climate change wa

Comparison of RAW and ACORN temperatures
1910-2013

Methods
Results for 112 ACORN locations
Results for 53 ACORN locations open in 1910
Results for 88 locations with populations below 30,000
Results for 24 locations with populations above 30,000
Analysis
Conclusion
Inconsistent ACORN mean temperatures

Also see RAW temperatures at ACORN locations 1910-2013

Methods

  • Annual minimum, maximum and mean ACORN temperatures were downloaded from the Bureau of Meteorology's High Quality Sites Network for the 112 locations within the ACORN weather station network that have operated or opened since 1910 around Australia.
  • These 112 ACORN locations include eight that are not used by the BoM in its Australian climate analysis and this study does not purport to replicate the bureau's official temperature trend estimate based on ACORN. It intends to examine the degree of adjustment to RAW temperature records since 1910 throughout the network.
  • Daily minimum and maximum average RAW temperatures were downloaded from the Bureau of Meteorology's Climate Data Online (CDO) for the 112 locations and 209 weather stations that have contributed to the ACORN network since 1910 (eg. post office originally and then moved to nearby airport).
  • BoM CDO RAW are calculated from the annual average of daily temperatures for each year and are subject to the usual discrepancies such as missing days, but are identical to BoM annual estimates except for occasional 0.1C variations caused by the BoM averaging monthly averages for annual calculations instead of averaging all available days per year for annual calculations.
  • RAW data is included at nine locations where CDO temperatures are not available for different periods after 1910 as daily temperatures but are available as annual temperatures (Gabo Island 1910-1957, Kerang-1910-1962, Miles 1910-1957, Moruya Heads 1910-1957, Normanton 1910-1957, Pamerville 1910-1957, Port Macquaurie 1910-1957, Wilson Promontory 1910-1957, Yamba 1910-1957). An example snapshot below from Climate Data Online shows how Yamba daily temperatures are available as blue linked daily data after 1957 but yearly temperatures are extracted from the right Annual column before that year:

climate data online example

  • ACORN and RAW minimum and maximum temperatures are calculated after correcting all data so that if there is a minimum but not a maximum in either dataset at any station any year, or vice versa, the remaining temperature is deleted so there can be no dataset discrepancy in the number of stations averaged for annual network min or max, nor an imbalance of minima or maxima in calculating RAW mean from min+max/2. This ensures the comparative networks are matching sets at exactly the same stations each year for minima and maxima. Within 19,561 years of ACORN's timescale at the 112 locations, there are 977 years of temperature (5%) missing from the BoM's ACORN dataset including 555 years at 86 stations for minima and 422 years at 81 stations for maxima. Example of source data correction:

temperature correction example

  • There are four stations in RAW data with no temperatures available at CDO back to 1910 (Cape Moreton 1910-12, Eucla 1913-25, Eddystone 1910-58 and Mt Gambier 1910-39) but those station years are in the ACORN dataset. ACORN temperatures at these stations in years without RAW data are deleted from the ACORN dataset in this analysis to ensure the RAW and ACORN datasets have matching locations, years, minima and maxima.
  • RAW mean temperatures are calculated as an average of RAW minima and maxima whereas ACORN mean temperatures are sourced directly from the High Quality Sites Network.
  • Shaded background areas in the charts represent the average long-term annual minimum, maximum and mean temperatures from 1910 to 2013 of all stations operating in that decade of the ACORN timeline. They represent the average of all years at those stations from start to 2013 and not the average temperature in that particular decade. The shaded areas include a proportion of temperatures that hadn't yet happened at those locations but are indicative of the averaged overall temperature at stations within the ACORN network that were open at the time, largely dependent on latitude and coastal proximity. See BoM drift correction for expanding ACORN for more information.
  • Overall, when the minima, maxima and mean of all years at all stations from 1910 to 2013 are averaged, RAW has been warmer than ACORN.
  • The spreadsheet source (Excel 1.2mb) for charts on this page has tabulated ACORN and CDO RAW data for all ACORN locations with cells for annual averages of all years in minima and maxima, plus similarly tabulated ACORN means, total min/max averages for each station, and the same again with RAW temperatures.
  • Data sorting of temperatures in the source Excel can be downloaded here (Excel 111kb).

Results

acorn minimum temperature record

acorn maximum temperature record

acorn mean temperature record

  • Comparing the first 10 years of the record against the last 10 years, the ACORN minimum temperature has increased 0.41C (13.07C > 13.48C) and RAW minimum temperature has increased 0.05C (13.46C > 13.51C).
  • Comparing the first 10 years of the record against the last 10 years, the ACORN maximum temperature has increased 0.52C (25.03C > 25.55C) and RAW maximum temperature has increased 0.57C (25.07C > 25.64C).
  • Comparing the first 10 years of the record against the last 10 years, the ACORN mean temperature has increased 0.63C (18.99C > 19.62C) and RAW mean temperature has increased 0.32C (19.26C > 19.58C).
  • Comparing the first 10 years of the record against the last 10 years, the ACORN mean temperature based on min+max/2 has increased 0.47C (19.05C > 19.52C) and RAW mean temperature has increased 0.32C (19.26C > 19.58C).
  • Comparing the first 20 years of the record against the last 20 years, the ACORN minimum temperature has increased 0.42C (12.92C > 13.34C) and RAW minimum temperature has increased 0.07C (13.32C > 13.39C).
  • Comparing the first 20 years of the record against the last 20 years, the ACORN maximum temperature has increased 0.45C (24.95C > 25.40C) and RAW maximum temperature has increased 0.47C (25.01C > 25.48C).
  • Comparing the first 20 years of the record against the last 20 years, the ACORN mean temperature has increased 0.61C (18.87C > 19.48C) and RAW mean temperature has increased 0.28C (19.16C > 19.44C).
  • Comparing the first 20 years of the record against the last 20 years, the ACORN mean temperature based on min+max/2 has increased 0.43C (18.94C > 19.37C) and RAW mean temperature has increased 0.28C (19.16C > 19.44C).
  • Comparing the first 30 years of the record against the last 30 years, the ACORN minimum temperature has increased 0.39C (12.90C > 13.29C) and RAW minimum temperature has increased 0.11C (13.28C > 13.39C).
  • Comparing the first 30 years of the record against the last 30 years, the ACORN maximum temperature has increased 0.30C (24.92C > 25.22C) and RAW maximum temperature has increased 0.36C (24.96C > 25.32C).
  • Comparing the first 30 years of the record against the last 30 years, the ACORN mean temperature has increased 0.52C (18.84C > 19.36C) and RAW mean temperature has increased 0.23C (19.12C > 19.35C).
  • Comparing the first 30 years of the record against the last 30 years, the ACORN mean temperature based on min+max/2 has increased 0.35C (18.91C > 19.26C) and RAW mean temperature has increased 0.23C (19.12C > 19.35C).
  • From 1910-1961, ACORN adjustments to RAW minimum temperatures averaged 0.34C (RAW 13.13C > ACORN 12.79C).
  • From 1962-2013, ACORN adjustments to RAW minimum temperatures averaged 0.15C (RAW 13.25C > ACORN 13.10C).
  • From 1910-1961, ACORN adjustments to RAW maximum temperatures averaged 0.01C (RAW 24.87C > ACORN 24.86C).
  • From 1962-2013, ACORN adjustments to RAW maximum temperatures averaged 0.06C (RAW 25.10C > ACORN 25.04C).
  • From 1910-1961, ACORN adjustments to RAW mean temperatures averaged 0.21C (RAW 19.00C > ACORN 18.79C).
  • From 1962-2013, ACORN adjustments to RAW mean temperatures averaged 0.03C (RAW 19.17C > ACORN 19.14C).
  • From 1910-1961, ACORN adjustments to RAW mean temperatures (both based on min+max/2) averaged 0.18C (RAW 19.00C > ACORN 18.82C).
  • From 1962-2013, ACORN adjustments to RAW mean temperatures (both based on min+max/2) averaged 0.10C (RAW 19.17C > ACORN 19.07C).
  • The Top 20 hottest years in both ACORN and RAW are tabulated:

hottest acorn years

Only locations open since 1910

  • There are 53 stations in the ACORN network that were open in 1910, excluding three with data unavailable from CDO for RAW comparison. Those stations are removed from this analysis so the comparison is of network stations and years that match.
  • The spreadsheet source (Excel 578kb) for the following charts is the same as the all stations Excel spreadsheet only trimmed to the 53 stations starting 1910 rather than all 112, with data sorting here (Excel 82kb) for the 53 stations charted below.

australian minimum temperatures

australian maximum temperatures

australian mean temperatures

  • Comparing the first 10 years of the record at the 53 locations open since 1910 against the last 10 years, the ACORN minimum temperature has increased 0.86C (13.08C > 13.94C) and RAW minimum temperature has increased 0.47C (13.46C > 13.93C).
  • Comparing the first 10 years of the record at the 53 locations open since 1910 against the last 10 years, the ACORN maximum temperature has increased 0.78C (24.98C > 25.76C) and RAW maximum temperature has increased 0.68C (25.03C > 25.71C).
  • Comparing the first 10 years of the record at the 53 locations open since 1910 against the last 10 years, the ACORN mean temperature has increased 0.83C (19.03C > 19.86C) and RAW mean temperature has increased 0.58C (19.24C > 19.82C).
  • Comparing the first 10 years of the record at the 53 locations open since 1910 against the last 10 years, the ACORN mean temperature based on min+max/2 has increased 0.84C (19.03C > 19.87C) and RAW mean temperature has increased 0.58C (19.24C > 19.82C).
  • Comparing the first 20 years of the record at the 53 locations open since 1910 against the last 20 years, the ACORN minimum temperature has increased 0.84C (13.03C > 13.87C) and RAW minimum temperature has increased 0.44C (13.42C > 13.86C).
  • Comparing the first 20 years of the record at the 53 locations open since 1910 against the last 20 years, the ACORN maximum temperature has increased 0.66C (24.97C > 25.63C) and RAW maximum temperature has increased 0.51C (25.06C > 25.57C).
  • Comparing the first 20 years of the record at the 53 locations open since 1910 against the last 20 years, the ACORN mean temperature has increased 0.75C (19.00C > 19.75C) and RAW mean temperature has increased 0.48C (19.24C > 19.72C).
  • Comparing the first 20 years of the record at the 53 locations open since 1910 against the last 20 years, the ACORN mean temperature based on min+max/2 has increased 0.75C (19.00C > 19.75C) and RAW mean temperature has increased 0.48C (19.24C > 19.72C).
  • Comparing the first 30 years of the record at the 53 locations open since 1910 against the last 30 years, the ACORN minimum temperature has increased 0.75C (13.06C > 13.81C) and RAW minimum temperature has increased 0.41C (13.45C > 13.86C).
  • Comparing the first 30 years of the record at the 53 locations open since 1910 against the last 30 years, the ACORN maximum temperature has increased 0.50C (24.97C > 25.47C) and RAW maximum temperature has increased 0.40C (25.04C > 25.44C).
  • Comparing the first 30 years of the record at the 53 locations open since 1910 against the last 30 years, the ACORN mean temperature has increased 0.62C (19.02C > 19.64C) and RAW mean temperature has increased 0.41C (19.24C > 19.65C).
  • Comparing the first 30 years of the record at the 53 locations open since 1910 against the last 30 years, the ACORN mean temperature based on min+max/2 has increased 0.63C (19.01C > 19.64C) and RAW mean temperature has increased 0.41C (19.24C > 19.65C).
  • From 1910-1961, ACORN adjustments to RAW minimum temperatures averaged 0.35C (RAW 13.40C > ACORN 13.05C).
  • From 1962-2013, ACORN adjustments to RAW minimum temperatures averaged 0.10C (RAW 13.70C > ACORN 13.60C).
  • From 1910-1961, ACORN adjustments to RAW maximum temperatures averaged 0.03C (RAW 24.99C > ACORN 24.96C).
  • From 1962-2013, ACORN adjustments to RAW maximum temperatures averaged 0.04C (RAW 25.26C > ACORN 25.30C).
  • From 1910-1961, ACORN adjustments to RAW mean temperatures averaged 0.19C (RAW 19.20C > ACORN 19.01C).
  • From 1962-2013, ACORN adjustments to RAW mean temperatures averaged 0.03C (RAW 19.48C > ACORN 19.45C).
  • From 1910-1961, ACORN adjustments to RAW mean temperatures (both based on min+max/2) averaged 0.19C (RAW 19.20C > ACORN 19.01C).
  • From 1962-2013, ACORN adjustments to RAW mean temperatures (both based on min+max/2) averaged 0.03C (RAW 19.48C > ACORN 19.45C).
  • The Top 20 hottest years in both ACORN and RAW are tabulated:

hottest australian years

Only locations with <30,000 population

  • Another way to detect possible UHI influence on temperature trends instead of comparing the first 53 ACORN locations is to chart RAW and ACORN temperatures 1910-2013 at the 88 locations with populations below 30,000 (Alice Springs, Amberley, Barcaldine, Birdsville, Boulia, Bourke, Bridgetown, Broome, Burketown, Butlers Gorge, Cabramurra, Camooweal, Cape Borda, Cape Bruny, Cape Leeuwin, Cape Moreton, Cape Otway, Carnarvon, Ceduna, Charleville, Charters Towers, Cobar, Cunderdin, Dawlallinu, Deniliquin, Eddystone Point, Esperance, Eucla, Forrest, Gabo Island, Gayndah, Georgetown, Giles, Grove, Gunnedah, Halls Creek, Horn Island, Inverell, Kalumburu, Katanning, Kerang, Kyancutta, Laverton, Learmonth, Longreach, Low Head, Marble Bar, Maree, Meekatharra, Merredin, Miles, Morawa, Moree, Moruya Heads, Mt Gambier, Nhill, Normanton, Nuriootpa, Oodnadatta, Orbost, Palmerville, Point Perpindicular, Port Hedland, Port Lincoln, Rabbit Flat, Richmond NSW, Richmond Qld, Robe, Rutherglen, Sale, Scone, Snowtown, St George, Tarcoola, Tennant Creek, Thargomindah, Tibooburra, Victoria River Downs, Walgett, Wandering, Weipa, Wilcannia, Williamtown, Wilson Promontory, Wittenoom, Woomera, Wyalong, Yamba).

australian uhi minimum temperatures

australian uhi maximum temperatures

australian uhi mean temperatures

  • Comparing the first 10 years of the record at the 88 locations with <30,000 population against the last 10 years, the ACORN minimum temperature has increased 0.33C (13.28C > 13.61C) and RAW minimum temperature has increased 0.05C (13.51C > 13.56C).
  • Comparing the first 10 years of the record at the 88 locations with <30,000 population against the last 10 years, the ACORN maximum temperature has increased 0.49C (25.56C > 26.05C) and RAW maximum temperature has increased 0.43C (25.58C > 26.01C).
  • Comparing the first 10 years of the record at the 88 locations with <30,000 population against the last 10 years, the ACORN mean temperature in official ACORN means has increased 0.53C (19.30C > 19.83C) and RAW mean temperature has increased 0.24C (19.55C > 19.79C).
  • Comparing the first 10 years of the record at the 88 locations open with <30,000 population against the last 10 years, the ACORN mean temperature based on min+max/2 has increased 0.41C (19.42C > 19.83C) and RAW mean temperature has increased 0.24C (19.55C > 19.79C).
  • Comparing the first 20 years of the record at the 88 locations with <30,000 population against the last 20 years, the ACORN minimum temperature has increased 0.30C (13.16C > 13.46C) and RAW minimum temperature has increased 0.03C (13.40C > 13.43C).
  • Comparing the first 20 years of the record at the 88 locations with <30,000 population against the last 20 years, the ACORN maximum temperature has increased 0.40C (25.51C > 25.91C) and RAW maximum temperature has increased 0.31C (25.56C > 25.87C).
  • Comparing the first 20 years of the record at the 88 locations with <30,000 population against the last 20 years, the ACORN mean temperature has increased 0.48C (19.21C > 19.69C) and RAW mean temperature has increased 0.21C (19.48C > 19.65C).
  • Comparing the first 20 years of the record at the 88 locations open with <30,000 population against the last 20 years, the ACORN mean temperature based on min+max/2 has increased 0.36C (19.33C > 19.69C) and RAW mean temperature has increased 0.21C (19.48C > 19.65C).
  • Comparing the first 30 years of the record at the 88 locations with <30,000 population against the last 30 years, the ACORN minimum temperature has increased 0.27C (13.14C > 13.41C) and RAW minimum temperature has increased 0.07C (13.36C > 13.43C).
  • Comparing the first 30 years of the record at the 88 locations with <30,000 population against the last 30 years, the ACORN maximum temperature has increased 0.26C (25.47C > 25.73C) and RAW maximum temperature has increased 0.19C (25.52C > 25.71C).
  • Comparing the first 30 years of the record at the 88 locations with <30,000 population against the last 30 years, the ACORN mean temperature has increased 0.36C (19.20C > 19.56C) and RAW mean temperature has increased 0.13C (19.44C > 19.57C).
  • Comparing the first 30 years of the record at the 88 locations with <30,000 population against the last 30 years, the ACORN mean temperature based on min+max/2 has increased 0.26C (19.31C > 19.57C) and RAW mean temperature has increased 0.13C (19.44C > 19.57C).
  • From 1910-1961, ACORN adjustments to RAW minimum temperatures averaged 0.23C (RAW 13.20C > ACORN 12.97C).
  • From 1962-2013, ACORN adjustments to RAW minimum temperatures averaged 0.8C (RAW 13.27C > ACORN 13.19C).
  • From 1910-1961, ACORN adjustments to RAW maximum temperatures averaged 0.04C (RAW 25.39C > ACORN 25.35C).
  • From 1962-2013, ACORN adjustments to RAW maximum temperatures averaged 0.02C (RAW 25.49C > ACORN 25.51C).
  • From 1910-1961, ACORN adjustments to RAW mean temperatures averaged 0.19C (RAW 19.29C > ACORN 19.10C).
  • From 1962-2013, ACORN adjustments to RAW mean temperatures averaged 0.04C (RAW 19.38C > ACORN 19.34C).
  • From 1910-1961, ACORN adjustments to RAW mean temperatures (both based on min+max/2) averaged 0.17C (RAW 19.29C > ACORN 19.17C).
  • From 1962-2013, ACORN adjustments to RAW mean temperatures (both based on min+max/2) averaged 0.03C (RAW 19.38C > ACORN 19.35C).
  • The Top 20 hottest years in both ACORN and RAW are tabulated:

hottest australian years at small locations

Only locations with 30,000> population

  • These 88 locations can be compared with the remaining 24 locations with populations above 30,000 (Adelaide, Albany, Bathurst, Brisbane, Bundaberg, Cairns, Canberra, Coffs Harbour, Darwin, Dubbo, Geraldton, Hobart, Kalgoorlie, Launceston, Mackay, Melbourne, Mildura, Nowra, Perth, Port Macquarie, Rockhampton, Sydney, Townsville, Wagga Wagga).

australian city minimum temperatures

australian city maximum temperatures

australian city mean temperatures

  • Comparing the first 10 years of the record at the 24 locations with 30,000> population against the last 10 years, the ACORN minimum temperature has increased 0.77C (12.57C > 13.34C) and RAW minimum temperature has decreased 0.03C (13.34C > 13.31C).
  • Comparing the first 10 years of the record at the 24 locations with 30,000> population against the last 10 years, the ACORN maximum temperature has increased 0.69C (23.72C > 24.41C) and RAW maximum temperature has increased 0.54C (23.80C > 24.34C).
  • Comparing the first 10 years of the record at the 24 locations with 30,000> population against the last 10 years, the ACORN mean temperature in official ACORN means has increased 0.73C (18.16C > 18.89C) and RAW mean temperature has increased 0.28C (18.55C > 18.83C).
  • Comparing the first 10 years of the record at the 24 locations open with 30,000> population against the last 10 years, the ACORN mean temperature based on min+max/2 has increased 0.73C (18.15C > 18.88C) and RAW mean temperature has increased 0.28C (18.55C > 18.83C).
  • Comparing the first 20 years of the record at the 24 locations with 30,000> population against the last 20 years, the ACORN minimum temperature has increased 0.90C (12.34C > 13.24C) and RAW minimum temperature has increased 0.11C (13.13C > 13.24C).
  • Comparing the first 20 years of the record at the 24 locations with 30,000> population against the last 20 years, the ACORN maximum temperature has increased 0.67C (23.57C > 24.24C) and RAW maximum temperature has increased 0.49C (23.64C > 24.13C).
  • Comparing the first 20 years of the record at the 24 locations with 30,000> population against the last 20 years, the ACORN mean temperature has increased 0.79C (17.96C > 18.75C) and RAW mean temperature has increased 0.30C (18.38C > 18.68C).
  • Comparing the first 20 years of the record at the 24 locations open with 30,000> population against the last 20 years, the ACORN mean temperature based on min+max/2 has increased 0.79C (17.95C > 18.74C) and RAW mean temperature has increased 0.30C (18.38C > 18.68C).
  • Comparing the first 30 years of the record at the 24 locations with 30,000> population against the last 30 years, the ACORN minimum temperature has increased 0.94C (12.27C > 13.21C) and RAW minimum temperature has increased 0.15C (13.08C > 13.23C).
  • Comparing the first 30 years of the record at the 24 locations with 30,000> population against the last 30 years, the ACORN maximum temperature has increased 0.55C (23.52C > 24.07C) and RAW maximum temperature has increased 0.41C (23.55C > 23.96C).
  • Comparing the first 30 years of the record at the 24 locations with 30,000> population against the last 30 years, the ACORN mean temperature has increased 0.74C (17.90C > 18.64C) and RAW mean temperature has increased 0.30C (18.30C > 18.60C).
  • Comparing the first 30 years of the record at the 24 locations with 30,000> population against the last 30 years, the ACORN mean temperature based on min+max/2 has increased 0.75C (17.89C > 18.64C) and RAW mean temperature has increased 0.30C (18.30C > 18.60C).
  • From 1910-1961, ACORN adjustments to RAW minimum temperatures averaged 0.65C (RAW 12.96C > ACORN 12.31C).
  • From 1962-2013, ACORN adjustments to RAW minimum temperatures averaged 0.11C (RAW 13.15C > ACORN 13.04C).
  • From 1910-1961, ACORN adjustments to RAW maximum temperatures averaged 0.04C (RAW 23.52C > ACORN 23.56C).
  • From 1962-2013, ACORN adjustments to RAW maximum temperatures averaged 0.14C (RAW 23.77C > ACORN 23.91C).
  • From 1910-1961, ACORN adjustments to RAW mean temperatures averaged 0.27C (RAW 18.23C > ACORN 17.94C).
  • From 1962-2013, ACORN adjustments to RAW mean temperatures averaged 0.02C (RAW 18.46C > ACORN 18.48C).
  • From 1910-1961, ACORN adjustments to RAW mean temperatures (both based on min+max/2) averaged 0.29C (RAW 18.23C > ACORN 17.94C).
  • From 1962-2013, ACORN adjustments to RAW mean temperatures (both based on min+max/2) averaged 0.01C (RAW 18.46C > ACORN 18.47C).
  • The Top 20 hottest years in both ACORN and RAW are tabulated:

hottest australian years at small locations

Analysis

  • At all 112 locations the average minimum in ACORN increased 0.41C, at the first 53 locations it increased 0.86C, at locations with <30,000 population it increased 0.33C, and at locations with 30,000> population it increased 0.77C (first decade vs last decade).
  • At all 112 locations the average minimum in RAW increased 0.05C, at the first 53 locations it increased 0.47C, at locations with <30,000 population it increased 0.05C, and at locations with 30,000> population it decreased 0.03C (first decade vs last decade).
  • At all 112 locations the average maximum in ACORN increased 0.52C, at the first 53 locations it increased 0.78C, at locations with <30,000 population it increased 0.49C, and at locations with 30,000> population it increased 0.69C (first decade vs last decade).
  • At all 112 locations the average maximum in RAW increased 0.57C, at the first 53 locations it increased 0.68C, at locations with <30,000 population it increased 0.43C, and at locations with 30,000> population it increased 0.54C (first decade vs last decade).
  • At all 112 locations the average mean in ACORN increased 0.63C (0.47C based on min+max/2), at the first 53 locations it increased 0.83C (0.84C based on min+max/2), at locations with <30,000 population it increased 0.53C (0.41C based on min+max/2), and at locations with 30,000> population it increased 0.73C (0.73C based on min+max/2) (first decade vs last decade).
  • At all 112 locations the average mean in RAW increased 0.32C, at the first 53 locations it increased 0.58C, at locations with <30,000 population it increased 0.24C, and at locations with 30,000> population it increased 0.28C (first decade vs last decade).

Conclusion

  • Comparison of ACORN and RAW datasets with matching occurrence of years, minima and maxima indicates ACORN adjustments have more than doubled Australia's rate of climate warming since 1910.
  • Comparison of different ACORN location subsets within matching ACORN and RAW temperature datasets indicates greater warming since 1910 at locations with larger populations.

Inconsistent ACORN mean temperatures

  • All ACORN mean temperatures used in this analysis are downloaded directly for each station from the High Quality Sites Network database. ACORN mean temperatures are not averaged ACORN min+max/2 and presumably are actual mean temperatures.
  • ACORN's official mean temperatures are not consistent when compared with ACORN min+max/2. The four following charts display ACORN's mean temperature dataset compared to ACORN minima and maxima averaged.

acorn mean temperature trends

australian mean temperature years

australian mean temperatures small locations

australian mean temperatures small locations

Note: in May 2014, researcher Ken Stewart has studied raw and adjusted temperature trends at the 104 ACORN locations used by the BoM for climate analysis after adjusting for overlapping years of record. The results at The Australian Temperature Record Revisited: A Question of Balance are similar to the study on this page.


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Also see RAW temperatures at ACORN locations 1910-2013

Stations tableAustralia HQ auditAustralia ACORN-SAT audit
Western Australia ACORN-SAT auditNew Zealand 11 Station auditNew Zealand Seven Station audit
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