35C

Average change per decade : v1 0.10C / v2 0.15C / raw 0.03C

Albany 2000-2017 - v1 26.89C / v2 26.89C / raw 26.89C (2018 was 27.64C)

1961-90 - v1 26.14C / v2 25.92C / raw 26.43C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 16.54% / v2 - 17.65% / raw - 43.56%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 11.62% / v2 - 9.49% / raw - 11.61%

Mackay 33046 has annual max temps back to 1908: 1908-1909 = 26.67C

33046 overlap with 33047 1 January 1908 to 30 April 1950 : 33046 26.78C / 33047 28.00C

33047 overlap with 33119 25 September 1959 to 4 June 2012 : 33047 27.60 / 33119 26.41C

ACORN catalogue: The earlier part of the Mackay dataset uses data from the Post Office (033046). This site had a temporary move due to building in late 1922, and further moves in 1939 and 1941, the latter placing it in a rather enclosed location. The Post Office site closed in 1950. Data from the Te Kowai Experimental Station (033047) located 5 km west of the town were used between 1948 and 1965. This is a small but apparently good-quality subset of the full record from this site. The Meteorological Office site (033119) commenced observations in 1959, and no known site moves have taken place. An automatic weather station was installed in October 1995, although manual observations continued until 2001 under the site number 033297. Because of its greater proximity to the coast and its hilltop location, the Meteorological Office has substantially lower maximum temperatures, and higher minimum temperatures (especially in winter) than any of the other sites that have existed historically in the Mackay area.

Assuming the AWS was operational from 1995, 1985-1994 raw max averaged 26.49C and post AWS 1996-2005 averaged 26.80C

Mackay max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 mackay minimum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 18.15C / v2 18.01C / CDO raw 17.70C

1964-2017 - v1 19.17C / v2 18.94C / CDO raw 19.08C

v1 warmed 1.02C / v2 warmed 0.93C / raw warmed 1.38C

Average change per decade : v1 0.20C / v2 0.18C / raw 0.16C

Albany 2000-2017 - v1 19.44C / v2 19.45C / raw 19.44C (2018 was 19.60C)

1961-90 - v1 18.84C / v2 18.45C / raw 18.47C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 21.19% / v2 - 18.15% / raw - 51.71%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 11.75% / v2 - 9.91% / raw - 11.75%%

Mackay 33046 has annual min temps back to 1890: 1890-1909 = 17.73C

33046 overlap with 33047 1 January 1908 to 30 April 1950 : 33046 18.23C / 33047 16.45C

33047 overlap with 33119 25 September 1959 to 5 June 2012 : 33047 16.57 / 33119 19.04C

Assuming the AWS was operational from 1995, 1985-1994 raw min averaged 19.22C and post AWS 1996-2005 averaged 19.35C

Mackay min Excel spreadsheets

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Miles

acorn 2 miles maximum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 26.92C / v2 27.04C / CDO raw 27.17C

1964-2017 - v1 27.03C / v2 27.37C / CDO raw 27.28C

v1 warmed 0.11C / v2 warmed 0.33C / raw warmed 0.11C

Average change per decade : v1 0.04C / v2 0.04C / raw 0.04C

Miles 2000-2017 - v1 27.83C / v2 27.97C / raw 27.89C (2018 was 28.41C)

1961-90 - v1 26.43C / v2 26.90C / raw 26.74C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 15.15% / v2 - 17.43% / raw - 60.80%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 21.76% / v2 - 10.85% / raw - 12.69%

42023 overlap with 42112 10 July 1997 to 14 March 2005 : 42023 28.09C / 42112 27.81C

ACORN catalogue: The former site (042023) was located in the town. The screen was reported in September 1929 as having numerous missing louvres. It became somewhat overgrown from about 1990 onwards, but continued to measure temperatures until 2005. Rainfall continues to be measured at this site. The current site has been operating since July 1997, about 300 m west- northwest of the previous site.

1995-2004 raw max averaged 27.81C and post AWS 2006-2015 averaged 27.67C

Miles max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 miles minimum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 12.25C / v2 11.32C / CDO raw 11.93C

1964-2017 - v1 12.66C / v2 12.59C / CDO raw 12.60C

v1 warmed 0.41C / v2 warmed 1.27C / raw warmed 0.67C

Average change per decade : v1 0.05C / v2 0.17C / raw 0.05C

Albany 2000-2017 - v1 12.90C / v2 12.90C / raw 12.91C (2018 was 12.64C)

1961-90 - v1 12.43C / v2 12.25C / raw 12.27C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 19.44% / v2 - 17.44% / raw - 65.26%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 24.45% / v2 - 22.77% / raw - 13.90%

42023 overlap with 42112 11 July 1997 to 15 March 2005 : 42023 13.02C / 42112 13.03C

1995-2004 raw min averaged 12.88C and post AWS 2006-2015 averaged 12.85C

Miles min Excel spreadsheets

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Normanton

acorn 2 normanton maximum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 32.91C / v2 32.98C / CDO raw 33.41C

1964-2017 - v1 33.46C / v2 33.43C / CDO raw 33.49C

v1 warmed 0.55C / v2 warmed 0.45C / raw warmed 0.08C

Average change per decade : v1 0.09C / v2 0.08C / raw -0.02C

Normanton 2000-2017 - v1 33.61C / v2 33.60C / raw 33.59C (2018 was 33.77C)

1961-90 - v1 33.36C / v2 33.33C / raw 33.49C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 21.99% / v2 - 17.66% / raw - 75.39%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 12.57% / v2 - 10.87% / raw - 12.46%

29041 overlap with 29063 10 April 2001 to 30 July 2001 : 29041 31.30C / 29063 31.41C

ACORN catalogue: The original site was in the town (029063). Screens which had been in poor condition were replaced in May 1917 and November 1940. The only documented move in this site took place in October 1956 (45 m southwest). In its later years, there was a watered lawn and trees and a car park nearby. The current site replaced the previous site in 2001; there are only three months of overlapping data, insufficient to be used in adjustment.

Assuming the AWS was operational from 2001, 1991-2000 averaged 33.40C and post AWS 2002-2011 averaged 33.49C

Normanton max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 normanton minimum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 21.27C / v2 21.06C / CDO raw 21.06C

1964-2017 - v1 21.75C / v2 21.69C / CDO raw 21.80C

v1 warmed 0.48C / v2 warmed 0.63C / raw warmed 0.74C

Average change per decade : v1 0.07C / v2 0.08C / raw 0.09C

Normanton 2000-2017 - v1 21.77C / v2 21.76C / raw 21.80C (2018 was 21.63C)

1961-90 - v1 21.64C / v2 21.55C / raw 21.61C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 18.21% / v2 - 17.68% / raw - 80.91%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 9.77% / v2 - 9.76% / raw - 15.55%

29041 overlap with 29063 11 April 2001 to 31 July 2001 : 29041 17.87C / 29063 17.38C

Assuming the AWS was operational from 2001, 1991-2000 averaged 22.17C and post AWS 2002-2011 averaged 21.69C

Normanton min Excel spreadsheets

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Palmerville

acorn 2 palmerville maximum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 32.33C / v2 32.78C / CDO raw 32.69C

1964-2017 - v1 32.67C / v2 32.83C / CDO raw 32.91C

v1 warmed 0.34C / v2 warmed 0.05C / raw warmed 0.22C

Average change per decade : v1 0.09C / v2 0.03C / raw 0.08C

Palmerville 2000-2017 - v1 33.12C / v2 33.12C / raw 33.12C (2018 was 33.38C)

1961-90 - v1 32.50C / v2 32.74C / raw 32.77C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 17.11% / v2 - 21.97% / raw - 67.52%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 16.43% / v2 - 18.26% / raw - 46.85%

Palmerville 28004 has max temps back to 1896 : 1896-1901 + 1903-1905 = 32.84C

ACORN catalogue: There are no clearly documented moves at the original manual site although the screen was replaced on a number of occasions (October 1926, July 1988 and September 1994). The same observer performed observations for 63 years from 1936 to 1999, and was the area’s sole remaining resident during the later part of that period. Observations did not resume until the automatic station was commissioned. The automatic weather station was installed in mid-2000, 160 m south-east of the former site, but did not begin transmitting data until July 2001.

1991-2000 averaged 33.14C and post AWS 2002-2011 averaged 32.95C (five years missing pre and two years missing post 2001 so not very accurate)

Palmerville max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 palmerville minimum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 18.22C / v2 17.19C / CDO raw 19.05C

1964-2017 - v1 18.77C / v2 18.50C / CDO raw 19.39C

v1 warmed 0.55C / v2 warmed 1.31C / raw warmed 0.34C

Average change per decade : v1 0.14C / v2 0.26C / raw 0.01C

Albany 2000-2017 - v1 19.11C / v2 19.18C / raw 19.17C (2018 was 18.76C)

1961-90 - v1 18.50C / v2 17.97C / raw 19.45C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 18.72% / v2 - 17.99% / raw - 67.82%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 10.15% / v2 - 16.85% / raw - 44.75%

Palmerville 28004 has min temps back to 1896 : 1896-1901 + 1903-1905 = 18.54C

1991-2000 averaged 19.76C and post AWS 2002-2011 averaged 18.97C (only one year missing pre 2001 so fairly accurate)

Palmerville min Excel spreadsheets

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Richmond (Qld)

acorn 2 richmond maximum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 32.57C / v2 32.85C / CDO raw 32.61C

1964-2017 - v1 32.73C / v2 32.94C / CDO raw 33.02C

v1 warmed 0.16C / v2 warmed 0.09C / raw warmed 0.41C

Average change per decade : v1 0.04C / v2 0.07C / raw 0.01C

Richmond 2000-2017 - v1 33.11C / v2 33.36C / raw 33.18C (2018 was 33.79C)

1961-90 - v1 32.53C / v2 32.65C / raw 32.83C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 18.03% / v2 - 19.17% / raw - 59.58%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 13.55% / v2 - 10.38% / raw - 21.38%

Richmond 30045 has annual max temps back to 1893: 1893-1909 = 32.93C

ACORN catalogue: The only known station move was one of 30 m in September 1965. New screens were known to have been supplied in December 1928 and September 1991; the screen in use in September 1944 was reported to have had an iron roof. An automatic weather station (030161) was installed at the airport, approximately 4 km north of the town, in 1998 and may eventually replace the existing site.

Richmond max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 richmond minimum temperatures

1910-1963 - v1 15.93C / v2 15.92C / CDO raw 16.38C

1964-2017 - v1 17.49C / v2 17.35C / CDO raw 17.28C

v1 warmed 1.56C / v2 warmed 1.43C / raw warmed 0.90C

Average change per decade : v1 0.21C / v2 0.21C / raw 0.18C

Richmond 2000-2017 - v1 17.74C / v2 17.75C / raw 17.74C (2018 was 18.01C)

1961-90 - v1 17.10C / v2 16.84C / raw 16.72C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 18.35% / v2 - 17.58% / raw - 64.94%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 11.26% / v2 - 15.89% / raw - 20.76%

Richmond 30045 has annual min temps back to 1893: 1893-1909 = 16.17C

Richmond min Excel spreadsheets

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Rockhampton

acorn 2 rockhampton maximum temperatures

1940-1978 - v1 28.12C / v2 28.29C / CDO raw 28.12C

1979-2017 - v1 28.68C / v2 28.73C / CDO raw 28.68C

v1 warmed 0.56C / v2 warmed 0.44C / raw warmed 0.56C

Average change per decade : v1 0.08C / v2 0.03C / raw 0.08C

Rockhampton 2000-2017 - v1 28.95C / v2 28.95C / raw 28.95C (2018 was 29.96C)

1961-90 - v1 28.16C / v2 28.26C / raw 28.16C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 27.55% / v2 - 18.40% / raw - 27.58%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 13.06% / v2 - 10.28% / raw - 13.07%

ACORN catalogue: The site has been operating since 1939. A site move (80 m northeast) took place on 1 April 1993; an automatic weather station was installed at this time and became the primary instrument on 1 November 1996. Prior to the opening of the airport site, observations were made at the Post Office (039082), but no daily data from this location have yet been digitised.

1986-1995 raw max averaged 28.52C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 28.97C

Rockhampton max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 rockhampton minimum temperatures

1940-1978 - v1 15.82C / v2 15.72C / CDO raw 16.23C

1979-2017 - v1 17.08C / v2 17.09C / CDO raw 17.22C

v1 warmed 1.26C / v2 warmed 1.37C / raw warmed 0.99C

Average change per decade : v1 0.28C / v2 0.30C / raw 0.21C

Rockhampton 2000-2017 - v1 17.38C / v2 17.38C / raw 17.38C (2018 was 17.62C)

1961-90 - v1 16.32C / v2 16.27C / raw 16.71C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 16.96% / v2 - 17.03% / raw - 29.10%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 9.77% / v2 - 9.58% / raw - 11.70%

1986-1995 raw min averaged 17.18C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 17.22C

Rockhampton min Excel spreadsheets

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St George

acorn 2 st george maximum temperatures

1914-1965 - v1 27.32C / v2 27.19C / CDO raw 27.48C

1966-2017 - v1 27.55C / v2 27.40C / CDO raw 27.71C

v1 warmed 0.23C / v2 warmed 0.21C / raw warmed 0.23C

Average change per decade : v1 0.02C / v2 0.06C / raw 0.02C

St George 2000-2017 - v1 28.10C / v2 28.11C / raw 28.10C (2018 was 29.11C)

1961-90 - v1 27.19C / v2 26.85C / raw 27.41C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 17.24% / v2 - 17.69% / raw - 56.99%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 9.97% / v2 - 10.52% / raw - 14.99%

ACORN catalogue: The original site (043034) was located at the rear of a building in the town centre. There is no evidence of any site moves between 1964 and 1997. There was a car park nearby in the later years of observations, and dense tree growth nearby after 1992, but this does not appear to have resulted in any artificial temperature trends at this location after 1940 (although minimum temperatures at the airport are substantially lower). The site closed in July 1997. The airport site (043109) began operating on 10 May 1997, providing no useful overlap with the town site.

43109 is an Automatic Weather Station that started in 1997 : 1987-1996 raw max averaged 27.81C and post AWS 1998-2007 averaged 28.01C

St George max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 st george minimum temperatures

1914-1965 - v1 12.56C / v2 12.34C / CDO raw 13.35C

1966-2017 - v1 13.42C / v2 13.09C / CDO raw 14.06C

v1 warmed 0.86C / v2 warmed 0.75C / raw warmed 0.71C

Average change per decade : v1 0.10C / v2 0.12C / raw 0.06C

St George 2000-2017 - v1 13.92C / v2 13.77C / raw 13.92C (2018 was 14.15C)

1961-90 - v1 12.98C / v2 12.54C / raw 14.06C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 16.13% / v2 - 62.61% / raw - 56.99%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 10.08% / v2 - 16.12% / raw - 14.99%

43109 is an Automatic Weather Station that started in 1997 : 1987-1996 raw min averaged 14.35C and post AWS 1998-2007 averaged 13.89C

St George min Excel spreadsheets

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Thargomindah

acorn 2 thargomindah maximum temperatures

1957-1986 - v1 28.62C / v2 28.78C / CDO raw 28.62C

1987-2017 - v1 29.33C / v2 29.33C / CDO raw 29.34C

v1 warmed 0.71C / v2 warmed 0.55C / raw warmed 0.72C

Average change per decade : v1 0.25C / v2 0.17C / raw 0.26C

Thargomindah 2000-2017 - v1 29.68C / v2 29.68C / raw 29.68C (2018 was 30.76C)

1961-90 - v1 28.61C / v2 28.73C / raw 28.61C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 77.53% / v2 - 18.15% / raw - 77.52%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 23.32% / v2 - 14.32% / raw - 23.41%

45017 overlap with 45025 27 July 1999 to 11 March 2005 : 45017 30.25C / 45025 29.55C

ACORN catalogue: The original site (045017) had been located at a number of closely-spaced sites within the Thargomindah township, moves having taken place on 14 July 1983 (75 m north) and 23 June 1994 (25 m southeast), although neither had a significant impact on the observations. Temperature measurements at the site are believed to have commenced in 1888 but data prior to 1957 are not currently digitised. The town site closed in 2005. The current site has been operating since 27 July 1999.

45025 is an Automatic Weather Station that started in 2000 : 1990-1999 raw max averaged 28.92C and post AWS 2001-2010 averaged 29.47C

Thargomindah max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 thargomindah minimum temperatures

1957-1986 - v1 15.64C / v2 15.52C / CDO raw 15.04C

1987-2017 - v1 16.18C / v2 16.13C / CDO raw 15.92C

v1 warmed 0.54C / v2 warmed 0.61C / raw warmed 0.88C

Average change per decade : v1 0.18C / v2 0.21C / raw 0.31C

Thargomindah 2000-2017 - v1 16.29C / v2 16.29C / raw 16.29C (2018 was 16.71C)

1961-90 - v1 15.76C / v2 15.65C / raw 15.16C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 20.79% / v2 - 18.15% / raw - 75.75%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 10.08% / v2 - 9.38% / raw - 22.36%

45017 overlap with 45025 27 July 1999 to 12 March 2005 : 45017 15.66C / 45025 16.16C

45025 is an Automatic Weather Station that started in 2000 : 1990-1999 raw min averaged 15.32C and post AWS 2001-2010 averaged 16.25C

Thargomindah min Excel spreadsheets

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Townsville

acorn 2 townsville maximum temperatures

1941-1978 - v1 28.94C / v2 28.89C / CDO raw 28.60C

1979-2017 - v1 29.37C / v2 29.37C / CDO raw 29.22C

v1 warmed 0.43C / v2 warmed 0.48C / raw warmed 0.62C

Average change per decade : v1 0.06C / v2 0.09C / raw 0.12C

Townsville 2000-2017 - v1 29.42C / v2 29.42C / raw 29.42C (2018 was 29.74C)

1961-90 - v1 29.13C / v2 29.13C / raw 28.78C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 16.97% / v2 - 16.98% / raw - 25.14%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 9.96% / v2 - 10.50% / raw - 10.98%

ACORN catalogue: Observations have been made at Townsville Airport since 1942. There are no documented moves until one of 200 m northeast on 8 December 1994, at which time an automatic weather station was installed. Observations at the new site were made under the original number, while the old site continued until December 2000 under the station number 032178.

1985-1994 raw max averaged 29.06C and post AWS 1996-2005 averaged 29.51C

Townsville max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 townsville minimum temperatures

1941-1978 - v1 18.94C / v2 19.54C / CDO raw 19.43C

1979-2017 - v1 20.10C / v2 20.42C / CDO raw 20.24C

v1 warmed 1.16C / v2 warmed 0.88C / raw warmed 0.81C

Average change per decade : v1 0.30C / v2 0.22C / raw 0.17C

Townsville 2000-2017 - v1 20.25C / v2 20.49C / raw 20.25C (2018 was 20.17C)

1961-90 - v1 19.57C / v2 20.05C / raw 19.91C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 17.88% / v2 - 18.45% / raw - 27.20%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 10.10% / v2 - 10.16% / raw - 11.84%

1985-1994 raw min averaged 20.33C and post AWS 1996-2005 averaged 20.14C

Townsville min Excel spreadsheets

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Weipa

acorn 2 weipa maximum temperatures

1941-1978 - v1 32.45C / v2 32.56C / CDO raw 32.29C

1979-2017 - v1 32.76C / v2 32.85C / CDO raw 32.76C

v1 warmed 0.31C / v2 warmed 0.29C / raw warmed 0.47C

Average change per decade : v1 0.09C / v2 0.09C / raw 0.15C

Weipa 2000-2017 - v1 32.91C / v2 32.91C / raw 32.91C (2018 was 33.01C)

1961-90 - v1 32.46C / v2 32.60C / raw 32.33C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 16.13% / v2 - 15.19% / raw - 60.17%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 13.67% / v2 - 9.89% / raw - 14.53%

27042 overlap with 27045 6 November 1992 to 28 February 1994 : 27042 32.50C / 27045 32.43C

ACORN catalogue: The original site (027042) was within the town area, although it is unclear from documentation where the original site was. It moved on 12 May 1972 to a location in Eastern Avenue, and continued until February 1994. The current site started making temperature observations in December 1992. An automatic weather station was in place at this location throughout and became the primary instrument on 1 November 1996. The instrument enclosure was realigned in late 2000 or early 2001, but it appears that no actual relocation took place.

1986-1995 raw max averaged 32.60C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 32.77C

Weipa max Excel spreadsheets

acorn 2 weipa minimum temperatures

1941-1978 - v1 21.70C / v2 21.68C / CDO raw 21.74C

1979-2017 - v1 22.06C / v2 21.96C / CDO raw 21.94C

v1 warmed 0.36C / v2 warmed 0.28C / raw warmed 0.20C

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Average change per decade : v1 0.18C / v2 0.22C / raw 0.20C

p style="font-size: 9pt; text-align: center; margin-top: 10px;">Weipa 2000-2017 - v1 22.08C / v2 22.07C / raw 21.99C (2018 was 22.12C)

1961-90 - v1 21.77C / v2 21.75C / raw 21.82C

Pre 1972 .0 F rounding v1 - 23.02% / v2 - 19.68% / raw - 56.81%

Post 1972 .0 C rounding v1 - 11.55% / v2 - 10.01% / raw - 13.48%

27042 overlap with 27045 6 November 1992 to 28 February 1994 : 27042 22.19C / 27045 21.91C

1986-1995 raw min averaged 21.87C and post AWS 1997-2006 averaged 21.85C

Weipa min Excel spreadsheets

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